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Technical Paper

Exhaust Backpressure Estimation for an Internal Combustion Engine with a Variable Geometry Turbo Charger

2009-04-20
2009-01-0732
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the key approaches applied to reduce emissions for an internal combustion engine. Recirculating a desired amount of EGR requires accurately estimating EGR mass flow. This can be calculated either from the gas flow equation of an orifice, or from the difference between charge air mass flow and fresh air mass flow. Both calculations need engine exhaust pressure as an input variable. This paper presents a method to estimate exhaust pressure for a variable geometry turbo charged diesel engine. The method is accurate and simple to fit production ECU application, therefore, saves cost of using a physical sensor.
Technical Paper

Concept and Implementation of a Robust HCCI Engine Controller

2009-04-20
2009-01-1131
General Motors recently demonstrated two driveable test vehicles powered by a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. HCCI combustion has the potential of a significant fuel economy benefit with reduced after-treatment cost. However, the biggest challenge of realizing HCCI in vehicle applications is controlling the combustion process. Without a direct trigger mechanism for HCCI's flameless combustion, the in-cylinder mixture composition and temperature must be tightly controlled in order to achieve robust HCCI combustion. The control architecture and strategy that was implemented in the demo vehicles is presented in this paper. Both demo vehicles, one with automatic transmission and the other one with manual transmission, are powered by a 2.2-liter HCCI engine that features a central direct-injection system, variable valve lift on both intake and exhaust valves, dual electric camshaft phasers and individual cylinder pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Observer Design for Fuel Reforming in HCCI Engines Using a UEGO Sensor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1132
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion shows a high potential of reducing both fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. Many works have been devoted to extend the HCCI operation range in order to maximize its fuel economy benefit. Among them, fuel injection strategies that use fuel reforming to increase the cylinder charge temperature to facilitate HCCI combustion at low engine loads have been proposed. However, to estimate and control an optimal amount of fuel reforming in the cylinder of an HCCI engine proves to be challenging because the fuel reforming process depends on many engine variables. It is conceivable that the amount of fuel reforming can be estimated since it correlates with the combustion phasing which in turn can be measured using a cylinder pressure sensor.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Journal Article

Late Intake Valve Closing as an Emissions Control Strategy at Tier 2 Bin 5 Engine-Out NOx Level

2008-04-14
2008-01-0637
A fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system was developed for a single cylinder research engine to investigate high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) in a diesel engine. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance, and combustion characteristics of the engine using late intake valve closing (LIVC) to determine the benefits and limitations of this strategy to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx requirements without after-treatment. The most significant benefit of LIVC is a reduction in particulates due to the longer ignition delay time and a subsequent reduction in local fuel rich combustion zones. More than a 95% reduction in particulates was observed at some operating conditions. Combustion noise was also reduced at low and medium loads due to slower heat release. Although it is difficult to assess the fuel economy benefits of LIVC using a single cylinder engine, LIVC shows the potential to improve the fuel economy through several approaches.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 Engine with Direct Injection

2008-04-14
2008-01-0132
General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 engine has been upgraded to provide substantial improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions for the 2008 model year Cadillac CTS and STS. The fundamental change was a switch from traditional manifold-port fuel injection (MPFI) to spark ignition direct injection (SIDI). Additional modifications include enhanced cylinder head and intake manifold air flow capacities, optimized camshaft profiles, and increased compression ratio. The SIDI fuel system presented the greatest opportunities for system development and optimization in order to maximize improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions. In particular, the injector flow rate, orifice geometry, and spray pattern were selected to provide the optimum balance of high power and torque, low fuel consumption, stable combustion, low smoke emissions, and robust tolerance to injector plugging.
Technical Paper

Development and Control of Electro-hydraulic Fully Flexible Valve Actuation System for Diesel Combustion Research

2007-10-29
2007-01-4021
Fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system, often referred to as camless valvetrain, employs electronically controlled actuators to drive the intake and/or exhaust valves. This technology enables the engine controller to tailor the valve event according to the engine operating condition in real-time to improve fuel economy, emissions and performance. At GM Research and Development Center, we have developed laboratory electro-hydraulic FFVA systems for single cylinder gasoline engines. The objective of this work is to develop a FFVA system for advanced diesel combustion research. There are three major differences between gasoline and diesel engines in terms of applying the FFVA systems. First, the orientation of the diesel engine valves and the location of the fuel injection system complicate the packaging issue. Second, the clearance between the valves and the piston for diesel engines are extremely small.
Technical Paper

