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Technical Paper

Next Generation HEV Powertrain Design Tools: Roadmap and Challenges

2019-10-22
2019-01-2602
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) represent a fundamental step in the global evolution towards transportation electrification. Nevertheless, they exhibit a remarkably complex design environment with respect to both traditional internal combustion engine vehicles and battery electric vehicles. Innovative and advanced design tools are therefore crucially required to effectively handle the increased complexity of HEV development processes. This paper aims at providing a comprehensive overview of past and current advancements in HEV powertrain design methodologies. Subsequently, major simplifications and limits of current HEV design methodologies are detailed. The final part of this paper defines research challenges that need accomplishment to develop the next generation HEV architecture design tools.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact of the WLTP Procedure on CO2 Emissions of Passenger Cars

2019-10-07
2019-24-0240
Until 2017 in Europe the Type Approval (TA) procedure for light duty vehicles for the determination of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption was based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), a test cycle performed on a chassis dynamometer. However several studies highlighted significant discrepancies in terms of CO2 emissions between the TA test and the real world, due to the limited representativeness of the test procedure. Therefore, the European authorities decided to introduce a new, up-to date, test procedure capable to closer represent real world driving conditions, called Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). This work aims to analyze the effects of the new WLTP on vehicle CO2 emissions through both experimental and simulation investigations on two different Euro 5 vehicles, a petrol and a diesel car, representatives of average European passenger cars.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Post Injection Coupled with Extremely High Injection Pressure on Combustion Process and Emission Formation in an Off-Road Diesel Engine: A Numerical and Experimental Investigation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0092
In this paper, a numerical and experimental assessment of post injection potential for soot emissions mitigation in an off-road diesel engine is presented, with the aim of supporting hardware selection and engine calibration processes. As a case study, a prototype off-road 3.4 liters 4-cylinder diesel engine developed by Kohler Engines was selected. In order to explore the possibility to comply with Stage V emission standards without a dedicated aftertreatment for NOx, the engine was equipped with a low pressure cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), allowing high EGR rates (above 30%) even at high load. To enable the exploitation of such high EGR rates with acceptable soot penalties, a two-stage turbocharger and an extremely high-pressure fuel injection system (up to 3000 bar) were adopted. Moreover, post injections events were also exploited to further mitigate soot emissions with acceptable Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) penalties.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Experimental and Numerical Methodology for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle 0D Modelling

2019-09-09
2019-24-0072
Governments worldwide are taking actions aiming to achieve a sustainable transportation system that can comprise of minimal pollutant and GHG emissions. Particular attention is given to the real-world emissions, i.e. to the emissions achieved in the real driving conditions, outside of a controlled testing environment. In this framework, interest in vehicle fleet electrification is rapidly growing, as it is seen as a way to simultaneously reduce pollutant and GHG emissions, while on the other hand OEMs are facing a significant increase in the number of tests which are needed to calibrate this new generation of electrified powertrains over a variety of different driving scenarios.
Technical Paper

Driving Cycle and Elasticity Manoeuvres Simulation of a Small SUV Featuring an Electrically Boosted 1.0 L Gasoline Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0070
In order to meet the CO2 emission reduction targets, downsizing coupled with turbocharging has been proven as an effective way in reducing CO2 emissions while maintaining and improving vehicle driveability. As the downsizing becomes widely exploited, the increased boost levels entail the exploration of dual stage boosting systems. In a context of increasing electrification, the usage of electrified boosting systems can be effective in the improvement of vehicle performances. The aim of this work is therefore to evaluate, through numerical simulation, the impact of different voltage (12 V or 48 V) electric superchargers (eSC) on an extremely downsized 1.0L engine on vehicle performance and fuel consumption over different transient manoeuvres.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of the Consumption of a Three-Wheeled Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0164
In recent years, there is an increasing global interesting in alternative sources of energy. For this reason, Shell Company creates Shell Eco Marathon, a competition for fuel-efficient vehicles designed by student around the world. IDRAkronos is a fuel cell hydrogen prototype developed at the Politecnico of Turin. The vehicle races in prototype category with the task to complete ten laps of an urban circuit driving a total distance of 15 km in a maximum time of 39 min, then with an average speed of approximately 25 km/h, obtaining the less consumption. The vehicle is a three wheels vehicle based on a carbon fibre monocoque pushed by a hydrogen fuel cell with a high efficiency DC electric motor. The paper describes modelling and optimization of the powertrain design applicable to the development of fuel cell electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Assessment through Numerical Simulation of the Impact of a 48 V Electric Supercharger on Performance and CO2 Emissions of a Gasoline Passenger Car

