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Technical Paper

Serial WireRing - High-Speed Interchip Interface

2012-04-16
2012-01-0198
A new high-performance interchip interface, called Serial WireRing, is introduced. It combines technically mature and established methods, whereby Serial WireRing provides a simple, robust and very inexpensive solution to replace the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). Serial WireRing uses a daisy chain ring topology, realized by unidirectional point-to-point connections from device to device. Serial WireRing is realized by a simple “wire ring” with CMOS, LVDS, optical or any other suitable signaling, even mixed. Therefore it has a very low pin count. In order to minimize the latency each slave transmits the data that it receives with 1 bit delay only. In order to avoid clock/data skew, the serial data and clock are merged into one bitstream. A corresponding clock is extracted at each receiver by a clock and data recovery circuit, driven by a simple internal oscillator.
Technical Paper

AUTOSAR Gets on the Road - More and More

2012-04-16
2012-01-0014
AUTOSAR (AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture) is a worldwide standard for automotive basic software in line with an architecture that eases exchange and transfer of application software components between platforms or companies. AUTOSAR provides the standardized architecture together with the specifications of the basics software along with the methodology for developing embedded control units for automotive applications. AUTOSAR matured over the last several years through intensive development, implementation and maintenance. Two main releases (R3.2 and R4.0) represent its current degree of maturity. AUTOSAR is driven by so called core partners: leading car manufacturers (BMW, Daimler, Ford, GM, PSA, Toyota, Volkswagen) together with the tier 1 suppliers Continental and Bosch. AUTOSAR in total has more than 150 companies (OEM, Tier X suppliers, SW and tool suppliers, and silicon suppliers) as members from all over the world.
Journal Article

Advanced Combustion System Analyses on a 125cc Motorcycle Engine

2011-11-08
2011-32-0557
Environmental consciousness and tightening emissions legislation push the market share of electronic fuel injection within a dynamically growing world wide small engines market. Similar to automotive engines during late 1980's, this opens up opportunities for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and suppliers to jointly advance small engines performance in terms of fuel economy, emissions, and drivability. In this context, advanced combustion system analyses from automotive engine testing have been applied to a typical production motorcycle small engine. The 125cc 4-stroke, 2-valve, air-cooled, single-cylinder engine with closed-loop lambda-controlled electronic port fuel injection was investigated in original series configuration on an engine dynamometer. The test cycle fuel consumption simulation provides reasonable best case fuel economy estimates based on stationary map fuel consumption measurements.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

2011-04-12
2011-01-1288
This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1028
The reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines using a urea water solution is gaining more and more importance. While maintaining the future exhaust gas emission regulations, like the Euro 6 for passenger cars and the Euro 5 for commercial vehicles, urea dosing allows the engine management to be modified to improve fuel economy as well. The system manufacturer Robert Bosch has started early to develop the necessary dosing systems for the urea water solution. More than 300.000 Units have been delivered in 2007 for heavy duty applications. Typical dosing quantities for those systems are in the range of 0.01 l/h for passenger car systems and up to 10 l/h for commercial vehicles. During the first years of development and application of urea dosing systems, instantaneous flow measuring devices were used, which were not operating fully satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Technology For Electronic Diesel Control

2004-01-16
2004-28-0063
In the last decades the development of Diesel engines has made substantial progress. New, powerful and scalable injection systems have been introduced. In consequence Diesel systems are continuously gaining market share in many places of the world. Advanced direct injection engines with systems like the electronically controlled distributer pump, the unit injection system and of course the common rail system are replacing the chamber engines in all automotive applications. This is all unthinkable without the electronic management of these injection systems by means of Electronic Diesel Control units (EDC). The following presentation describes the status and some future trend of technology of EDCs with particular emphasis on functional and on software development. It also outlines the challenge of global automotive industry that requires global development and application services from its tier 1 suppliers.
Technical Paper

Thermal Simulation within the Brake System Design Process

2002-10-06
2002-01-2587
During the acquisition phase brake system supplier have to make predictions on a system's thermal behavior based on very few reliable parameters. Increasing system knowledge requires the usage of different calculation models along with the progress of the project. Adaptive modeling is used in order to integrate test results from first prototypes or benchmark vehicles. Since changes in the brake force distribution have a great impact on the simulation results fading conditions of the linings have to be integrated as well. The principle of co-simulation is used in order to use the actual brake force distribution of the system.
Technical Paper

Integration of a Structuring Concept for Vehicle Control Systems into the Software Development Process using UML Modelling Methods

