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Technical Paper

Uncertainty Quantification of Flow Uniformity Measurements in a Slotted Wall Wind Tunnel

2019-04-02
2019-01-0656
The need for a more complete understanding of the flow behavior in aerodynamic wind tunnels has increased as they have become vital tools not only for vehicle development, but also for vehicle certification. One important aspect of the behavior is the empty test section flow, which in a conventional tunnel should be as uniform as possible. In order to assess the uniformity and ensure consistent behavior over time, accurate measurements need to be performed regularly. Furthermore, the uncertainties and errors of the measurements need to be minimized in order to resolve small non-uniformities. In this work, the quantification of the measurement uncertainties from the full measurement chain of the new flow uniformity measurement rig for the Volvo Cars aerodynamic wind tunnel is presented. The simulation based method used to account for flow interference of the probe mount is also discussed.
Journal Article

Disintegration Mechanisms of Intermittent Liquid Jets

2016-04-05
2016-01-0851
It has been observed that intermittent injection leads to improved spray characteristics in terms of mixing and gas entrainment. Although some experimental work has been carried out in the past, the disintegration mechanisms that govern the breakup of intermittent jets remain unknown. In this paper we have carried out a systematic numerical analysis of the breakup of pulsated jets under different injection conditions. More specifically, the duty cycle (share of active injection during one cycle) is varied, while the total cycle time is kept constant. The advection of the liquid phase is handled through the Volume of Fluid approach and, in order to provide an accurate, yet computationally acceptable, resolution of the turbulent structures, the implicit Large Eddy Simulation has been adopted. The results show that the primary disintegration results from a combination of stretching, collision and aerodynamic interaction effects.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Zinc and Other Metal Carboxylates on Nozzle Fouling

2016-04-05
2016-01-0837
A problem for the diesel engine that remains since its invention is injection nozzle hole fouling. More advanced injection systems and more complex fuels, now also including bio-components, have made the problem more intricate. Zinc and biodiesel have often been accused of being a big part of the problem, but is this really the case? In this study, nozzle fouling experiments were performed on a single cylinder engine. The experiments were divided in three parts, the first part studied the influence of zinc neodecanoate concentration on nozzle hole fouling, the second part studied the effect of neodecanoates of zinc, sodium, calcium, copper, and iron on fuel flow loss and in the last part it was examined how RME concentration in zinc neodecanoate contaminated petroleum diesel affected nozzle hole fouling propensity. After completed experiments, the nozzles were cut open and the deposits were analyzed in SEM and with EDX.
Technical Paper

Improving Subjective Assessment of Vehicle Dynamics Evaluations by means of Computer-Tablets as Digital Aid

2016-04-05
2016-01-1629
Vehicle dynamics development relies on subjective assessments (SA), which is a resource-intensive procedure requiring both expert drivers and vehicles. Furthermore, development projects becoming shorter and more complex, and increasing demands on quality require higher efficiency. Most research in this area has focused on moving from physical to virtual testing. However, SA remains the central method. Less attention has been given to provide better tools for the SA process itself. One promising approach is to introduce computer-tablets to aid data collection, which has proven to be useful in medical studies. Simple software solutions can eliminate the need to transcribe data and generate more flexible and better maintainable questionnaires. Tablets’ technical features envision promising enhancements of SA, which also enable better correlations to objective metrics, a requirement to improve CAE evaluations.
Technical Paper

Interior Sound of Today's Electric Cars: Tonal Content, Levels and Frequency Distribution

2015-06-15
2015-01-2367
When it comes to the acoustic properties of electric cars, the powertrain noise differs dramatically compared to traditional vehicles with internal combustion engines. The low frequency firing orders, mechanical and combustion noise are exchanged with a more high frequency whining signature due to electromagnetic forces and gear meshing, lower in level but subject to annoyance. Previous studies have highlighted these differences and also investigated relevant perception criteria in terms of psycho-acoustic metrics. However, investigations of differences between different kinds of electric and hybrid electric cars are still rare. The purpose of this paper was to present the distribution of tonal components in today's hybrid/electric vehicles. More specifically, the number of prominent orders, their maximum levels and frequency separation were analyzed for the most critical driving conditions. The study is based upon measurements made on 13 electrified cars on the market.
Technical Paper

Electric Power Assist Steering System Parameterization and Optimisation Employing Computer-Aided Engineering

