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Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Door Slam

As part of an ongoing technical collaboration between Ford and Rouge Steel Company, a comprehensive study of door slam event was undertaken. The experimental phase of the project involved measurements of accelerations at eight locations on the outer panel and strains on six locations of the inner panel. Although slam tests were conducted with window up and window down, results of only one test is presented in this paper. The CAE phase of the project involved the development of suitable “math” model of the door assembly and analysis methodology to capture the dynamics of the event. The predictability of the CAE method is examined through detailed comparison of accelerations and strains. While excellent agreement between CAE and test results of accelerations on the outer panel is obtained, the analysis predicts higher strains on the inner panel than the test. In addition, the tendency of outer panel to elastically buckle is examined.
Technical Paper

Grade and Gage Sensitivities to Oil-Canning Loads of a Door Assembly Considering Forming Effects

A finite element methodology, based on implicit numerical integration procedure, for simulating oil-canning tests on Door assemblies is presented. The method takes into account nonlinearities due to geometry, material and contact between parts during deformation. The simulation results are compared with experimental observations. Excellent correlation between experimental observations and analytical predictions are obtained in these tests. Armed with the confidence in the methodology, simulations on a door assembly are conducted to study the gage and grade sensitivities of the outer panel. The sensitivity studies are conducted on three different grades of steel for the outer panel. Further studies are conducted to understand the effects of manufacturing (forming operation) on the oil canning behavior of door assembly. Results demonstrate the utility of the method in material selection during pre-program design of automotive structures.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hot Stamping Process With Advanced Material Modeling

Advanced material modeling was conducted to describe the thermal-mechanical behavior of Boron Steel during hot stamping, a process in which blanks at 900 °C are formed and quenched between cold dies. Plastic deformation, thermal dilatation and phase transformation were incorporated in the constitutive model and a user-defined subroutine was developed to interface with LS-DYNA. Simulation was conducted on the hot stamping process of a door intrusion beam to gain insight into the physics of the process. Results showed significant influence of the thermal cycle on final product. It was also demonstrated that the program developed can be used as an early feasibility tool to determine baseline processing parameters and to detect potential defects in products without physical prototyping.
Technical Paper

A Computational Methodology for Fatigue Life Prediction Under Multiaxial Non-Proportional Loading

A methodology for predicting the fatigue initiation life in metals experiencing multiaxial non-proportional loading is presented. The methodology utilizes nonlinear finite-element analysis to determine the stress distribution of the loaded component. This distribution is used in conjunction with a physically based damage law to determine the cycles to failure. The damage law is based on the fatigue prediction method introduced by Dang Van [1], and further developed by Papadopoulos [2] and Morel [3]. The fatigue damage initiation is treated as the persistent crystalline slip phenomenon taking place on the order of a grain or few grains. The damage variable is chosen to be the accumulated plastic strain at this scale. The initiation life is determined when the damage variable reaches a critical value. The developed methodology is applicable to both in-phase and out-of-phase loading, without any empirical adjustment parameter.