2001-03-05
2001-01-0066
The demand for more security, economy, and comfort as well as for a reduced environmental impact increases the importance of electronic components for vehicles. The development of such systems is determined by the requirement of an improved functionality and co-requisite the demand for limited costs. In order to fulfil these demands and taking into consideration the increase of complexity and the melting together to a car wide web, Bosch is developing a structuring concept called CARTRONIC®. This concept is supposed to be open and neutral regarding automotive manufactures and suppliers. The analysis of vehicle control systems via this method is based on formal rules for structuring and modelling. The function-related aspect of CARTRONIC® was represented already at the SAE'98 World Congress. Furthermore the safety-related feature was introduced in more detail at the SAE'99 World Congress. The result of the analysis is an object structure of logical components with defined interfaces.
Technical Paper

OSEKtime: A Dependable Real-Time Fault-Tolerant Operating System and Communication Layer as an Enabling Technology for By-Wire Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-1051
The new generation of drive-by-wire systems currently under development has demanding requirements on the electronic architecture. Functions such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire require continued operation even in the presence of component failures. The electronic architecture must therefore provide fault-tolerance and real-time response. This in turn requires the operating system and the communication layer to be predictable, dependable and composable. It is well known that this properties are best supported by a time-triggered approach. A consortium consisting of German and French car manufacturers and suppliers, which aims at becoming a working group within the OSEK/VDX initiative, the OSEKtime consortium, is currently defining a specification for a time-triggered operating system and a fault-tolerant communication layer.1 The operating system and the communication layer are based on applicable interfaces of the OSEK/VDX standard.
Technical Paper

Tool Support for Analyzing and Optimization Methods in Early Brake System Sizing Phases

2000-03-06
2000-01-0442
The manufacturers of passenger cars increasingly assign development and production of complete subsystems to the supplying industry. A brake system supplier has to give predictions about system quality and performance long time before the first prototypical system is built or even before the supplier gets the order for system development. Nowadays, the usage of computer-aided system design and simulation is essential for that task. This article presents a tool designed to support the development process. A special focus will be on how to define quality. A formal definition of quality is provided, illustrated and motivated by two examples.
Technical Paper

Spray Formation of High Pressure Swirl Gasoline Injectors Investigated by Two-Dimensional Mie and LIEF Techniques

1999-03-01
1999-01-0498
Two-dimensional Mie and LIEF techniques were applied to investigate the spray formation of a high pressure gasoline swirl injector in a constant volume chamber. The results obtained provide information on the propagation of liquid fuel and fuel vapor for different fuel pressures and ambient conditions. Spray parameters like tip penetration, cone angles and two new defined parameters describing the radial fuel distribution were used to quantify the fuel distributions measured. Simultaneous detection of liquid and vapor fuel was applied to study the influence of ambient temperature, injector temperature and ambient pressure on the evaporating spray.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Assess the Accuracy of Service Timing Devices for Injection Pumps of Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0823
The correct timing of the diesel injection pump on engine is of major importance for all functions of the engine and for its exhaust emissions, during production pass off as well as in the field. Within the diesel service workshops a variety of devices exist to test the timing of the injection pump on engine. Most of them operate by clamp-on transducer being fitted to the injection pipe. A large uncertainty exists concerning the accuracy of such timing systems. Most diesel engine manufacturers do not have confidence in the timing devices capability and, therefore, do not recommend their usage. A working group within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted a method for the validation of these measurement systems, which usually is used to judge the capability of measurement gauges for industrial production processes.
Technical Paper

Software Controlled Homogeneity Analysis of Headlamp Light Distribution

1999-03-01
1999-01-0700
This paper will describe the procedures that will enhance the possibilities of qualitative evaluation of headlamp light distributions. A basis will be the description of a light distribution coming only from reflector geometries, i.e. headlamps with clear outer lens design. Further steps of evaluation, as visualization and homogeneity analysis become more and more important for a headlamp evaluation. The recently developed tools can support both the headlamp manufacturer and the car manufacturer in finding a common understanding in headlamp performance of a projected car at a very early stage of development.
Technical Paper

A Small, Light Radar Sensor and Control Unit for Adaptive Cruise Control

1998-02-23
980607
The first generation of radar-sensor-based ACC-Systems will be available in 1998/1999 in Europe. As a first step high end car manufacturers will sell ACC as optional equipment in their top models for a significant add-on price. For this generation good performance was the most important development goal. For the future, however, small, highly integrated systems are needed which easily can be fitted into the body of small cars. High performance and low cost are essential to allow the car manufacturers to sell ACC as standard equipment. A first step in that direction is the “Sensor and Control Unit” developed by Bosch which integrates a FMCW-radar sensor and the ACC-controller in one housing. It is designed for easy manufacturing on existing equipment with standard processes. The design meets the requirements of an early phase with low production figures as well as a phase characterized by increasing numbers and decreasing prices.
Technical Paper