2015-04-14
2015-01-1500
The automotive industry strives to develop high quality vehicles in a short period of time that satisfy the consumer needs and stand out in the competition. Full exploitation of simulation and Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools can enable quick evaluation of different vehicle concepts and setups without the need of building physical prototypes. Addressing the aforementioned statements this paper presents a method for optimising the Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) ECU parameters employing solely CAE. The objective of the optimisation is to achieve a desired steering response. The developed process is tested on three specific steering metrics (friction feel, torque build-up and torque deadband) for two function parameters (basic steering torque and active return) of the EPAS. The optimisation method enabled all metrics to fall successfully within the target range.
Journal Article

Structures of Flow Separation on a Passenger Car

2015-04-14
2015-01-1529
The phenomenon of three-dimensional flow separation is and has been in the focus of many researchers. An improved understanding of the physics and the driving forces is desired to be able to improve numerical simulations and to minimize aerodynamic drag over bluff bodies. To investigate the sources of separation one wants to understand what happens at the surface when the flow starts to detach and the upwelling of the streamlines becomes strong. This observation of a flow leaving the surface could be captured by investigating the limiting streamlines and surface parameters as pressure, vorticity or the shear stress. In this paper, numerical methods are used to investigate the surface pressure and flow patterns on a sedan passenger vehicle. Observed limiting streamlines are compared to the pressure distribution and their correlation is shown. For this investigation the region behind the antenna and behind the wheel arch, are pointed out and studied in detail.
Journal Article

A Compact Silencer for the Control of Compressor Noise

2014-06-30
2014-01-2060
Current trends for IC-engines are driving the development of more efficient engines with higher specific power. This is true for both light and heavy duty vehicles and has led to an increased use of super-charging. The super-charging can be both in the form of a single or multi-stage turbo-charger driven by exhaust gases, or via a directly driven compressor. In both cases a possible noise problem can be a strong Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) typically in the kHz range and above the plane wave range. In this paper a novel type of compact dissipative silencer developed especially to handle this type of problem is described and optimized. The silencer is based on a combination of a micro-perforated (MPP) tube backed by a locally reacting cavity. The combined impedance of micro-perforate and cavity is chosen to match the theoretical optimum known as the Cremer impedance at the mid-frequency in the frequency range of interest.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of Air-Fuel Ratio Role in One-Stage Turbocompound Diesel Engines

2013-10-14
2013-01-2703
A large portion of fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of internal combustion engines. Turbocompound can, however, recover part of this wasted heat. The energy recovery depends on the turbine efficiency and mass flow as well as the exhaust gas state and properties such as pressure, temperature and specific heat capacity. The main parameter influencing the turbocompound energy recovery is the exhaust gas pressure which leads to higher pumping loss of the engine and consequently lower engine crankshaft power. Each air-fuel equivalence ratio (λ) gives different engine power, exhaust gas temperature and pressure. Decreasing λ toward 1 in a Diesel engine results in higher exhaust gas temperatures of the engine. λ can be varied by changing the intake air pressure or the amount of injected fuel which changes the available energy into the turbine. Thus, there is a compromise between gross engine power, created pumping power, recovered turbocompound power and consumed compressor power.
Technical Paper

Development of a Heavy Duty Nozzle Coking Test

2013-10-14
2013-01-2674
The diesel engine is still one of the most common and most efficient mobile energy converters. Nevertheless, it is troubled by many problems, one of them being nozzle coking. This is not a new problem; however, due to the introduction of more advanced injection systems and a more diverse fuel matrix, including biofuels, the problem has become more complex. The nozzle holes are also much narrower today than when the problem first appeared and are therefore more sensitive to coking. Two CEC sanctioned coking tests exist for diesel engines, but no universally accepted test for heavy duty engines. In this paper, tests have been performed with B10 doped with 1 ppm zinc on a single cylinder engine, based on a heavy duty engine, with the purpose to develop a simple accelerated coking test. To have relevance to real usage, the test was based on real engine load points from a high power Euro V engine calibration. The coking propensity was studied in an engine speed sweep at max load.
Technical Paper

Development of Acoustic Models for High Frequency Resonators for Turbocharged IC-Engines

