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Technical Paper

Measured Interfacial Residual Strains Produced by In-Flight Ice

The formation of ice on aircraft is a highly dynamic process during which ice will expand and contract upon freezing and undergoing changes in temperature. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations were performed investigating the stress/strain response of an idealized ice sample bonded to an acrylic substrate subjected to a uniform temperature change. The FEA predictions were used to guide the placement of strain gages on custom-built acrylic and aluminum specimens. Tee rosettes were placed in two configurations adjacent to thermocouple sensors. The specimens were then placed in icing conditions such that ice was grown on top of the specimen. It was hypothesized that the ice would expand on freezing and contract as the temperature of the interface returned to the equilibrium conditions.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Honeycomb Unit Cell with Enhanced In-Plane Mechanical Properties

Sandwich structures with honeycomb core are widely used in the lightweight design and impact energy absorption applications in automotive, sporting, and aerospace industries. Recently, the auxetic honeycombs with negative Poisson's ratio attract substantial attention for different engineering products. In this study, we implement Additive Manufacturing technology, experimental testing, and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to design and investigate the mechanical behavior of a novel unit cell for sandwich structure core. The new core model contains the conventional and auxetic honeycomb cells beside each other to create a Hybrid Honeycomb (HHC) for the sandwich structure. The different designs of unit cells with the same volume fraction of 15% are 3D-printed using Fused Deposition Modeling technique, and the comparative study on the mechanical behavior of conventional honeycomb, auxetic honeycomb, and HHC structures is conducted.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization for Crashworthiness Using Hybrid Cellular Automata

Structures with multiple materials have now become one of the perceived necessities for automotive industry to address vehicle design requirements such as light-weight, safety, and cost. The objective of this study is to develop a design methodology for multi-material structures accountable for vehicle crash durability. The heuristic topology synthesis approach of Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA) framework is implemented to generate multi-material structures with the constraint on the volume fraction of the final design. The HCA framework is integrated with ordered-SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) interpolation, artificial material library, as well as statistical analysis of material distribution data to ensure a smooth transition between multiple practical materials during the topology synthesis.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Journal Article

A Computational Multiaxial Model for Stress-Strain Analysis of Ground Vehicle Notched Components

Driveline and suspension notched components of off-road ground vehicles often experience multiaxial fatigue failures along notch locations. Large nominal load histories may induce local elasto-plastic stress and strain responses at the critical notch locations. Fatigue life prediction of such notched components requires detailed knowledge of local stresses and strains at notch regions. The notched components that are often subject to multiaxial loadings in services, experience complex stress and strain responses. Fatigue life assessment of the components utilizing non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) require unfeasibly inefficient computation times and large data. The lack of more efficient and effective methods of elasto-plastic stress-strain calculation may lead to the overdesign or earlier failures of the components or costly experiments and inefficient non-linear FEA.
Journal Article

Assessment of Large-Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Round Jets Using Low-Order Numerical Schemes

The basic idea behind large-eddy simulation (LES) is to accurately resolve the large energy-containing scales and to use subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the smaller scales. The accuracy of LES can be significantly impacted by the numerical discretization schemes and the choice of the SGS model. This work investigates the accuracy of low-order LES codes in the simulation of a turbulent round jet which is representative of fuel jets in engines. The turbulent jet studied is isothermal with a Reynolds number of 6800. It is simulated using Converge, which is second-order accurate in space and first-order in time, and FLEDS, developed at Purdue University, which is sixth-order accurate in space and fourth-order in time. The high-order code requires the resolution of acoustic time-scales and hence is approximately 10 times more expensive than the low-order code.
Technical Paper

Advanced Hydraulic Systems for Active Vibration Damping and Forklift Function to Improve Operator Comfort and Machine Productivity of Next Generation of Skid Steer Loaders

Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
Journal Article

Prechamber Hot Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean H2/Air Mixtures: Effect of Supersonic Jets and Combustion Instability

An experiment has been developed to investigate the ignition characteristics of ultra-lean premixed H2/air mixtures by a supersonic hot jet. The hot jet is generated by combustion of a stoichiometric mixture in a small prechamber. The apparatus adopted a dual-chamber design in which a small-volume (1% of the main chamber by volume) prechamber was installed within a large-volume main chamber. A small orifice (nozzle) connects the two chambers. Spark initiated combustion inside the prechamber causes a pressure rise and pushes the gases though the nozzle, resulting in a hot jet that would ignite the lean mixture in the main chamber. Simultaneous high-speed Schlieren photography and OH* Chemiluminescence were applied to visualize the jet penetration and the ignition processes inside the main chamber. Hot Wire Pyrometry (HWP) was used to measure temperature distribution of the transient hot jet.
Technical Paper

