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Technical Paper

Further Assessment of Closed-Wall Wind Tunnel Blockage Using CFD

2005-04-11
2005-01-0868
The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based wind tunnel blockage correction method proposed in [1] was extended in the present study to production vehicles with detailed underhood and underbody components, fascia and grills. Three different types of vehicles (sedan, SUV, and pickup truck) were considered in the study. While the previous CFD based wind tunnel blockage correction method was for vehicle aerodynamic drag, the blockage effect on vehicle cooling airflow is also included in the present study, and a CFD based blockage correction method for vehicle cooling airflow is proposed. Comparisons were made between the blockage effects for the production vehicles and the blockage effects for the generic vehicles.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulations for Flow Over Pickup Trucks

2005-04-11
2005-01-0547
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the flow field over a pickup truck. The simulation was based on a steady state formulation and the focus of the simulation was to assess the capabilities of the currently used CFD tools for vehicle aerodynamic development for pickup trucks. Detailed comparisons were made between the CFD simulations and the existing experiments for a generic pickup truck. It was found that the flow structures obtained from the CFD calculations are very similar to the corresponding measured mean flows. Furthermore, the surface pressure distributions are captured reasonably well by the CFD analysis. Comparison for aerodynamic drags was carried out for both the generic pickup truck and a production pickup truck. Both the simulations and the measurements show the same trends for the drag as the vehicle geometry changes, This suggests that the steady state CFD simulation can be used to aid the aerodynamic development of pickup trucks.
Technical Paper

CFD for Flow Rate and Air Re-Circulation at Vehicle Idle Conditions

2004-03-08
2004-01-0053
CFD method for the calculation of flow rate and air re-circulation at vehicle idle conditions is described. A small velocity is added to the ambient airflow in order to improve the numerical stability. The flow rate passing through the heat exchangers is insensitive to the ambient velocity, since the flow rate is largely determined by the fan operation. The air re-circulation, however, is quite sensitive to the ambient air velocity. The ambient velocity of U=-1m/s was found to be the more critical case, and is recommended for the air re-circulation analysis. The CFD analysis can also lead to design modifications improving the air re-circulation.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Closed-Wall Wind Tunnel Blockage using CFD

2004-03-08
2004-01-0672
Effects of the wind tunnel blockage in a closed-wall wind tunnel were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow over three generic vehicle models representing a passenger sedan, a sports utility vehicle (SUV), and a pickup truck was solved. The models were placed in a baseline virtual wind tunnel as well as four additional virtual wind tunnels, each with different size cross-sections, providing different levels of wind tunnel blockage. For each vehicle model, the CFD analysis produced an aerodynamic drag coefficient for the vehicle at the blockage free condition as well as the blockage effect increment for the baseline wind tunnel. A CFD based blockage correction method is proposed. Comparisons of this method to some existing blockage correction methods for closed-wall wind tunnel are also presented.
Technical Paper

CFRM Concept at Vehicle Idle Conditions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0613
The concept of condenser, fan, and radiator power train cooling module (CFRM) was further evaluated via three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies in the present paper for vehicle at idle conditions. The analysis shows that the CFRM configuration was more prone to the problem of front-end air re-circulation as compared with the conventional condenser, radiator, and fan power train cooling module (CRFM). The enhanced front-end air re-circulation leads to a higher air temperature passing through the condenser. The higher air temperature, left unimproved, could render the vehicle air conditioning (AC) unit ineffective. The analysis also shows that the front-end air re-circulation can be reduced with an added sealing between the CFRM package and the front of the vehicle, making the CFRM package acceptable at the vehicle idle conditions.
Technical Paper

Corrections for the Pressure Gradient Effect on Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

2003-03-03
2003-01-0935
Effects of the pressure gradient in the wind tunnel test section on vehicle aerodynamic drag were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The numerical study was used to obtain the aerodynamic drag of several vehicles in two virtual wind tunnels, one with a zero pressure gradient and another with a nonzero (but small) pressure gradient. A comparison of the vehicle aerodynamic drags in these two virtual wind tunnels, and investigation of the physical mechanisms causing these differences, have led to two correction formulas. These formulas can be used to correct for the pressure gradient effect on vehicle aerodynamic drag measurement in a wind tunnel that has a nonzero pressure gradient. In the first formula, the correction is given explicitly in terms of known variables. The correction is 80% accurate for passenger car, sports car, sports utility vehicle (SUV), and is 70% accurate for pickup truck.
Technical Paper

Thermal-velocity Coupling in Vehicle Thermal System Calculations

2002-03-04
2002-01-1204
The issue of thermal-velocity coupling is discussed in the context of vehicle thermal system analysis. Temperature variations in the bulk of the fluids caused by the vehicle engine, cooling, and exhaust system lead to variations in the density of the airflow. The density variations impact the velocity field in two ways: by introducing a driving force term explicitly to account for the effect of buoyancy force and by coupling with the other governing equations. The buoyancy force is crucial for buoyancy driven flows such as vehicle under soak condition. The vehicle thermal system analysis based on the coupled approach leads to a 15°C improvement in the prediction of the underhood thermal environment.
Technical Paper

CFRM Concept for Vehicle Thermal System

2002-03-04
2002-01-1207
Condenser, fan, radiator power train cooling module (CFRM) proposed by Delphi Automobile Systems was evaluated in the context of vehicle thermal system analysis. The results from the CFRM configuration were compared with those from the conventional condenser, radiator, and fan power train cooling module (CRFM). The analysis shows that for a typical passenger vehicle, the underhood temperature for the CFRM configuration is more than 10°C lower than its CRFM counterpart when the fan is operating at the same speed of 2500 rpm. This is due mainly to the higher mass flow rate impelled by the fan in the CFRM configuration. At the equal mass flow condition, both the CFRM and the CRFM configurations give similar underhood temperatures; but the fan in the CFRM configuration uses 19% less power, due mainly to the reduction in the fan speed needed to impel the same amount of mass flow rate.
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