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Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact of the WLTP Procedure on CO2 Emissions of Passenger Cars

Until 2017, the pollutant emissions and fuel consumption Type Approval (TA) procedure for light duty vehicles in Europe was based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), a test cycle performed on a chassis dynamometer. However several studies highlighted significant discrepancies in terms of CO2 emissions between the TA test and the real world, due to the limited representativeness of the actual test procedure. Therefore, the European authorities decided to introduce a new, up-to date, test procedure capable to closer represent real world driving conditions, called Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). This work aims to analyse the effects of the new WLTP on vehicle CO2 emissions through both experimental and simulation investigations on two different Euro 5 vehicles, a petrol and a diesel car, representatives of average European passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Assessment through Numerical Simulation of the Impact of a 48 V Electric Supercharger on Performance and CO2 Emissions of a Gasoline Passenger Car

The demanding CO2 emission targets are fostering the development of downsized, turbocharged and electrified engines. In this context, the need for high boost level at low engine speed requires the exploration of dual stage boosting systems. At the same time, the increased electrification level of the vehicles enables the usage of electrified boosting systems aiming to exploit the opportunities of high levels of electric power and energy available on-board. The aim of this work is therefore to evaluate, through numerical simulation, the impact of a 48 V electric supercharger (eSC) on vehicle performance and fuel consumption over different transients. The virtual test rig employed for the analysis integrates a 1D CFD fast running engine model representative of a 1.5 L state-of-the-art gasoline engine featuring an eSC in series with the main turbocharger, a dual voltage electric network (12 V + 48 V), a six-speed manual transmission and a vehicle representative of a B-SUV segment car.
Technical Paper

Development through Simulation of a Turbocharged 2-Stroke G.D.I. Engine Focused on a Range-Extender Application

An original 2-stroke prototype engine, equipped with an electronically controlled gasoline direct-injection apparatus, has been tested over the last few years, and the performances of these tests have been compared with those obtained using a commercial crankcase-scavenged 2-stroke engine. Very satisfactory results have been obtained, as far as fuel consumption and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas are concerned. Large reductions in fuel consumption and in unburned hydrocarbons have been made possible, because the injection timing causes all the injected gasoline to remain in the combustion chamber, and thus to take part in the combustion process. Moreover, a force-feed lubrication system, like those usually exploited in mass-produced 4-stroke engines, has been employed, because of the presence of an external pump. In fact, it is no longer necessary to add oil to the gasoline in the engine, as the gasoline does not pass through the crankcase volume.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Modeling the Cat-Heating Transient Phase in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

This paper presents the modeling of the transient phase of catalyst heating on a high-performance turbocharged spark ignition engine with the aim to accurately predict the exhaust thermal energy available at the catalyst inlet and to provide a “virtual test rig” to assess different design and calibration options. The entire transient phase, starting from the engine cranking until the catalyst warm-up is completed, was taken into account in the simulation, and the model was validated using a wide data-set of experimental tests. The first step of the modeling activity was the combustion analysis during the transient phase: the burn rate was evaluated on the basis of experimental in-cylinder pressure data, considering both cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder variations.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Different Thermal Insulation Strategies for a Passenger Car Diesel Engine

One of the key technologies for the improvement of the diesel engine thermal efficiency is the reduction of the engine heat transfer through the thermal insulation of the combustion chamber. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effects of the combustion chamber insulation on the heat transfer, thermal efficiency and exhaust temperatures of a 1.6 l passenger car, turbo-charged diesel engine. First, the complete insulation of the engine components, like pistons, liner, firedeck and valves, has been simulated. This analysis has showed that the piston is the component with the greatest potential for the in-cylinder heat transfer reduction and for Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) reduction, followed by firedeck, liner and valves. Afterwards, the study has been focused on the impact of different piston Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) on heat transfer, performance and wall temperatures.
Journal Article

Development of a K-k-∊ Phenomenological Model to Predict In-Cylinder Turbulence

The turbulent flow field inside the cylinder plays a major role in spark ignition (SI) engines. Multiple phenomena that occur during the high pressure part of the engine cycle, such as early flame kernel development, flame propagation and gas-to-wall heat transfer, are influenced by in-cylinder turbulence. Turbulence inside the cylinder is primarily generated via high shear flows that occur during the intake process, via high velocity injection sprays and by the destruction of macro-scale motions produced by tumbling and/or swirling structures close to top dead center (TDC) . Understanding such complex flow phenomena typically requires detailed 3D-CFD simulations. Such calculations are computationally very expensive and are typically carried out for a limited number of operating conditions. On the other hand, quasi-dimensional simulations, which provide a limited description of the in-cylinder processes, are computationally inexpensive.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Warm-Up of a Passenger Car Diesel Engine Equipped with an Advanced Cooling System

