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Technical Paper

Analysis of Cyclic Variation Using Time-Resolved Tomographic Particle-Image Velocimetry

2020-09-15
2020-01-2021
To achieve the strict legislative restrictions for emissions from combustion engines, vast improvements in engine emissions and efficiency are required. Two major impacting factors for emissions and efficiency are the reliable generation of an effective mixture before ignition and a fast, stable combustion process. While the mixture of air and injected fuel is generated by highly three-dimensional, time-dependent flow phenomena during the intake and compression stroke, the turbulent flame propagation is directly affected by the turbulence level in the flow close to the advancing flame front. However, the flow field in the combustion chamber is highly turbulent and subject to cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV). To understand the fundamental mechanisms and interactions, 3D flow measurements with combined high spatial and temporal resolution are required.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Particulate Filter Characterization Focusing on the Filtration Efficiency of Nano-Particulates Down to 10 nm

2020-09-15
2020-01-2212
With Post Euro 6 emission standards in discussion, stricter particulate number (PN) targets as well as a decreased PN cut-off size from 23 to 10 nm are expected. Sub-23 nm particulates are considered particularly harmful to human health, but are not yet taken into account in the current vehicle certification process. Not considering sub-23 nm particulates during the development process could lead to significant additional efforts for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) to comply with future Post Euro 6 PN emission limits. It is therefore essential to increase knowledge about the formation and filtration of particulates below 23 nm. In the present study, a holistic Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) characterization has been carried out on an engine test bench under varying boundary conditions and on a burner bench with a novel ash loading methodology.
Technical Paper

Gas Bubble Development in Connecting Rod Supply Systems Caused by Oil Aeration

2020-09-15
2020-01-2163
This paper focusses on the supply conditions of a connecting rod bearing. Thereto, a novel simulation approach is presented, which is based on a transient 3D-CFD multiphase flow simulation including the ability of gas dissolution and diffusive mass transfer. The model determines the pressure behavior and the gas bubble development in the oil supply system of a connecting rod bearing. It allows to visualize the flow behavior and the existence of gas bubbles in order to get a detailed impression of the physical occurrences. The experimental results from Maaßen [5], where a big gas bubble is formed in the supply bore by gas cavitation, are confirmed and used for validation. Further the flow behavior of free air ratios is investigated. The paper concludes that the supply conditions of a connecting rod bearing are strongly influenced by the gas bubble in terms of the fluid composition and the volume flow rate at the connecting rod bearing inlet.
Technical Paper

Objectified Evaluation and Classification of Passenger Vehicles Longitudinal Drivability Capabilities in Automated Load Change Drive Maneuvers at Engine-in-the-Loop Test Benches

2020-04-14
2020-01-0245
The growing number of passenger car variants and derivatives in all global markets, their high degree of software differentiability caused by regionally different legislative regulations, as well as pronounced market-specific customer expectations require a continuous optimization of the entire vehicle development process. In addition, ever stricter emission standards lead to a considerable increase in powertrain hardware and control complexity. Also, efforts to achieve market and brand specific multistep adjustable drivability characteristics as unique selling proposition, rapidly extend the scope for calibration and testing tasks during the development of powertrain control units. The resulting extent of interdependencies between the drivability calibration and other development and calibration tasks requires frontloading of development tasks.
Technical Paper

Potential Analysis and Virtual Development of SI Engines Operated with Synthetic Fuel DMC+

2020-04-14
2020-01-0342
On the way to emission-free mobility, future fuels must be CO2 neutral. To achieve this, synthetic fuels are being developed. In order to better assess the effects of the new fuels on the engine process, simulation models are being developed that reproduce the chemical and physical properties of these fuels. In this paper, the fuel DMC+ is examined. DMC+ (a mixture of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and methyl formate (MeFo) mainly, characterized by the lack of C-C Bonds and high oxygen content) offers advantages with regard to evaporation heat, demand of oxygen and knock resistance. Furthermore, its combustion is almost particle free. With the aid of modern 0D/1D simulation methods, an assessment of the potential of DMC+ can be made. It is shown that the simulative conversion of a state-of-the-art gasoline engine to DMC+ fuel offers advantages in terms of efficiency in many operating points even if the engine design is not altered.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Drivability Influence on Tailpipe Emissions in Early Stages of a Vehicle Development Program by Means of Engine-in-the-Loop Test Benches

2020-04-14
2020-01-0373
Due to increasing environmental awareness, standards for pollutant and CO2 emissions are getting stricter in most markets around the world. In important markets such as Europe, also the emissions during real road driving, so called “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE), are now part of the type approval process for passenger cars. In addition to the proceeding hybridization and electrification of vehicles, the complexity and degrees of freedom of conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines (ICE) are also continuing to increase in order to comply with stricter exhaust emission standards. Besides the different requirements placed on vehicle emissions, the drivability capabilities of passenger vehicles desired by customers, are essentially important and vary between markets.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Electric Traction Drives with an Efficiency Optimized DC-DC Converter Control

