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Technical Paper

Calculation Process with Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Element Methods to Choose the Best Exterior Design for Wind Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1471
Wind noise in automobile is becoming more and more important as the customer expectations increase. On the other hand, great progress has been made on engine and road noises, especially for electric and hybrid vehicles. Thus, the wind noise is now by far the major acoustic source during road and motorway driving. As for other noises, automobile manufacturers must be able, for a new car project, to specify, calculate and measure each step of the acoustic cascading: Source Transfers, both solid and air borne In the case of the automotive wind noise, the excitation source is the dynamic pressure on the vehicle’s panels. This part of the cascading is the one influenced by the exterior design. Even if many others components (panels, seals, cabin trims) have a big influence, the exterior design is a major issue for the wind noise. The wind noise level in the cabin may change significantly with only a small modification of the exterior design.
Technical Paper

Simulation Strategy for Structure Borne Noise Sources: Use of Super Elements and Blocked Forces Tensors between Suppliers and OEMs to Validate Components at Early Design Stage

2018-06-13
2018-01-1509
This paper is a case study from the TESSA project (French funded research program “Transfert des Efforts des Sources Solidiennes Actives”). The general frame of the work was to assess a collaborative design process between a car manufacturer and a major supplier using FE modelling and condensation of structure borne noise sources as an alternative to classic specification method for structure borne sources. Super elements from different FE commercial softwares have been used to assess the reliability of the method, the compatibility of the softwares and, most important, the relevance of applying a blocked force tensor to the component super element to predict the interior contribution of a component which is the originality of this work. The case study is an internal combustion engine cooling module (fan + shroud + exchangers) from VALEO including all assembly details (clips, decoupling elements) modelled under ABAQUS and its integration in a RENAULT Espace under NASTRAN.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Micro- and Macro-Structural Parameters on the Dynamic Behavior of Structures Made of Polymers Reinforced with Short Glass Fibers

2018-06-13
2018-01-1501
In order to design vehicles with diminished gCO2/km emissions level, car manufacturers aim at reducing the weight of their vehicles. One of the solutions advocated by the automotive industry consists in the replacement of metallic parts by lighter systems made of polymer reinforced composites. Unfortunately, the numerical simulations set to evaluate the vibratory and acoustic performances of systems made of this kind of materials are often not sufficiently effective and robust so that convincing test/simulation correlations are rarely met. Indeed, for polymer-based materials, numerous parameters affect the vibroacoustic behavior. On the one hand, it is well known that the viscoelastic properties (Storage -Young- and dissipative moduli) of polymers depend on the temperature, loading frequency and sometimes the humidity content.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of Acoustic Treatments for Powertrain Noise Radiation

2018-06-13
2018-01-1486
The reduction of the emitted noise from vehicles is a primary issue for automotive OEM’s due to the constant evolution of the noise regulations. As the noise generated by the powertrain remains one of the major noise sources at low/mid vehicle velocities, focus is set on efficient methods to control this source. Acoustic treatments and covers, made of multi-layered trimmed panels, are frequently selected to control the radiated sound and its directivity. In this context, numerical acoustic simulation is an attractive approach as efficient methodologies are available to study the acoustic radiation of powertrain units in working conditions (up to 6500 RPM nd frequencies up to 4 kHz). Moreover, handling acoustically-treated covers in such simulations has a low impact on the computational cost.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1142
The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Systematic Calibration of Heat Transfer Models on a Turbocharged GDI Engine Operating Map

2018-04-03
2018-01-0787
In order to simulate the working process, an accurate description of heat transfer occurring between in-cylinder gases and combustion chamber walls is required, especially regarding thermal efficiency, combustion and emissions, or cooling strategies. Combustion chamber wall heat transfer models are dominated by zero-dimensional semi-empirical models due to their good compromise between accuracy, complexity and computational efficiency. Classic models such as those from Woschni, Annand or Hohenberg are still widely used, despite having been developed on rather ancient engines. While numerous authors have worked on this topic in the past decades, little information can be found concerning the systematic calibration process of heat transfer models. In this paper, a systematic calibration method based on experimental data processing is tested on the complete operating map of a turbocharged GDI engine.
Technical Paper

Engine Knock Prediction and Evaluation Based on Detonation Theory Using a Quasi-Dimensional Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0538
Engine knock is an important phenomenon that needs consideration in the development of gasoline fueled engines. In our days, this development is supported by the use of numerical simulation tools to further understand and subsequently predict in-cylinder processes. In this work, a model tool chain based on detailed chemical and physical models is proposed to predict the auto-ignition behavior of fuels with different octane ratings and to evaluate the transition from harmless auto-ignitive deflagration to knocking combustion. In our method, the auto-ignition and emissions are calculated based on a new reaction scheme for mixtures of iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene and ethanol (Ethanol consisting Toluene Reference Fuel, ETRF). The reaction scheme is validated for a wide range of mixtures and every desired mixture of the four fuel components can be applied in the engine simulation.
Technical Paper