2019-04-02
2019-01-1284
The demanding CO2 emission targets are fostering the development of downsized, turbocharged and electrified engines. In this context, the need for high boost level at low engine speed requires the exploration of dual stage boosting systems. At the same time, the increased electrification level of the vehicles enables the usage of electrified boosting systems aiming to exploit the opportunities of high levels of electric power and energy available on-board. The aim of this work is therefore to evaluate, through numerical simulation, the impact of a 48 V electric supercharger (eSC) on vehicle performance and fuel consumption over different transients. The virtual test rig employed for the analysis integrates a 1D CFD fast running engine model representative of a 1.5 L state-of-the-art gasoline engine featuring an eSC in series with the main turbocharger, a dual voltage electric network (12 V + 48 V), a six-speed manual transmission and a vehicle representative of a B-SUV segment car.
Technical Paper

Calculating Heavy-Duty Truck Energy and Fuel Consumption Using Correlation Formulas Derived From VECTO Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-1278
The Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool (VECTO) is used in Europe for calculating standardised energy consumption and CO2 emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks (HDTs) for certification purposes. The tool requires detailed vehicle technical specifications and a series of component efficiency maps, which are difficult to retrieve for those that are outside of the manufacturing industry. In the context of quantifying HDT CO2 emissions, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission received VECTO simulation data of the 2016 vehicle fleet from the vehicle manufacturers. In previous work, this simulation data has been normalised to compensate for differences and issues in the quality of the input data used to run the simulations. This work, which is a continuation of the previous exercise, focuses on the deeper meaning of the data received to understand the factors contributing to energy and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Methodology for 0D Map-Based Powertrain Modelling Applied to a 48 V Mild-Hybrid Diesel Passenger Car

2018-09-10
2018-01-1659
Nowadays, the 48 V vehicle architecture seems to be the perfect bridge between the 12 V system and the costly High Voltage (HV) electrification towards the crucial goal of CO2 and pollutants emissions reduction in combination with enhanced performance. However, this approach leads to an increased complexity in the interaction between different sub-systems targeting the optimization of the Energy Management System (EMS). Therefore, it becomes essential to perform a preliminary hardware assessment, exploring the interactions between the different components and quantifying the cost vs benefit trade-off. To this purpose, an integrated experimental/numerical methodology has been adopted: a comprehensive map-based Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) model has been built, allowing the simulation of a variety of hybrid architectures, including both HV and 48 V systems.
Technical Paper

Application of Adjoint Methods on Drag Reduction of Current Production Cars

2018-05-30
2018-37-0016
Automotive manufacturers are facing stronger and stronger pressure to optimize all aspects related to fuel consumption of cars, and aerodynamic drag makes no exception, due to increasing government enforcing rules for the reduction of the emissions and the increasing influence of aerodynamic performance on fuel consumption with WLTC and RDE driving cycles. Nowadays, CFD simulation is a common tool across automotive industries for the assessment and the optimization of vehicle resistance in the design phase. The full power of these numerical methods of studying many design variants in advance of experimental testing, however, can be fully exploited when coupled with optimization techniques, always keeping into account constraints and aesthetical demands. On the other hand, a massive use of CFD optimization can lead to unaffordable computational efforts or a limitation of the design exploration space.
Technical Paper

Supercar Hybridization: A Synergic Path to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Improve Performance

2018-05-30
2018-37-0009
The trend towards powertrain electrification is expected to grow significantly in the next future also for super-cars. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess, through numerical simulation, the impact on both fuel economy and performance of different 48 Volt mild hybrid architectures for a high-performance sport car featuring a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition (TDISI) engine. In particular the hybrid functionalities of both a P0 (Belt Alternator Starter - BAS) and a P2 (Flywheel Alternator Starter - FAS) architecture were investigated and optimized for this kind of application through a global optimization algorithm. The analysis pointed out CO2 emission reductions potential of about 6% and 25% on NEDC, 7% and 28% on WLTC for P0 and P2 respectively. From the performance perspective, a 10% reduction in the time-to-torque was highlighted for both architectures in a load step maneuver at 2000 RPM constant speed.
Technical Paper

Numerical Assessment of the CO2 Reduction Potential of Variable Valve Actuation on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2018-05-30
2018-37-0006
The increasingly demanding targets in terms of CO2 reduction lead to the adoption of engine technologies left so far for innovation. In diesel engines, some of the primary interests in adopting an advanced air management system, as Variable Valve Actuation (VVA), are related to Miller cycle enabling, and valve timing optimization. In this context, a numerical study was carried out in order to evaluate the impact of VVA on passenger car 4-cylinder diesel engine, 1.6 liters. The engine model, developed in GT-SUITE, features a predictive combustion model (DIPulse) and it is coupled with a fully predictive fuel injector model for the simulation of complex injection patterns. 3 different VVA techniques were evaluated, all targeting CO2 reduction: Late Exhaust Valve Opening (LEVO), Exhaust Phasing, and Late Inlet Valve Closure (LIVC) for enabling Miller cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1142
The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Journal Article