Excitation Strategies for a Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine Drive

In this research, excitation strategies for a salient-pole wound rotor synchronous machine are explored using a magnetic equivalent circuit model that includes core loss. It is shown that the excitation obtained is considerably different than would be obtained using traditional qd-based models. However, through evaluation of the resulting ‘optimal’ excitation, a relatively straightforward field-oriented type control is developed that is consistent with a desire for efficiency yet control simplicity. Validation is achieved through hardware experiment. The usefulness/applicability of the simplified control to variable speed applications is then considered.
Journal Article

The Application of Singular Value Decomposition to Determine the Sources of Far Field Diesel Engine Noise

The identification of the dominant noise sources in diesel engines and the assessment of their contribution to far-field noise is a process that can involve both fired and motored testing. In the present work, the cross-spectral densities of signals from cylinder pressure transducers, accelerometers mounted on the engine surface, and microphones (in the near and far fields), were used to identify dominant noise sources and estimate the transfer paths from the various “inputs” (i.e., the cylinder pressures, the accelerometers and the near field microphones) to the far field microphones. The method is based on singular value decomposition of the input cross-spectral matrix to relate the input measurements to independent virtual sources. The frequencies at which a particular input is strongly affected by an independent source are highlighted, and with knowledge of transducer locations, inferences can be drawn as to possible noise source mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Using a Physical Head Model

This study was conducted to quantify intracranial biomechanical responses and external blast overpressures using physical head model to understand the biomechanics of blast traumatic brain injury and to provide experimental data for computer simulation of blast-induced brain trauma. Ellipsoidal-shaped physical head models, made from 3-mm polycarbonate shell filled with Sylgard 527 silicon gel, were used. Six blast tests were conducted in frontal, side, and 45° oblique orientations. External blast overpressures and internal pressures were quantified with ballistic pressure sensors. Blast overpressures, ranging from 129.5 kPa to 769.3 kPa, were generated using a rigid cannon and 1.3 to 3.0 grams of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) plastic sheet explosive (explosive yield of 13.24 kJ and TNT equivalent mass of 2.87 grams for 3 grams of material).
Technical Paper

Optimization for Shared-Autonomy in Automotive Swarm Environment

The need for greater capacity in automotive transportation (in the midst of constrained resources) and the convergence of key technologies from multiple domains may eventually produce the emergence of a “swarm” concept of operations. The swarm, a collection of vehicles traveling at high speeds and in close proximity, will require management techniques to ensure safe, efficient, and reliable vehicle interactions. We propose a shared-autonomy approach in which the strengths of both human drivers and machines are employed in concert for this management. A fuzzy logic-based control implementation is combined with a genetic algorithm to select the shared-autonomy architecture and sensor capabilities that optimize swarm operations.
Journal Article

Multi-objective Optimization Tool for Noise Reduction in Axial Piston Machines

Noise generation in axial piston machines can be attributed to two main sources; fluid borne and structure borne. Any attempt towards noise reduction in axial piston machines should focus on simultaneous reduction of these two sources. A multi-parameter multi-objective optimization approach to design valve plates to reduce both sources of noise for pumps which operate in a wide range of operating conditions has been detailed in a previous work (Seeniraj and Ivantysynova, 2008). The focus of this paper is to explain the background and to demonstrate the functionality and usefulness of the methodology for pump design.
Technical Paper

Balloon Launched UAV with Nested Wing for Near Space Applications

There has always been, from the very first UAV, a need for providing cost-effective methods of deploying unmanned aircraft systems at high altitudes. Missions for UAVs at high altitudes are used to conduct atmospheric research, perform global mapping missions, collect remote sensing data, and establish long range communications networks. The team of Gevers Aircraft, Technology Management Group, and Purdue University have designed an innovative balloon launched UAV for these near space applications. A UAV (Payload Return Vehicle) with a nested morphing wing was designed in order to meet the challenges of high altitude flight, and long range and endurance without the need for descent rate control with rockets or a feathering mode.
Technical Paper