An Engineering Method for Part-load Engine Simulation

2007-10-29
2007-01-4102
This work provides an effective engineering method of building a part-load engine simulation model from a wide-open throttle (WOT) engine model and available dynamometer data. It shows how to perform part-load engine simulation using optimizer for targeted manifold absolute air pressure (MAP) on a basic matrix of engine speed and MAP. Key combustion parameters were estimated to cover the entire part-load region based on affordable assumptions and limitations. Engine rubbing friction and pumping friction were combined to compare against the motoring torque. The emission data from GM dynamometer laboratory were used to compare against engine simulation results after attaching the RLT sensor to record emission data in the engine simulation model.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Recompression and Fuel Reforming in a SIDI-HCCI Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1878
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a combustion concept which has the potential for efficiency comparable to a DI Diesel engine with low NOx and soot emissions. However, HCCI is difficult to control, especially at low speeds and loads. One way to assist with combustion control and to extend operation to low speed and loads is to close the exhaust valve before TDC of the exhaust stroke, trapping and recompressing some of the hot residual. Further advantages can be attained by injecting the fuel into this trapped, recompressed mixture, where chemical reactions occur that improve ignitability of the subsequent combustion cycle. Even further improvement in the subsequent combustion cycle can be achieved by applying a spark, leading to a spark-assisted HCCI combustion concept.
Technical Paper

Design of a Rapid Prototyping Engine Management System for Development of Combustion Feedback Control Technology

2006-04-03
2006-01-0611
Combustion feedback using cylinder pressure sensors, ion current sensors or alternative sensing techniques is actively under investigation by the automotive industry to meet future legislative emissions requirements. One of the drawbacks of many rapid prototyping engine management systems is their available analog interfaces, often limited to 10-12 bits with limited bandwidth, sampling rate and very simple anti-aliasing filters. Processing cylinder pressure or other combustion feedback sensors requires higher precision, wider bandwidths and more processing power than is typically available. For these reasons, Ricardo in collaboration with GM Research has developed a custom, high precision analog input subsystem for the rCube rapid prototyping control system that is specifically targeted at development of combustion feedback control systems.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Data Quality Checks and Procedures to Maximize Data Accuracy

2006-04-03
2006-01-1346
Cylinder pressure data is so completely integral to the combustion system development process that ensuring measurements of the highest possible accuracy is of paramount importance. Three main areas of the pressure measurement and analysis process control the accuracy of measured cylinder pressure and its derived metrics: 1) Association of the pressure data to the engine's crankshaft position or cylinder volume 2) Pegging, or referencing, the pressure sensor output to a known, absolute pressure level 3) The raw, relative pressure output of the piezoelectric cylinder pressure sensor Certain cylinder pressure-based metrics, such as mean effective pressures (MEP) and heat release parameters, require knowledge of the cylinder volume associated with the sampled pressure data. Accurate determination of the cylinder volume is dependent on knowing the rotational position of the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Modeling Approaches for Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion

2005-04-11
2005-01-0218
The Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) - model has established itself as a model well suited for capturing conventional non-premixed combustion in diesel engines. There are concerns about applying the concept to model combustion modes characterized by high degrees of premixing, since it is argued that the fast-chemistry assumption, on which the model is based, breaks down. However, the level of premixing at which this occurs is still not well established. In this paper the model is successfully applied to the so-called Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode of combustion, characterized by relatively early injection timings, high EGR, and cooled intake air. For very advanced injection timings, an alternative modeling approach is developed.
Technical Paper

On the Potential of Low Heat Rejection DI Diesel Engines to Reduce Tail-Pipe Emissions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0920
Heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls constitutes a significant portion of the overall energy losses over the working cycle of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine. In the last few decades, numerous research efforts have been devoted to investigating the prospects of boosting efficiency by insulating the combustion chamber. Relatively few studies have focused on the prospects of reducing emissions by applying combustion chamber insulation. A main purpose of this study is to assess the potential of reducing in-cylinder soot as well as boosting aftertreatment performance by means of partially insulating the combustion chamber. Based on the findings from a conceptual study, a Low Heat Rejection (LHR) design, featuring a Nimonic 80A insert into an Aluminum piston, was developed and tested experimentally at various loads in a single-cylinder Hatz-engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge Engine with a High-Squish Piston