Luminance Measurement, Contrast Sensitivity, Homogeneity: New Approaches of Defining the Quality of Headlamps

1998-02-23
980324
The conventional measurements to describe the photometric quality of headlamps usually only comprise the luminous flux and the illuminance (resp. the luminous intensity) in several measuring points given by Type Approval Legislation. Practically, these photometric measurements do not describe the visual impression of a headlamp light distribution sufficiently, neither in lab nor in real street geometry. With the clear outer lens headlamps introduced recently, filament images are projected directly onto the screens or streets, thus giving new impulses to research. Starting from the established photometric practice, other types of measurements and physiological fundamentals will be discussed. The basic tools to make physical measurement and physiological impression comparable, e.g. in terms of homogeneity, are shown.
Technical Paper

Integrated Barometric Pressure Sensor with SMD Packaging: Example of Standardized Sensor Packaging

1996-02-01
960756
A single-chip integrated barometric pressure sensor using bulk silicon micromachining will be presented in this paper. The sensor chip incorporates the complete signal evaluation and trimming of the temperature coefficients and manufacturing tolerances. Sensor chips are mounted onto 6″ × 4″ thick film substrates for batch processing during assembly and trimming. The separated, individual devices can be used for surface mounting (SMD) on a printed circuit board (PCB). Specifications for the sensor functions, as well as the assembly and packaging concept, will be discussed. Assembly, trimming and packaging are the most expensive production steps in the manufacture of sensors. In order to reduce the costs for sensors, we are introducing a standardization of sensor assembly and trimming with batch processing capability: after dicing, the integrated sensor chip is attached to a 6″ × 4″ thick film ceramic substrate with standard die-attaching glue.
Technical Paper

Solenoid-Valve Controlled Diesel Distributor Injection Pump

1993-03-01
930327
The electronically-governed diesel distributor injection pump, with the proven sleeve control of injection quantity, has been in production at Bosch since 1987. Long-term development resulted in a solenoid-valve controlled injection pump. The function and component assemblies, consisting of the injection pump, solenoid valve and control unit, provide an even more flexible injection system. Of particular advantage with this type of system are the high dynamics of the fuel quantity, matching of each individual injection and the exact pump-specific fuel quantity compensation at numerous map points. Further advantages are the selection of timing and fuel injection rate independent of each other, as well as the ability to provide the correct timing even at cranking speeds. The entire system, with emphasis on the injection pump and the solenoid valve, are described for IDI engines in this paper.
Technical Paper

Application Possibilities and Future Chances of “Smart” Sensors in the Motor Vehicle

1989-02-01
890304
Current vehicle concepts necessitate the multiple measurement of several variables required by separate electronic systems in the motor vehicle. There is the need to make sensors bus capable by the incorporation of electronic components in new definition concepts, in other words to make them multiply usable. Such bus concepts are at the present time taking concrete shape. The step of introducing electronics - especially digital - to the measuring point may simultaneously be used to considerably improve utilization of the information content of sensor structures using means of indivdual, digital correction to a greater level than has until now been technically possible. There remains the demand for high stability and reproducibility of the sensor properties over time. These signal preprocessing and information condensation processes on the spot also satisfy the need to relieve the central control units.
Technical Paper

New Electronic Systems Worldwide - The Supplier's View

1986-11-01
861972
Despite the tough environmental conditions facing electronic systems in commercial vehicles, electronics is gaining ground also in these applications. In the drive sector it improves the operation of the main and auxiliary drives, upgrades fuel efficiency and reduces emission pollutant levels. It enhances safety by preventing wheel spinning in braking and acceleration. Electronic displays reduce the number of single indications otherwise needed, thus making for more clarity in information for the driver and facilitating the driver's task. Self-diagnosing and integrated emergency operation (“limp home”) capabilities are to ensure availability, a factor of special importance in commercial vehicles. A data interface standardized as widely as possible would allow add-on systems to be coupled easily and flexibly.
Technical Paper

Hitch System Comparison — Mechanical, Hydraulic, Electronic

1984-09-01
841130
Modern agricultural tractors are equipped with a hitch control system. These may be mechanical-hydraulic, hydraulic-hydraulic, or electronic-hydraulic. With the variety of design options open to the tractor manufacturer, it is important to select the system which best fits the manufacturer and end user. This paper presents a comprehensive comparison of each system. Robert Bosch has had many years experience in the design and manufacture of components for hitch systems, and hopes to help designers choose the approach best suited for them.
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