Surface Pressure Fluctuations in Separated-Reattached Flows Behind Notched Spoilers

Notched spoilers may be used to suppress flow-induced cavity resonance in vehicles with open sunroofs or side windows. The notches are believed to generate streamwise vortices that break down the structure of the leading edge cross-stream vortices predominantly responsible for the cavity excitation. The objectives of the present study were to gain a better understanding of the buffeting suppression mechanisms associated with notched spoilers, and to gather data for computational model verification. To this end, experiments were performed to characterize the surface pressure field downstream of straight and notched spoilers mounted on a rigid wall to observe the effects of the notches on the static and dynamic wall pressure. Detailed flow velocity measurements were made using hot-wire anemometry. The results indicated that the presence of notches on the spoiler reduces drag, and thus tends to move the flow reattachment location closer to the spoiler.
Technical Paper

A Novel Suspended Liner Test Apparatus for Friction and Side Force Measurement with Corresponding Modeling

An experimental apparatus and a numerical model have been designed and developed to examine the lubrication condition and frictional losses at the piston and cylinder interface. The experimental apparatus utilizes components from a single cylinder, ten horsepower engine in a novel suspended liner arrangement. The test rig has been specifically designed to reduce the number of operating variables while utilizing actual components and geometry. A mixed lubrication model for the complete ring-pack and piston skirt was developed to correlate with experimental measurements and provide further insight into the sources of frictional losses. The results demonstrate the effects of speed and viscosity on the overall friction losses at the piston and cylinder liner interface. Comparisons between the experimental and analytical results show good agreement.
Technical Paper

Novel Force-Based High-Speed Three-Dimensional NASCAR Vehicle Model

Typical vehicle dynamics simulations demand a trade-off between short computation times and accuracy. Many of the more simple models are based on the kinematic roll center and the more accurate models tend to be multi-body dynamics simulation programs. There is a need for a model that improves the accuracy of the kinematic roll center models while still maintaining short computation times. Such a model could be used track-side during races to guide race teams toward improved handling. The model presented in this paper removes many of the assumptions and limitations of the kinematic roll center model. The model accounts for three-dimensional forces present at the contact patch and predicts deflections of suspension components. The modeling approach is applied to a NASCAR Craftsman Truck to predict the effects of suspension design and tuning on steady-state understeer characteristics of the vehicle. Braking and acceleration forces can also be applied to the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Flows in a Duct with Multiple Inlets

In this paper, computations of pulsating flows in a duct with multiple inlets using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) are reported. As future emissions standards present a significant challenge for Diesel engine manufacturers, several options are being investigated to identify strategies to meet such regulations. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is one of the most important among them. As the performance of the various aftertreatment devices is sensitive to the flow conditions in the exhaust, a greater understanding of the flows under pulsating conditions in the presence of multiple cylinders is needed. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a relatively new and promising computational approach for applications to fluid dynamics problems. Two advantages of the method relative to traditional methods are ease of implementation and ease of parallelization and performance on parallel computers.
Technical Paper

An Experimentally Validated Physical Model of a High-Performance Mono-Tube Damper

A mathematical model of a gas-charged mono-tube racing damper is presented. The model includes bleed orifice, piston leakage, and shim stack flows. It also includes models of the floating piston and the stiffness characteristics of the shim stacks. The model is validated with experimental tests on an Ohlins WCJ 22/6 damper and shown to be accurate. The model is exercised to show the effects of tuning on damper performance. The important results of the exercise are 1) the pressure variation on the compression side of the piston is insignificant relative to that on the rebound side because of the gas charge, 2) valve shim stiffness can be successfully modeled using stacked thin circular plates, 3) bleed orifice settings dominate the low speed regime, and 4) shim stack stiffness dominates the high speed regime.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Switched Capacitive Machines for Aerospace Applications

Electric machinery is typically based upon the interaction of magnetic fields and current to produce electromagnetic force or torque. However, force and torque can also be produced through the use of electric fields. The purpose of this investigation is to briefly analyze the use of a switched capacitance electric field based machine to see if it may have aerospace applications for use as either propulsion motor for unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV) or lightweight flywheel applications for aerospace applications. It is shown that although its use as a hub propulsion motor is not feasible, it may be a candidate for use in a power flywheel energy storage system.