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Technical Paper

Towards an Integral Combustion Model for Model-Based Control of PCCI Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0001
Physics-based models in a closed-loop feedback control of a premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine can improve the combustion efficiency and potentially reduce harmful NOx and soot emissions. A stand-alone multi-zone combustion model has been proposed in the literature using a physics-based mixing approach. The scalar dissipation rate emerged as the determining parameter in the model for mixing among different zones in the mixture fraction space. However, the calculation of the scalar dissipation rate depends on three approaches: three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) combustion simulations based on representative interactive flamelet (RIF) model, tabulation, or an empirical algebraic model of the scalar dissipation rate fitted for the given operating conditions of the engine. While the 3-D CFD approach provides accurate results, it is computationally too expensive to use the multi-zone model in closed-loop control.
Technical Paper

Efficient Test Bench Operation with Early Damage Detection Systems

2019-09-09
2019-24-0192
The efficient operation of powertrain test benches in research and development is strongly influenced by the state of “health” of the functional test object. Hence, the use of Early Damage Detection Systems (EDDS) with Unit Under Test (UUT) monitoring is becoming increasingly popular. An EDDS should primarily avoid total loss of the test object and ensure that damaged parts are not completely destroyed, and can still be inspected. Therefore, any abnormality from the standard test object behavior, such as an exceeding of predefined limits, must be recognized at an early testing time, and must lead to a shutdown of the test bench operation. With sensors mounted on the test object, it is possible to isolate the damage cause in the event of its detection. Advanced EDDS configurations also optimize the predefined limits by learning new shutdown values according to the test object behavior within a very short time.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Lean Pre-Chamber Gasoline Engine for Future Hybrid Powertrains

2019-09-09
2019-24-0104
Lean burn gasoline spark-ignition engines can support the reduction of CO2 emissions for future hybrid passenger cars. Very high efficiencies and very low NOx raw emissions can be achieved, if relative air/fuel ratios λ of 2 and above can be reached. The biggest challenge here is to assure a reliable ignition process and to enhance the fuel oxidation in order to achieve a short burn duration and a good combustion stability. This article aims at introducing an innovative combustion system fully optimized for ultra-lean operation and very high efficiency. Thereto, a new cylinder head concept has been realized with high peak firing pressure capability and with a low surface-to-volume ratio at high compression ratios. 1D and 3D simulations have been performed to optimize the compression ratio, charge motion and intake valve lift. Numerical calculations also supported the development of the ignition system.
Technical Paper

Separation, Allocation and Psychoacoustic Evaluation of Vehicle Interior Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1518
Besides optical and haptic criteria, the interior noise especially influences the quality impression of a vehicle. Separately audible disturbing noises are usually perceived as inadequate product quality. As a result, the reduction of disturbing noise components is a key factor for the overall product quality. Since the acoustic optimization is a complex and time consuming process, the need for an analysis tool which identifies automatically disturbing engine noise components within the vehicle interior noise is high. For this reason, a novel analysis tool has been developed which extracts tonal and impulsive engine noise components from the overall engine noise, and evaluates the annoyance of each noticeable engine component automatically. In addition, each disturbing noise is allocated to the emitting engine component. It is then possible to listen to each engine component noise individually and synthesize a target noise by superimposing manually weighted component noises.
Technical Paper

Scalable Mean Value Modeling for Real-Time Engine Simulations with Improved Consistency and Adaptability

2019-04-02
2019-01-0195
This article discusses highly flexible and accurate physics-based mean value modeling (MVM) for internal combustion engines and its wide applicability towards virtual vehicle calibration. The requirement to fulfill the challenging Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards has significantly increased the demand for precise engine models, especially models regarding pollutant emissions and fuel economy. This has led to a large increase in effort required for precise engine modeling and robust model calibration. Two best-practice engine modeling approaches will be introduced here to satisfy these requirements. These are the exclusive MVM approach, and a combination of MVM and a Design of Experiments (DOE) model for heterogeneous multi-domain engine systems.
Technical Paper