Fuel Consumption Reduction on Heavy-Duty and Light-Duty Commercial Vehicles by Means of Advanced Central Tire Inflation Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-1334
Tire inflation pressure has a relevant impact on fuel consumption and tire wear, and therefore affects both CO2 emissions and the total cost of ownership (TCO). The latter is extremely important in the case of commercial vehicles, where the cost of fuel is responsible for about 30% of the TCO. A possible advanced central tire inflation system, which is able to inflate and deflate tires autonomously, as part of a smart energy management system and as an active safety device, has been studied. This system allows misuse due to underinflation to be avoided and adapts the tires to the current working conditions of the vehicle. For instance, the tire pressure can be adapted according to the carried load or during tire warm-up. An on board software is able to evaluate the working conditions of the vehicle and select the tire pressure that minimizes the energy expense, the TCO, or the braking distance, according to a multi-objective optimization strategy.
Journal Article

Active Tire Pressure Control (ATPC) for Passenger Cars: Design, Performance, and Analysis of the Potential Fuel Economy Improvement

2018-04-03
2018-01-1340
Active tire pressure control (ATPC) is an automatic central tire inflation system (CTIS), designed, prototyped, and tested at the Politecnico di Torino, which is aimed at improving the fuel consumption, safety, and drivability of passenger vehicles. The pneumatic layout of the system and the designed solution for on board integration are presented. The critical design choices are explained in detail and supported by experimental evidence. In particular, the results of experimental tests, including the characterizations of various pneumatic components in working conditions, have been exploited to obtain a design, which allows reliable performance of the system in a lightweight solution. The complete system has been tested to verify its dynamics, in terms of actuation time needed to obtain a desired pressure variation, starting from the current tire pressure, and to validate the design.
Technical Paper

Mode-shifting Minimization in a Power Management Strategy for Rapid Component Sizing of Multimode Power Split Hybrid Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1018
The production of multi-mode power-split hybrid vehicles has been implemented for some years now and it is expected to continually grow over the next decade. Control strategy still represents one of the most challenging aspects in the design of these vehicles. Finding an effective strategy to obtain the optimal solution with light computational cost is not trivial. In previous publications, a Power-weighted Efficiency Analysis for Rapid Sizing (PEARS) algorithm was found to be a very promising solution. The issue with implementing a PEARS technique is that it generates an unrealistic mode-shifting schedule. In this paper, the problematic points of PEARS algorithm are detected and analyzed, then a solution to minimize mode-shifting events is proposed. The improved PEARS algorithm is integrated in a design methodology that can generate and test several candidate powertrains in a short period of time.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Comparison between a Conventional Euro VI Diesel Engine and an Optimized PCCI Version and Effect of EGR Cooler Fouling on PCCI Combustion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0221
Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) is an advanced combustion mode that has the aim of simultaneously reducing particulate matter and nitrogen oxide exhaust emissions, compared with conventional diesel combustion, thanks to a partially premixed charge and low temperature combustion. In this work, PCCI combustion has been implemented by means of an early single-injection strategy and large amounts of recirculated exhaust gas. Starting from a commercial Euro VI on-road engine, the engine hardware has been modified to optimize PCCI operations. This has involved adopting a smaller turbo group, a new combustion chamber and injectors, and a dedicated high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation system. The results, in terms of engine performance and exhaust emissions, under steady-state operation conditions, are presented in this work, where the original Euro VI calibration of the conventional engine has been compared with the PCCI calibration of the optimized hardware engine.
Journal Article

Multi-Objective Optimization of Fuel Injection Pattern for a Light-Duty Diesel Engine through Numerical Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1124
Development trends in modern common rail fuel injection systems (FIS) show dramatically increasing capabilities in terms of optimization of the fuel injection strategy through a constantly increasing number of injection events per engine cycle as well as through the modulation and shaping of the injection rate. In order to fully exploit the potential of the abovementioned fuel injection strategy optimization, numerical simulation can play a fundamental role by allowing the creation of a kind of a virtual test rig, where the input is the fuel injection rate and the optimization targets are the combustion outputs, such as the burn rate, the pollutant emissions, and the combustion noise (CN).
Technical Paper

Development through Simulation of a Turbocharged 2-Stroke G.D.I. Engine Focused on a Range-Extender Application

2017-11-05
2017-32-0121
An original 2-stroke prototype engine, equipped with an electronically controlled gasoline direct-injection apparatus, has been tested over the last few years, and the performances of these tests have been compared with those obtained using a commercial crankcase-scavenged 2-stroke engine. Very satisfactory results have been obtained, as far as fuel consumption and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas are concerned. Large reductions in fuel consumption and in unburned hydrocarbons have been made possible, because the injection timing causes all the injected gasoline to remain in the combustion chamber, and thus to take part in the combustion process. Moreover, a force-feed lubrication system, like those usually exploited in mass-produced 4-stroke engines, has been employed, because of the presence of an external pump. In fact, it is no longer necessary to add oil to the gasoline in the engine, as the gasoline does not pass through the crankcase volume.
Journal Article

Development of a High Performance Natural Gas Engine with Direct Gas Injection and Variable Valve Actuation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0152
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
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