Coupled Fluid-Solid Simulation for the Prediction of Gas-Exposed Surface Temperature Distribution in a SI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0669
The current trend of downsizing used in gasoline engines, while reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, imposes severe thermal loads inside the combustion chamber. These critical thermodynamic conditions lead to the possible auto-ignition (AI) of fresh gases hot-spots around Top-Dead-Center (TDC). At this very moment where the surface to volume ratio is high, wall heat transfer influences the temperature field inside the combustion chamber. The use of a realistic wall temperature distribution becomes important in the case of a downsized engine where fresh gases hot spots found near high temperature walls can initiate auto-ignition. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical methodology for an accurately prediction of thermodynamic conditions inside the combustion chamber based on Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT).
Technical Paper

Compressor Efficiency Extrapolation for 0D-1D Engine Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0554
0D-1D codes allow researchers to obtain a prediction of the behavior of internal combustion engines with little computational effort. One of the submodels of such codes is devoted to the centrifugal compressor. This model is often based on the compressor performance maps, therefore requiring the extrapolation of the maps so that all possible operating conditions are covered. Particularly, a suitable extrapolation of isentropic efficiency map is sought. This work first examines different available methods for compressor efficiency extrapolation into off-design conditions. No method is found to provide satisfactory results at all extrapolated regions: low and high compressor speeds and low compression ratio at measured speeds. Hence, a new method is proposed and its accuracy is assessed with the aid of compressor off-design measurements.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Automotive Turbocharger Turbine Performance Maps Extrapolation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1034
Engine downsizing is potentially one of the most effective strategies being explored to improve fuel economy. A main problem of downsizing using a turbocharger is the small range of stable functioning of the turbocharger centrifugal compressor at high boost pressures, and hence the measurement of the performance maps of both compressor and turbine. Automotive manufacturers use mainly numerical simulations for internal combustion engines simulations, hence the need of an accurate extrapolation model to get a complete turbine performance map. These complete maps are then used for internal combustion engines calibration. Automotive manufacturers use commercial softwares to extrapolate the turbine narrow performance maps, both mass flow characteristics and the efficiency curve.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of a New Zero-Dimensional Semi-Physical NOx Emission Model for a D.I. Diesel Engine Using Simulated Combustion Process

2015-04-14
2015-01-1746
Reducing NOx tailpipe emissions is one of the major challenges when developing automotive Diesel engines which must simultaneously face stricter emission norms and reduce their fuel consumption/CO2 emission. In fact, the engine control system has to manage at the same time the multiple advanced combustion technologies such as high EGR rates, new injection strategies, complex after-treatment devices and sophisticated turbocharging systems implemented in recent diesel engines. In order to limit both the cost and duration of engine control system development, a virtual engine simulator has been developed in the last few years. The platform of this simulator is based on a 0D/1D approach, chosen for its low computational time. The existing simulation tools lead to satisfactory results concerning the combustion phase as well as the air supply system. In this context, the current paper describes the development of a new NOx emission model which is coupled with the combustion model.
Journal Article

Investigation on Multiple Injection Strategies for Gasoline PPC Operation in a Newly Designed 2-Stroke HSDI Compression Ignition Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0830
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) of fuels in the gasoline octane range has proven its potential to achieve simultaneous reduction in soot and NOX emissions, combined with high indicated efficiencies; while still retaining proper control over combustion phasing with the injection event, contrary to fully premixed strategies. However, gasoline fuels with high octane number as the commonly available for the public provide a challenge to ensure reliable ignition especially in the low load range, while fuel blends with lower octane numbers present problems for extending the ignition delay in the high load range and avoid the onset of knocking-like combustion. Thus, choosing an appropriate fuel and injection strategy is critical to solve these issues, assuring successful PPC operation in the full engine map.
Technical Paper

System Optimization for a 2-Stroke Diesel Engine with a Turbo Super Configuration Supporting Fuel Economy Improvement of Next Generation Engines

2014-11-11
2014-32-0011
The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831. Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on a 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT).
Journal Article

Preliminary Design of a Two-Stroke Uniflow Diesel Engine for Passenger Car

2013-04-08
2013-01-1719
The target of substantial CO₂ reductions in the spirit of the Kyoto Protocol as well as higher engine efficiency requirements has increased research efforts into hybridization of passenger cars. In the frame of this hybridization, there is a real need to develop small Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) with high power density. The two-stroke cycle can be a solution to reach these goals, allowing reductions of engine displacement, size and weight while maintaining good NVH, power and consumption levels. Reducing the number of cylinders, could also help reduce engine cost. Taking advantage of a strong interaction between the design office, 0D system simulations and 3D CFD computations, a specific methodology was set up in order to define a first optimized version of a two-stroke uniflow diesel engine. The main geometrical specifications (displacement, architecture) were chosen at the beginning of the study based on a bibliographic pre-study and the power target in terms.
Journal Article