The target for future cooling systems is to control the fluid temperatures and flows through a demand oriented control of the engine cooling to minimize energy demand and to achieve comfort, emissions, or service life advantages. The scope of this work is to create a complete engine thermal model (including both cooling and lubrication circuits) able to reproduce engine warm up along the New European Driving Cycle in order to assess the impact of different thermal management concepts on fuel consumption. The engine cylinder structure was modeled through a finite element representation of cylinder liner, piston and head in order to simulate the cylinder heat exchange to coolant or oil flow circuits and to predict heat distribution during transient conditions. Heat exchanges with other components (EGR cooler, turbo cooler, oil cooler) were also taken into account.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of a Real-Time Model for the Simulation of the Heat Release Rate, In-Cylinder Pressure and Pollutant Emissions in Diesel Engines

A real-time mean-value engine model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, brake torque and pollutant emissions, including NOx and soot, has been developed, calibrated and assessed at both steady-state and transient conditions for a Euro 6 1.6L GM diesel engine. The chemical energy release has been simulated using an improved version of a previously developed model that is based on the accumulated fuel mass approach. The in-cylinder pressure has been evaluated on the basis of the inversion of a single-zone model, using the net energy release as input. The latter quantity was derived starting from the simulated chemical energy release, and evaluating the heat transfer of the charge with the walls. NOx and soot emissions were simulated on the basis of semi-empirical correlations that take into account the in-cylinder thermodynamic properties, the chemical energy release and the main engine parameters.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Early and Late Intake Valve Closures for Knock Mitigation through Miller Cycle in a Downsized Turbocharged Engine

The application of Miller cycle through Late Intake Valve Closure (LIVC) or Early Intake Valve Closure (EIVC) for knock mitigation at high load on a turbocharged downsized spark ignition engine was experimentally investigated. By reducing the effective compression ratio due to a shorter compression stroke and hence achieving lower charge temperatures inside the cylinder, significant mitigation of knock tendency could be obtained. As a consequence, the spark advance retard could be substantially decreased and the enrichment of the mixture could significantly be reduced, thus obtaining impressive efficiency improvements. In this research, both EIVC and LIVC strategies have been examined aiming to achieve possible improvements for knock mitigation and after some preliminary investigations confirmed LIVC being more effective than EIVC for this goal, the latter was discarded and the research activities were focused on LIVC only.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Mimic Cycle to Cycle Variations and to Predict Knock Occurrence through Numerical Simulation

In this paper a novel approach to mimic through numerical simulation Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) of the combustion process of Spark Ignition (SI) engines is described. The proposed methodology allows to reproduce the variability in combustion which is responsible for knock occurrence and thus to replicate the stochastic behavior of this abnormal combustion phenomenon. On the basis of the analysis of a comprehensive database of experimental data collected on a typical European downsized and turbocharged SI engine, the proposed approach was demonstrated to be capable to replicate in the simulation process the same percentage of knocking cycles experimentally measured in light-knock conditions, after a proper calibration of the Kinetics-Fit (KF), a new phenomenological knock model which was recently developed by Gamma Technologies.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Geometries of the Cylinder Head on the Combustion Characteristics of a VVA Gasoline Engine

Two different modifications of the baseline cylinder head configuration have been designed and experimentally tested on a MultiAir turbocharged gasoline engine, in order to address the issue of the poor in-cylinder turbulence levels which are typical of the Early-Intake-Valve-Closing (EIVC) strategies which are adopted in Variable Valve Actuation systems at part load to reduce pumping losses. The first layout promotes turbulence by increasing the tumble motion at low valve lifts, while the second one allows the addition of a swirl vortex to the main tumble structure. The aim for both designs was to achieve a proper flame propagation speed at both part and full load. The experimental activity was initially focused on the part load analysis under high dilution of the mixture with internal EGR, which can allow significant further reductions in terms of pumping losses but, on the other hand, tends to adversely affect combustion stability and to increase cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy-Efficient Management of a Light-Duty Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

The paper presents the main results of a study on the simulation of energy efficient management of on-board electric and thermal systems for a medium-size passenger vehicle featuring a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. A set of advanced technologies has been considered on the basis of very aggressive fuel economy targets: base-engine downsizing and friction reduction, combustion optimization, active thermal management, enhanced aftertreatment and downspeeding. Mild-hybridization has also been added with the goal of supporting the downsized/downspeeded engine performance, performing energy recuperation during coasting phases and enabling smooth stop/start and acceleration. The simulation has implemented a dynamic response to the required velocity and manual gear shift profiles in order to reproduce real-driver behavior and has actuated an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM).
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Combustion Process of Commercial and Reference Fuels on the CFR Laboratory Engine

As in the standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedure which is used to evaluate the fuel Octane Number (ON), some signal properties are considered, while others are neglected, it happens that different pressure signals of the sensor, obtained from different fuels and operating conditions, can lead to the same Knock Intensity index (KI) value, even though the knock behavior is not the same. Therefore the aim of this work was to analyze the standard signal processing chain of the Cooperative Fuel Research engine (CFR) (from the pressure sensor to the knock-meter display) and its effects on the value of the KI, for different fuels and operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Different Hybrid Powertrain Solutions for an European Mid-Size Passenger Car