Accurate Mean Value Process Models for Model-Based Engine Control Concepts by Means of Hybrid Modeling

2019-04-02
2019-01-1178
Advanced powertrains for modern vehicles require the optimization of conventional combustion engines in combination with tailored electrification and vehicle connectivity strategies. The resulting systems and their control devices feature many degrees of freedom with a large number of available adjustment parameters. This obviously presents major challenges to the development of the corresponding powertrain control logics. Hence, the identification of an optimal system calibration is a non-trivial task. To address this situation, physics-based control approaches are evolving and successively replacing conventional map-based control strategies in order to handle more complex powertrain topologies. Physics-based control approaches enable a significant reduction in calibration effort, and also improve the control robustness.
Technical Paper

Advanced Functional Pulse Testing of a Two-Stage VCR-System

2019-04-02
2019-01-1195
Two-stage variable compression ratio (VCR) systems for spark ignited engines offer a CO2 reduction potential of approx. 5%. Due to their modularity, connecting rod based VCR-systems can be integrated into existing engine assembly systems, where engines can be built in parallel with or without such a system, depending on performance and market requirements. In order to comply with the new RDE emission standards with high specific power engine variants, VCR systems enable high load engine operation without fuel enrichment. The interactions between the hydraulic-, mechanical - and oil supply systems of a VCR-system with variable connecting rod length are complex and require a well-developed and adapted layout of all subsystems. This demands the use of tailored measurement and simulation tools during the development and application phases. In this context, Advanced Functional Pulse Testing enables single-parameter analyses of VCR con rods.
Journal Article

CFD Simulation of Oil Jets for Piston Cooling Applications Comparing the Level Set and the Volume of Fluid Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0155
A new CFD simulation model and methodology for oil jet piston cooling has been developed using the modern level set approach. In contrast to the widely used volume of fluid (VOF) method, the level set approach explicitly tracks the interface surface between oil and air, using an additional field equation. The method has been extensively tested on two- and three-dimensional examples using results from literature for comparison. Furthermore, several applications of oil jet piston cooling on Ford engines have been investigated and demonstrated. For example, three-dimensional simulations of piston cooling nozzle jets on a diesel engine have been calculated and compared to test-rig measurements. Laminar jets, as well as jets with droplets and fully atomized jets, have been simulated using realistic material properties, surface tension, and gravity.
Technical Paper

Laminar Burning Velocity of Market Type Gasoline Surrogates as a Performance Indicator in Internal Combustion Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1667
The laminar burning velocity is an important parameter in various combustion models for engine simulations. With respect to computational time for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full system engine simulations, the calculation of laminar burning velocities using a detailed chemical mechanism can be replaced by incorporation of approximation formulas, based on rate-ratio asymptotics. In the present study, a work flow is developed to analyze the engine efficiency performance of spark ignition engines with respect to the laminar burning velocity as a fundamental fuel property. Firstly, methane is used as a fuel to assess practicability of the approach. The procedure is subsequently adopted for market type gasoline surrogates, RON95 and RON100. Detailed chemistry calculations are carried out for the three target fuels using existing state of the art mechanisms, the Aramco [Zhou et al., Proc. Combust. Inst., pp. 403-411, 2017] and the ITV RWTH mechanism [Cai et al., Combust.
Technical Paper

Comparing Large Eddy Simulation of a Reacting Fuel Spray with Measured Quantitative Flame Parameters

2018-09-10
2018-01-1720
In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions, it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels from renewable sources. For identifying the specification of an optimized fuel for engine combustion, it is essential to understand the details of combustion and pollutant formation. For obtaining a better understanding of the flame behavior, dynamic structure large eddy simulations are a method of choice. In the investigation presented in this paper, an n-heptane spray flame is simulated under engine relevant conditions starting at a pressure of 50 bar and a temperature of 800 K. Measurements are conducted at a high-pressure vessel with the same conditions. Liquid penetration length is measured with Mie-Scatterlight, gaseous penetration length with Shadowgraphy and lift-off length as well as ignition delay with OH*-Radiation. In addition to these global high-speed measurement techniques, detailed spectroscopic laser measurements are conducted at the n-heptane flame.
Journal Article