2005-04-11
2005-01-1937
This work describes an experimental investigation on the stratified combustion and engine-out emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder, spark-ignition, direct-injection, spray-guided engine employing an outward-opening injector, an optimized high-squish, bowled piston, and a variable swirl valve control. Experiments were performed using two different outward-opening injectors with 80° and 90° spray angles, each having a variable injector pintle-lift control allowing different rates of injection. The fuel consumption of the engine was found to improve with decreasing air-swirl motion, increasing spark-plug length, increasing spark energy, and decreasing effective rate of injection, but to be relatively insensitive to fuel-rail pressure in the range of 10-20 MPa. At optimal injection and ignition timings, no misfires were observed in 30,000 consecutive cycles.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of a Small-Displacement Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine - Full-Load Operation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0034
Full-load operation of a small-displacement spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine was thoroughly investigated by means of computational analysis and engine measurements. The performance is affected by many different factors, which can be grouped as those pertaining to volumetric efficiency, to mixing and stratification, and to system issues, respectively. Volumetric efficiency is affected by flow losses, tuning and charge cooling. Charge cooling due to spray vaporization is often touted as the most significant benefit of direct-injection on full-load performance. However, if wall wetting occurs, this benefit may be completely negated or even reversed. The fuel-air mixing is strongly affected by the injection timing and characteristics at lower engine speeds, while at higher engine speeds the intake flow dominates the transport of fuel particles and resultant vapor distribution. A higher injector flow rate enhances mixing especially at higher engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of a Small-Displacement Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine - Stratified Operation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0033
Superior fuel economy was achieved for a small-displacement spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine by optimizing the stratified combustion operation. The optimization was performed using computational analyses and subsequently testing the most promising configurations experimentally. The fuel economy savings are achieved by the use of a multihole injector with novel spray shape, which allows ultra-lean stratification for a wide range of part-load operating conditions without compromising smoke and hydrocarbon emissions. In this regard, a key challenge for wall-controlled SIDI engines is the minimization of wall wetting to prevent smoke, which may require advanced injection timings, while at the same time minimizing hydrocarbon emissions, which may require retarding injection and thereby preventing over-mixing of the fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Stratified-Charge Regime of the Reverse-Tumble Wall-Controlled Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0037
An optimum combustion chamber was designed for a reverse-tumble wall-controlled gasoline direct-injection engine by systematically optimizing each design element of the combustion system. The optimization was based on fuel-economy, hydrocarbon, combustion-stability and smoke measurements at a 2000 rev/min test-point representation of road-load operating condition. The combustion-chamber design parameters that were optimized in this study included: piston-bowl depth, piston-bowl opening width, piston-bowl-volume ratio, exhaust-side squish height, bowl-lip draft angle, distance between spark-plug electrode and piston-bowl lip, spark-plug-electrode length, and injector spray-cone angle. No attempt was made to optimize the gross engine parameters such as bore and stroke or the intake system, since this study focused on optimizing a reverse-tumble wall-controlled gasoline direct-injection variant of an existing port-fueled injection engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Simulation, and Hardware-in-the-Loop Transmission Test System Software Development

2003-03-03
2003-01-0673
This paper describes the development of a generic test cell software designed to overcome many vehicle-component testing difficulties by introducing modern, real-time control and simulation capabilities directly to laboratory test environments. Successfully demonstrated in a transmission test cell system, this software eliminated the need for internal combustion engines (ICE) and test-track vehicles. It incorporated the control of an advanced AC induction motor that electrically simulated the ICE and a DC dynamometer that electrically replicated vehicle loads. Engine behaviors controlled by the software included not only the average crankshaft torque production but also engine inertia and firing pulses, particularly during shifts. Vehicle loads included rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, grade, and more importantly, vehicle inertia corresponding to sport utility, light truck, or passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Reverse-Tumble Wall-Controlled Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0543
Experimentally obtained combustion responses of a typical reverse-tumble wall-controlled direct-injection stratified-charge engine to operating variables are described. During stratified-charge operation, the injection timing, ignition timing, air-fuel ratio, and levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) generally determine the fuel economy and emissions performance of the engine. A detailed heat-release analysis of the experimental cylinder-pressure data was conducted. It was observed that injection and ignition timings determine the thermal efficiency of the engine by controlling primarily the combustion efficiency of the stratified charge. Hence, combustion phasing is determined by a compromise between work-conversion efficiency and combustion efficiency. To reduce nitric-oxide (NOx) emissions, a reduction in overall air-fuel ratio as well as EGR addition is required.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of Engine Models Via Automated Dynamometer Tests

1979-02-01
790178
An automated engine dynamometer test procedure is developed and mathematical models for the main engine control variables are derived from the resulting data base. The new procedure involves sequential testing at many speed/load conditions for various combinations of air fuel ratio, spark timing and exhaust gas recirculation. The total testing time required for generating the data base of more than 2000 test points is less than twelve hours. An independent transient speed/load test is also conducted for the purpose of validating the engine models. The measured and model predicted data are compared for this test which corresponds to a segment of the EPA urban schedule.
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