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Technical Paper

A Methodology for Modeling the Cat-Heating Transient Phase in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

This paper presents the modeling of the transient phase of catalyst heating on a high-performance turbocharged spark ignition engine with the aim to accurately predict the exhaust thermal energy available at the catalyst inlet and to provide a “virtual test rig” to assess different design and calibration options. The entire transient phase, starting from the engine cranking until the catalyst warm-up is completed, was taken into account in the simulation, and the model was validated using a wide data-set of experimental tests. The first step of the modeling activity was the combustion analysis during the transient phase: the burn rate was evaluated on the basis of experimental in-cylinder pressure data, considering both cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder variations.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Different Thermal Insulation Strategies for a Passenger Car Diesel Engine

One of the key technologies for the improvement of the diesel engine thermal efficiency is the reduction of the engine heat transfer through the thermal insulation of the combustion chamber. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effects of the combustion chamber insulation on the heat transfer, thermal efficiency and exhaust temperatures of a 1.6 l passenger car, turbo-charged diesel engine. First, the complete insulation of the engine components, like pistons, liner, firedeck and valves, has been simulated. This analysis has showed that the piston is the component with the greatest potential for the in-cylinder heat transfer reduction and for Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) reduction, followed by firedeck, liner and valves. Afterwards, the study has been focused on the impact of different piston Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) on heat transfer, performance and wall temperatures.
Journal Article

Development of a K-k-∊ Phenomenological Model to Predict In-Cylinder Turbulence

The turbulent flow field inside the cylinder plays a major role in spark ignition (SI) engines. Multiple phenomena that occur during the high pressure part of the engine cycle, such as early flame kernel development, flame propagation and gas-to-wall heat transfer, are influenced by in-cylinder turbulence. Turbulence inside the cylinder is primarily generated via high shear flows that occur during the intake process, via high velocity injection sprays and by the destruction of macro-scale motions produced by tumbling and/or swirling structures close to top dead center (TDC) . Understanding such complex flow phenomena typically requires detailed 3D-CFD simulations. Such calculations are computationally very expensive and are typically carried out for a limited number of operating conditions. On the other hand, quasi-dimensional simulations, which provide a limited description of the in-cylinder processes, are computationally inexpensive.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Warm-Up of a Passenger Car Diesel Engine Equipped with an Advanced Cooling System

The target for future cooling systems is to control the fluid temperatures and flows through a demand oriented control of the engine cooling to minimize energy demand and to achieve comfort, emissions, or service life advantages. The scope of this work is to create a complete engine thermal model (including both cooling and lubrication circuits) able to reproduce engine warm up along the New European Driving Cycle in order to assess the impact of different thermal management concepts on fuel consumption. The engine cylinder structure was modeled through a finite element representation of cylinder liner, piston and head in order to simulate the cylinder heat exchange to coolant or oil flow circuits and to predict heat distribution during transient conditions. Heat exchanges with other components (EGR cooler, turbo cooler, oil cooler) were also taken into account.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of a Real-Time Model for the Simulation of the Heat Release Rate, In-Cylinder Pressure and Pollutant Emissions in Diesel Engines

A real-time mean-value engine model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, brake torque and pollutant emissions, including NOx and soot, has been developed, calibrated and assessed at both steady-state and transient conditions for a Euro 6 1.6L GM diesel engine. The chemical energy release has been simulated using an improved version of a previously developed model that is based on the accumulated fuel mass approach. The in-cylinder pressure has been evaluated on the basis of the inversion of a single-zone model, using the net energy release as input. The latter quantity was derived starting from the simulated chemical energy release, and evaluating the heat transfer of the charge with the walls. NOx and soot emissions were simulated on the basis of semi-empirical correlations that take into account the in-cylinder thermodynamic properties, the chemical energy release and the main engine parameters.
Journal Article

Impact on Performance, Emissions and Thermal Behavior of a New Integrated Exhaust Manifold Cylinder Head Euro 6 Diesel Engine