2020-04-14
2020-01-0462
In order to reduce development cost and time, frontloading is an established methodology for automotive development programs. With this approach, particular development tasks are shifted to earlier program phases. One prerequisite for this approach is the application of Hardware-in-the-Loop test setups. Hardware-in-the-Loop methodologies have already successfully been applied to conventional as well as electrified powertrains considering various driving scenarios. Regarding driving performance and energy demand, electrified powertrains are highly dependent on the dc-link voltage. However, there is a particular shortage of studies focusing on the verification of variable dc-link voltage controls by Hardware-in-the-Loop setups. This article is intended to be a first step towards closing this gap. Thereto, a Hardware-in-the-Loop setup of a battery electric vehicle is developed.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Identification Modeling for PCCI Engine Emissions Prediction Using Unsupervised Learning and Neural Networks

2020-04-14
2020-01-0558
Premixed charged compression ignition (PCCI) is an advanced combustion strategy, which has the potential to achieve ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions at high thermal efficiencies. PCCI combustion is characterized by a complex nonlinear chemical-physical process, which indicates that a physical description involves significant development times and also high computation cost. This paper presents a method to use cylinder pressure data and engine operations parameters for prediction of PCCI engine emissions by unsupervised learning and nonlinear identification techniques. The proposed method first uses principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimension of the cylinder-pressure data. Based on the PCA analysis, a multi-input multi-out model was developed for nitrogen oxide and soot emission prediction by multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network.
Technical Paper

LES Modeling Study on Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in a DISI Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0242
The reduction of cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) is a prerequisite for the development and control of spark-ignition engines with increased efficiency and reduced engine-out emissions. To this end, Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) can improve the understanding of stochastic in-cylinder phenomena during the engine design process, if the employed modeling approach is sufficiently accurate. In this work, an inhouse code has been used to investigate CCV in a direct-injected spark ignition (DISI) engine under fuel-lean conditions with respect to a stoichiometric baseline operating point. It is shown that the crank angle when a characteristic fuel mass fraction is burned, e.g. MFB50, correlates with the equivalence ratio computed as a local average in the vicinity of the spark plug. The lean operating point exhibits significant CCV, which are shown to be correlated also with the in-cylinder subfilter-scale (SFS) kinetic energy.
Technical Paper

Relevance of Exhaust Aftertreatment System Degradation for EU7 Gasoline Engine Applications

2020-04-14
2020-01-0382
Exhaust aftertreatment systems must function sufficiently over the full useful life of a vehicle. In Europe this is currently defined as 160.000 km. With the introduction of Euro 7 it is expected that the required mileage will be extended to 240.000 km. This will then be consistent with the US legislation. In order to quantify the emission impact of exhaust system degradation, an Euro 7 exhaust aftertreatment system is aged by different accelerated approaches: application of the Standard Bench Cycle, the ZDAKW cycle, a novel ash loading method and borderline aging. The results depict the impact of oil ash on the oxygen storage capacity. For tailpipe emissions, the maximum peak temperatures are the dominant aging factor. The cold start performance is effected by both, thermal degradation and ash accumulation. An evaluation of this emission increase requires appropriate benchmarks.
Technical Paper

Efficient Test Bench Operation with Early Damage Detection Systems

2019-09-09
2019-24-0192
The efficient operation of powertrain test benches in research and development is strongly influenced by the state of “health” of the functional test object. Hence, the use of Early Damage Detection Systems (EDDS) with Unit Under Test (UUT) monitoring is becoming increasingly popular. An EDDS should primarily avoid total loss of the test object and ensure that damaged parts are not completely destroyed, and can still be inspected. Therefore, any abnormality from the standard test object behavior, such as an exceeding of predefined limits, must be recognized at an early testing time, and must lead to a shutdown of the test bench operation. With sensors mounted on the test object, it is possible to isolate the damage cause in the event of its detection. Advanced EDDS configurations also optimize the predefined limits by learning new shutdown values according to the test object behavior within a very short time.
Technical Paper

Towards an Integral Combustion Model for Model-Based Control of PCCI Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0001
Physics-based models in a closed-loop feedback control of a premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine can improve the combustion efficiency and potentially reduce harmful NOx and soot emissions. A stand-alone multi-zone combustion model has been proposed in the literature using a physics-based mixing approach. The scalar dissipation rate emerged as the determining parameter in the model for mixing among different zones in the mixture fraction space. However, the calculation of the scalar dissipation rate depends on three approaches: three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) combustion simulations based on representative interactive flamelet (RIF) model, tabulation, or an empirical algebraic model of the scalar dissipation rate fitted for the given operating conditions of the engine. While the 3-D CFD approach provides accurate results, it is computationally too expensive to use the multi-zone model in closed-loop control.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

2019-09-09
2019-24-0156
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations.
Journal Article