Electromagnetic and Structural Coupled Simulation to Investigate NVH Behavior of an Electrical Automotive Powertrain

2012-06-13
2012-01-1523
RENAULT aims to become the first full-line manufacturer putting to market zero-emission affordable electrical vehicles and is therefore developing 100 % electric powertrains. NVH problems related to electric machine design have nothing in common with those of gasoline or diesel engines: electric whistling is a high frequency harmonic phenomenon, easily detectable due to the low background noise of a non-thermal vehicle and mainly perceived as very unpleasant by the customer. Therefore we have developed a coupled numerical simulation between electromagnetic and structural models, making it possible to understand the influence of magnetic parts design on noise and vibration level. Impact of the spatial and time coherence between magnetic pressures and vibration modes of the motor will be explained. The novelty of our approach is to already take into account the whole powertrain structure radiation, including reducer and power supply boxes.
Technical Paper

Air System Conception for a Downsized Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0831
This paper introduces a research work on the air loop system for a downsized two-stroke two-cylinder diesel engine conducted in framework of the European project dealing with the POWERtrain for Future Light-duty vehicles - POWERFUL. The main objective was to determine requirements on the air management including the engine intake and exhaust system, boosting devices and the EGR system and to select the best possible technical solution. With respect to the power target of 45 kW and scavenging demands of the two-cylinder two-stroke engine with a displacement of 0.73 l, a two-stage boosting architecture was required. Further, to allow engine scavenging at any operation, supercharger had to be integrated in the air loop. Various air loop system layouts and concepts were assessed based on the 1-D steady state simulation at full and part load with respect to the fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Intake System Diagnosis for Diesel Engine with Dual-Loop EGR

2012-04-16
2012-01-0904
This paper proposes a method to detect an intake manifold leakage for a Diesel engine with a dual loop EGR system. The intake manifold leak has a strong impact on the engine performances by changing the intake manifold burned gas ratio. This fault is analyzed according to the control structure used and also according to the EGR operating mode. The paper proposes a diagnosis algorithm to detect the intake manifold leak in sequential or simultaneous use of the two EGR paths. The sensors considered are the mass air flow meter, the intake manifold pressure sensor, the exhaust equivalence ratio sensor and the differential pressure sensor (across the HP EGR valve). The diagnosis is based on a criteria that uses the redundancy between these sensors and air system models or estimators. The diagnosis threshold depends on the engine operating conditions as well as the sensor or model dispersions.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Highly Premixed Combustion for Pollutant Control in an Automotive Two-Stroke HSDI Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1104
An innovative alternative to overcome the load limits of the early injection highly premixed combustion concept consists of taking advantage of the intrinsic characteristics of two-stroke engines, since they can attain the full load torque of a four-stroke engine as the addition of two medium load cycles, where the implementation of this combustion concept could be promising. In this frame, the main objective of this investigation focuses on evaluating the potential of the early injection HPC concept using a conventional diesel fuel combined with a two-stroke poppet valves engine architecture for pollutant control, while keeping a competitive engine efficiency. On a first stage, the HPC concept was implemented at low engine load, where the concept is expected to provide the best results, by advancing the start of injection towards the compression stroke and it was confirmed how it is possible to reduce NOX and soot emissions, but increasing HC and CO emissions.
Journal Article

Validation and Application of a New 0D Flame/Wall Interaction Sub Model for SI Engines

2011-08-30
2011-01-1893
To improve the prediction of the combustion processes in spark ignition engines, a 0D flame/wall interaction submodel has been developed. A two-zones combustion model is implemented and the designed submodel for the flame/wall interaction is included. The flame/wall interaction phenomenon is conceived as a dimensionless function multiplying the burning rate equation. The submodel considers the cylinder shape and the flame surface that spreads inside the combustion chamber. The designed function represents the influence of the cylinder walls while the flame surface propagates across the cylinder. To determine the validity of the combustion model and the flame/wall interaction submodel, the system was tested using the available measurements on a 2 liter SI engine. The model was validated by comparing simulated cylinder pressure and energy release rate with measurements. A good agreement between the implemented model and the measurements was obtained.
Technical Paper

Application and Evaluation of the Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) Model on CFD Diesel Spray Simulations

2011-06-09
2011-37-0029
During the last fifteen years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become one of the most important tools to both understand and improve the diesel spray development in Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Most of the approaches and models used pure Eulerian or Lagrangian descriptions to simulate the spray behavior. However, each one of them has both advantages and disadvantages in different regions of the spray, it can be the dense zone or the downstream dilute zone. One of the most promising techniques, which has been in development since ten years ago, is the Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) model. This is an integrated model for capturing the whole spray evolution, including primary break-up and secondary atomization. In this paper, the ELSA numerical modeling of diesel sprays implementation in Star-CD (2010) is studied, and simulated in comparison with the diesel spray which has been experimentally studied in our institute, CMT-Motores Térmicos.
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