Virtual 48 V Mild Hybridization: Efficient Validation by Engine-in-the-Loop

2018-04-03
2018-01-0410
New 12 V/48 V power net architectures are potential solutions to close the gap between customer needs and legislative requirements. In order to exploit their potential, an increased effort is needed for functional implementation and hardware integration. Shifting of development tasks to earlier phases (frontloading) is a promising solution to streamline the development process and to increase the maturity level at early stages. This study shows the potential of the frontloading of development tasks by implementing a virtual 48 V mild hybridization in an engine-in-the-loop (EiL) setup. Advanced simulation technics like functional mock-up interface- (FMI) based co-simulation are utilized for the seamless integration of the real-time (RT) simulation models and allow a modular simulation framework as well as a decrease in development time.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Direct Gas Injection in an Optical Internal Combustion Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0171
Direct injection (DI) of compressed natural gas (CNG) is a promising technology to increase the indicated thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE) while reducing exhaust emissions and using a relatively low-cost fuel. However, design and analysis of DI-CNG engines are challenging because supersonic gas jet emerging from the DI injector results in a very complex in-cylinder flow field containing shocks and discontinuities affecting the fuel-air mixing. In this article, numerical simulations are used supported by validation to investigate the direct gas injection and its influence on the flow field and mixing in an optically accessible ICE. The simulation approach involves computation of the in-nozzle flow with highly accurate Large-Eddy Simulations, which are then used to obtain a mapped boundary condition. The boundary condition is applied in Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of the engine to investigate the in-cylinder velocity and mixing fields.
Technical Paper

1D Engine Simulation Approach for Optimizing Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management for Passenger Car Diesel Engines by Means of Variable Valve Train (VVT) Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0163
Using a holistic 1D engine simulation approach for the modelling of full-transient engine operation, allows analyzing future engine concepts, including its exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, early in the development process. Thus, this approach enables the investigation of both important fields - the thermodynamic engine process and the aftertreatment system, together with their interaction in a single simulation environment. Regarding the aftertreatment system, the kinetic reaction behavior of state-of-the-art and advanced components, such as Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction Soot Filters (SCRF), is being modelled. Furthermore, the authors present the use of the 1D engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment model on use cases of variable valve train (VVT) applications on passenger car (PC) diesel engines.
Journal Article

Fuel Cell System Development: A Strong Influence on FCEV Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-1305
In this article, the development challenges of a fuel cell system are explained using the example of the BREEZE! fuel cell range extender (FC-REX) applied in an FEV Liiona. The FEV Liiona is a battery electric vehicle based on a Fiat 500 developed by FEV. The BREEZE! system is the first applied 30 kW low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (LT PEM) fuel cell system in the subcompact vehicle class. Due to the highly integrated system approach and dry cathode operation, a compact design of the range extender module with a system power density of 0.45 kW/l can be achieved so that the vehicle interior including trunk remains completely usable. System development for fuel cells significantly influences performance, efficiency, package, durability, and required maintenance effort of a fuel cell electric powertrain. In order to ensure safe and reliable operation, the fuel cell system has to be supplied with sufficient amounts of air, hydrogen, and coolant flows.
Journal Article

Crank-Angle Resolved Real-Time Engine Modelling: A Seamless Transfer from Concept Design to HiL Testing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1245
Virtual system integration and testing using hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation enables front-loading of development tasks, provides a safer and reliable testing environment and reduces prototype hardware costs. One of the greatest challenges to overcome when performing HiL simulations is assuring a high model accuracy under stringent real-time requirements with acceptable development effort. This article represents a novel solution by deriving the plant model for HiL directly from the existing detailed models from the component layout phase using co-simulation methodology. It provides an effective and efficient model implementation and validation process followed by detailed quantitative analysis of the test results referred to the engine test bench measurements.
Journal Article

Hardware-in-the-Loop-Based Virtual Calibration Approach to Meet Real Driving Emissions Requirements