Different hybrid powertrains for a European mid-size passenger car were evaluated in this paper through numerical simulation. Different degrees of hybridizations, from micro to mild hybrids, and different architectures and power sources management strategies were taken into account, in order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the potentialities of different hybrid systems for the European passenger car market. Both diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines were considered: a 1.6 dm₃ Common Rail turbocharged diesel, and a 1.4 dm₃ spark ignition turbocharged engine, equipped with an innovative Variable Valve Actuation system. Diesel hybrid powertrains, although being subject to NOx emissions constraints that could jeopardize their benefits, offered substantial advantages in comparison with gasoline hybrid powertrains. Potentialities for fuel consumption reductions up to 25% over the NEDC were highlighted, approaching the 2020 EU 95 g/km CO₂ target.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Fractal Model for the Simulation of Turbulent Flame Propagation in SI Engines

The necessity for further reductions of in-cylinder pollutant formation and the opportunity to minimize engine development and testing times highlight the need of engine thermodynamic cycle simulation tools that are able to accurately predict the effects of fuel, design and operating variables on engine performance. In order to set up reliable codes for indicated cycle simulation in SI engines, an accurate prediction of heat release is required, which, in turn, involves the evaluation of in-cylinder turbulence generation and flame-turbulence interaction. This is generally pursued by the application of a combustion fractal model coupled with semi-empirical correlations of available geometrical and thermodynamical mass-averaged quantities. However, the currently available correlations generally show an unsatisfactory capability to predict the effects of flame-turbulence interaction on burning speed under the overall flame propagation interval.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation to Improve Engine Control During Tip-In Manoeuvres

The potential of numerical simulation in the analysis of the dynamic transient response of a vehicle during tip-in manoeuvres has been evaluated. The dynamic behavior of the driveline of a typical European gasoline car was analyzed under a sharp throttle input. A one-dimensional fluid dynamic model of the engine was realized for the simulation of the input torque; afterwards, it was coupled with a driveline and vehicle model implemented in Matlab-Simulink environment. After a detailed validation process based on several sets of experimental data, the engine and vehicle coupled simulation was used to evaluate different control strategies during tip-in manoeuvres aiming to enhance the vehicle driveability.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Crankcase Clearance Volume on Two-Stroke S.I. Engine Performance

The performance of two-stroke spark-ignition engines is greatly influenced by the scavenging process The variation of the crankcase clearance volume has here been investigated as a method for engine-load reduction. This method allows the reduction of the load without throttling or only by partial throttling with a theoretical increase of the engine efficiency. A comparison of two methods (air throttling and crankcase clearance volume variation) has therefore been carried out. The reduction of pumping work, due to the use of the variable crankcase clearance volume, has not always caused a consequent reduction of the specific fuel consumption. This is mainly due to deterioration of the scavenging process and to the occurrence of pre-ignition which occur above all at light loads.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between Direct and Indirect Fuel Injection in an S.I. Two-Stroke Engine

Gasoline direct injection in two-stroke engines has led to even more advantageous results, in comparison with four-stroke engines, as far as unburned hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption are concerned. A new electronically controlled injection system has therefore been fitted in a crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engine, previously set up with indirect injection equipment. The comparison between the performance of the two gasoline feeding systems has highlighted the potential of the direct injection strategy. The direct injection system here tested has allowed the optimization of the engine torque characteristic at wide open throttle operating conditions. Moreover, the engine original exhaust system, has been replaced with an expansion-chamber exhaust-pipe system, in order to evaluate the impact of direct gasoline injection also with these optimized exhaust configuration.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between Heat Transfer and Knock Intensity on a Statistical Basis

Heat transfer in the combustion chamber of s.i. engines operating under knocking conditions has been detected and analyzed. Measurements have been carried out, cycle by cycle, on a CFR laboratory engine by means of a dedicated instrument and an original method. The relationship between heat transfer and knock intensity has been analyzed on a statistical basis, emphasizing knock intensity influence on heat transfer distribution. Moreover, the share of heat transfer more closely related to knock intensity has been highlighted: heat transfer is shown not to be significantly affected by knock intensity under light-to-medium knock conditions; on the contrary, the influence becomes evident under medium-to-heavy knock conditions. Eventually, heat transfer indexes influenced by knock intensity have been evaluated, allowing a comparison of knock-related thermal properties of fuels.
Technical Paper

Octane Rating Methods at High Revolution Speed

An experimental investigation on a group of unleaded gasolines of different chemical composition has been carried out, in order to analyze their knock behaviour in a mass-produced engine at high revolution speed, to highlight possible inconsistencies with their standard Research and Motor octane numbers and to try to discover explanations for the abovementioned inconsistencies. The investigation has been focused on fuels containing oxygenated compounds, such as alcohols (methanol and ethanol) and ethers (MTBE), with the aim of pointing out the influence of the fuel composition on the octane rating, especially as far as the variation in the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio (due to oxygenated compounds blending) is concerned. In particular, the rating of all the fuels under the same relative air/fuel ratio has shown to be a mandatory condition in order to obtain a proper estimate of antiknock performances. The evaluations obtained are consistent with the standard Motor octane numbers.