The integration of the exhaust manifold in the engine cylinder head has received considerable attention in recent years for automotive gasoline engines, due to the proven benefits in: engine weight diminution, cost saving, reduced power enrichment, quicker engine and aftertreatment warm-up, improved packaging and simplification of the turbocharger installation. This design practice is still largely unknown in diesel engines because of the greater difficulties, caused by the more complex cylinder head layout, and the expected lower benefits, due to the absence of high-load enrichment. However, the need for improved engine thermomanagement and a quicker catalytic converter warm-up in efficient Euro 6 diesel engines is posing new challenges that an integrated exhaust manifold architecture could effectively address. A recently developed General Motors 1.6L Euro 6 diesel engine has been modified so that the intake and exhaust manifolds are integrated in the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy-Efficient Management of a Light-Duty Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

The paper presents the main results of a study on the simulation of energy efficient management of on-board electric and thermal systems for a medium-size passenger vehicle featuring a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. A set of advanced technologies has been considered on the basis of very aggressive fuel economy targets: base-engine downsizing and friction reduction, combustion optimization, active thermal management, enhanced aftertreatment and downspeeding. Mild-hybridization has also been added with the goal of supporting the downsized/downspeeded engine performance, performing energy recuperation during coasting phases and enabling smooth stop/start and acceleration. The simulation has implemented a dynamic response to the required velocity and manual gear shift profiles in order to reproduce real-driver behavior and has actuated an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM).
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of a Cast Iron Exhaust Manifold: a Comparison Between the Traditional and a New Methodology

Thermo-structural analysis of components is usually carried out by means of two FE models, one that solves the thermal problem and one that, using the results of the thermal model, computes strains and stresses. The interaction between the two models is based on the superposition principle, but it means that the mutual effects and the non-linearities between the two physical problems are neglected. In this paper a multiphysics approach based on the Cell Method is proposed and it is applied to a time dependent thermo-mechanical case study represented by an exhaust manifold simulacrum: the coupled thermal and mechanical problems are solved in an unique run, giving the opportunity to take into account mutual effects. Comparing the results with the traditional FE analysis the advantages in terms of accuracy and computational time achieved through the proposed methodology are highlighted.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Exhaust Manifold Gasket

The paper presents experimental investigation and numerical simulation of a commercial exhaust manifold gasket. Non-linearities in geometric and material behavior make exhaust manifold gasket modeling quite complicated. In the paper, two different FE modeling techniques are compared in order to suggest the best modeling way. Experimental data are collected in order to validate the numerical models. Differences between the two modeling techniques are emphasized and a choice criterion is suggested.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Contribution to the Improvement of Individual Cylinder AFR Control in a 4 Cylinder S.I. Engine

Numerical simulation can be effectively used to reduce the experimental tests which are nowadays required for the analysis and calibration of engine control systems. In particular in this paper the use of a one-dimensional engine model to analyze the response of an UEGO sensor in the exhaust manifold of a 4 cylinder s.i. engine (with multipoint fuel injection) is described: numerical simulation has been used to simulate a misfunction of the fuelling system, which caused one of the four cylinders to be fuelled with an air/fuel ratio that was 10% richer than the others. The simulated UEGO response was then compared with experimental measurements, and after this validation process, the sensor model can be used to study a proper fuel injection control strategy thus reducing the required experimental tests, as outlined in a test case presented at the end of the paper.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between Heat Transfer and Knock Intensity on a Statistical Basis

Heat transfer in the combustion chamber of s.i. engines operating under knocking conditions has been detected and analyzed. Measurements have been carried out, cycle by cycle, on a CFR laboratory engine by means of a dedicated instrument and an original method. The relationship between heat transfer and knock intensity has been analyzed on a statistical basis, emphasizing knock intensity influence on heat transfer distribution. Moreover, the share of heat transfer more closely related to knock intensity has been highlighted: heat transfer is shown not to be significantly affected by knock intensity under light-to-medium knock conditions; on the contrary, the influence becomes evident under medium-to-heavy knock conditions. Eventually, heat transfer indexes influenced by knock intensity have been evaluated, allowing a comparison of knock-related thermal properties of fuels.