Ultra-Lean Pre-Chamber Gasoline Engine for Future Hybrid Powertrains

2019-09-09
2019-24-0104
Lean burn gasoline spark-ignition engines can support the reduction of CO2 emissions for future hybrid passenger cars. Very high efficiencies and very low NOx raw emissions can be achieved, if relative air/fuel ratios λ of 2 and above can be reached. The biggest challenge here is to assure a reliable ignition process and to enhance the fuel oxidation in order to achieve a short burn duration and a good combustion stability. This article aims at introducing an innovative combustion system fully optimized for ultra-lean operation and very high efficiency. Thereto, a new cylinder head concept has been realized with high peak firing pressure capability and with a low surface-to-volume ratio at high compression ratios. 1D and 3D simulations have been performed to optimize the compression ratio, charge motion and intake valve lift. Numerical calculations also supported the development of the ignition system.
Technical Paper

Separation, Allocation and Psychoacoustic Evaluation of Vehicle Interior Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1518
Besides optical and haptic criteria, the interior noise especially influences the quality impression of a vehicle. Separately audible disturbing noises are usually perceived as inadequate product quality. As a result, the reduction of disturbing noise components is a key factor for the overall product quality. Since the acoustic optimization is a complex and time consuming process, the need for an analysis tool which identifies automatically disturbing engine noise components within the vehicle interior noise is high. For this reason, a novel analysis tool has been developed which extracts tonal and impulsive engine noise components from the overall engine noise, and evaluates the annoyance of each noticeable engine component automatically. In addition, each disturbing noise is allocated to the emitting engine component. It is then possible to listen to each engine component noise individually and synthesize a target noise by superimposing manually weighted component noises.
Technical Paper

Efficient Power Electronic Inverter Control Developed in an Automotive Hardware-in-the-Loop Setup

2019-04-02
2019-01-0601
Hardware-in-the-Loop is a common and established testing method for automotive developments in order to study interactions between different vehicle components during early development phases. Hardware-in-the-Loop setups have successfully been utilized within several development programs for conventional and electrified powertrains already. However, there is a particular shortage of studies focusing on the development of inverter controls utilizing Hardware-in-the-Loop tests. This contribution shall provide a first step toward closing this gap. In this article, inverter controls with different pulse width modulations for varying modulation index are studied at a Hardware-in-the-Loop setup. Thereto, the inverter control for an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine is developed utilizing space vector pulse width modulation with overmodulation.
Technical Paper

Scalable Mean Value Modeling for Real-Time Engine Simulations with Improved Consistency and Adaptability

2019-04-02
2019-01-0195
This article discusses highly flexible and accurate physics-based mean value modeling (MVM) for internal combustion engines and its wide applicability towards virtual vehicle calibration. The requirement to fulfill the challenging Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards has significantly increased the demand for precise engine models, especially models regarding pollutant emissions and fuel economy. This has led to a large increase in effort required for precise engine modeling and robust model calibration. Two best-practice engine modeling approaches will be introduced here to satisfy these requirements. These are the exclusive MVM approach, and a combination of MVM and a Design of Experiments (DOE) model for heterogeneous multi-domain engine systems.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Modeling of a 48V P0 Mild Hybrid Vehicle with Electric Compressor for Model Predictive Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-0350
In order to reduce pollutant and CO2 emissions and fulfill future legislative requirements, powertrain electrification is one of the key technologies. In this context, especially 48V technologies offer an attractive cost to CO2 reduction ratio. 48V mild hybrid powertrains greatly benefit from additional electric intake air compression (E-Charging) and direct torque assist by an electric machine (E-Boosting). Both systems significantly improve the transient engine behavior while reducing the low end torque drawbacks of extreme downsizing and downspeeding. Since E-Charging and E-Boosting have different characteristics concerning transient torque response and energy efficiency, application of model predictive control (MPC) is a particularly suitable method to improve the operating strategy of these functions. MPC requires fast running real-time capable models that are challenging to develop for systems with pronounced nonlinearities.
Journal Article

CFD Simulation of Oil Jets for Piston Cooling Applications Comparing the Level Set and the Volume of Fluid Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0155
A new CFD simulation model and methodology for oil jet piston cooling has been developed using the modern level set approach. In contrast to the widely used volume of fluid (VOF) method, the level set approach explicitly tracks the interface surface between oil and air, using an additional field equation. The method has been extensively tested on two- and three-dimensional examples using results from literature for comparison. Furthermore, several applications of oil jet piston cooling on Ford engines have been investigated and demonstrated. For example, three-dimensional simulations of piston cooling nozzle jets on a diesel engine have been calculated and compared to test-rig measurements. Laminar jets, as well as jets with droplets and fully atomized jets, have been simulated using realistic material properties, surface tension, and gravity.
Technical Paper

Accurate Mean Value Process Models for Model-Based Engine Control Concepts by Means of Hybrid Modeling

2019-04-02
2019-01-1178
Advanced powertrains for modern vehicles require the optimization of conventional combustion engines in combination with tailored electrification and vehicle connectivity strategies. The resulting systems and their control devices feature many degrees of freedom with a large number of available adjustment parameters. This obviously presents major challenges to the development of the corresponding powertrain control logics. Hence, the identification of an optimal system calibration is a non-trivial task. To address this situation, physics-based control approaches are evolving and successively replacing conventional map-based control strategies in order to handle more complex powertrain topologies. Physics-based control approaches enable a significant reduction in calibration effort, and also improve the control robustness.
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