2018-04-03
2018-01-0869
The use of state-of-the-art model-based calibration tools generate only limited benefits for seamless validation in powertrain calibration due to the often neglected system-level simulation of a closed-loop vehicle environment. This study presents a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL)-based virtual calibration approach to establish an accurate virtual calibration platform using physical plant models. It is based on a customisable real-time HiL simulation environment. The use of physical models to predict the behaviour of a complete powertrain makes the HiL test bench particularly suited for Engine Control Unit (ECU) calibration. With the virtual test rig approach, the calibration for the critical extended driving and ambient conditions of the new Real Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements can efficiently be optimised. This technique offers a clear advantage in terms of reducing calibration time and costs.
Technical Paper

An Overview of VCR Technology and Its Effects on a Turbocharged DI Engine Fueled with Ethanol and Gasoline

2017-11-07
2017-36-0357
The possibility to vary compression ratio offers a new degree of freedom that may enable so far not exploited benefits for the combustion process especially for highly boosted spark ignited engines. Numerous approaches to enable a variable compression ratio (VCR) have been tried and tested in the past. Nevertheless, none of these systems reached series production because of several reasons, ranging from too much complexity and moveable parts to deep modification required on existing engine architectures and manufacturing lines. Instead, the approach of a variable length conrod (VCR conrod) could be the solution for integration in almost any type of engine with minor modifications. It is then considered by several OEMs as a promising candidate for midterm series production. This paper shows, firstly, a discussion of the benefits of a variable compression ratio system.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biofuels on the Mixture Formation and Ignition Process in Diesel-Like Jets

2017-10-08
2017-01-2332
In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this paper, several fuels were selected which can be produced out of biomass or with hydrogen which is generated directly via electrolysis with electricity from renewable sources. All fuels are compared to conventional diesel fuel and two diesel surrogates. It is well known that there can be a large effect of fuel properties on mixture formation and combustion, which may result in a completely different engine performance compared to the operation with conventional diesel fuels. Mixture formation and ignition behavior can also largely affect the pollutant formation. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is also important to design new engine geometries or implement new calibrations for an existing engine. The fuel properties of the investigated fuels comprise a large range, for example in case of the derived cetane number, from below 30 up to 100.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Approximation Formula for the Calculation of Methane/Air Laminar Burning Velocities Used in Engine Combustion Models

2017-09-04
2017-24-0007
Especially for internal combustion engine simulations, various combustion models rely on the laminar burning velocity. With respect to computational time needed for CFD, the calculation of laminar burning velocities using a detailed chemical mechanism can be replaced by incorporation of approximation formulas, based on rate-ratio asymptotics. This study revisits an existing analytical approximation formula [1]. It investigates applicable temperature, pressure, and equivalence ratio ranges with special focus on engine combustion conditions. The fuel chosen here is methane and mixtures are composed of methane and air. The model performance to calculate the laminar burning velocity are compared with calculated laminar burning velocities using existing state of the art detailed chemical mechanisms, the GRI Mech 3.0 [2], the ITV RWTH [3], and the Aramco mechanism [4].
Journal Article

Assessment of the Full Thermodynamic Potential of C8-Oxygenates for Clean Diesel Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0118
Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” (TMFB) at the RWTH Aachen University, two novel biogenic fuels, namely 1-octanol and its isomer dibutyl ether (DBE), were identified and extensively analyzed in respect of their suitability for combustion in a Diesel engine. Both biofuels feature very different properties, especially regarding their ignitability. In previous works of the research cluster, promising synthesis routes with excellent yields for both fuels were found, using lignocellulosic biomass as source material. Both fuels were investigated as pure components in optical and thermodynamic single cylinder engines (SCE). For 1-octanol at lower part load, almost no soot emission could be measured, while with DBE the soot emissions were only about a quarter of that with conventional Diesel fuel. At high part load (2400 min-1, 14.8 bar IMEP), the soot reduction of 1-octanol was more than 50% and for DBE more than 80 % respectively.
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