2012-06-13
2012-01-1559
Automotive turbo compressors generate high frequency noise in the air intake system. This sound generation is of importance for the perceived sound quality of luxury cars and may need to be controlled by the use of silencers. The silencers usually contain resonators with slits, perforates and cavities. The purpose of the present work is to develop acoustic models for these resonators where relevant effects such as the effect of a realistic mean flow on losses and 3D effects are considered. An experimental campaign has been performed where the two-port matrices and transmission loss of sample resonators have been measured without flow and for two different mean flow speeds. Models for two resonators have been developed using 1D linear acoustic theory and a FEM code (COMSOL Multi-physics). For some resonators a separate linear 1D Matlab code has also been developed.
Technical Paper

Acoustic One-Dimensional Compressor Model for Integration in a Gas-Dynamic Code

2012-04-16
2012-01-0834
An acoustic one-dimensional compressor model has been developed. This model is based on compressor map information and it is able to predict how the pressure waves are transmitted and reflected by the compressor. This is later on necessary to predict radiated noise at the intake orifice. The fluid-dynamic behavior of the compressor has been reproduced by simplifying the real geometry in zero-dimensional and one-dimensional elements with acoustic purposes. These elements are responsible for attenuating or reflecting the pressure pulses generated by the engine. In order to compensate the effect of these elements in the mean flow variables, the model uses a corrected compressor map. Despite of the fact that the compressor model was developed originally as a part of the OpenWAM™ software, it can be exported to other commercial wave action models. An example is provided of exporting the described model to GT-Power™.
Technical Paper

Influences of Different Front and Rear Wheel Designs on Aerodynamic Drag of a Sedan Type Passenger Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-0165
Efforts towards ever more energy efficient passenger cars have become one of the largest challenges of the automotive industry. This involves numerous different fields of engineering, and every finished model is always a compromise between different requirements. Passenger car aerodynamics is no exception; the shape of the exterior is often dictated by styling, engine bay region by packaging issues etcetera. Wheel design is also a compromise between different requirements such as aerodynamic drag and brake cooling, but as the wheels and wheel housings are responsible for up to a quarter of the overall aerodynamic drag on a modern passenger car, it is not surprising that efforts are put towards improving the wheel aerodynamics.
Technical Paper

Model-based Toolchain for the Efficient Development of Safety-Relevant Automotive Embedded Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0056
Advanced functionalities unthinkable a few decades ago are now being introduced into automotive vehicles through embedded systems for reasons like emission control, vehicle connectivity, safety and cooperative behaviors. As the development often involves stakeholders from different engineering disciplines and organizations, the complexity due to shared requirements, interdependencies of data, functions, and resources, as well as tight constraints in regards to timing, safety, and resource efficiency makes the system integration, quality control and assurance, reuse and change management increasingly more difficult. This calls for a more rigorous approach to the development of automotive embedded systems and components.
Technical Paper

Stall Development in a Ported Shroud Compressor using PIV Measurements and Large Eddy Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0184
Surge is a phenomenon that limits the operational range of the compressor at low mass flow rates. The objective of this research is to study effective operational range for a ported shroud compressor. The size of the compressor is typical for a turbocharger used on diesel engines. To be able to extend the operational range, the surge characteristics have to be assessed. This is done by performing measurement of the flow at the inlet to the compressor wheel and pressure fluctuations at the inlet and outlet of the compressor housing. Detailed numerical computations of the flow in the entire compressor section under similar operating conditions have also been carried out. The experimental work includes Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the instantaneous and mean velocity field at the inlet. At surge, low frequency pulsations are detected that seem to result from back flow already observed in stall.
Technical Paper

Reducing Pressure Fluctuations at High Loads by Means of Charge Stratification in HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap

2009-06-15
2009-01-1785
Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition).
Technical Paper

Development of the Euro 5 Combustion System for Volvo Cars' 2.4.I Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1450
The development of a new combustion system for a light-duty diesel engine is presented. The soot-NOx trade-off is significantly improved with maintained or improved efficiency. This is accomplished only by altering the combustion chamber geometry, and thereby the in-cylinder flow. The bowl geometry is developed in CFD and validated in single cylinder tests. Tests and simulations align remarkably well. Under identical conditions in the engine the new combustion chamber decreases smoke by 11-27%, NOx by 2-11%, and maintains efficiency as compared to the baseline geometry. The injector nozzle is matched to the new bowl using design of experiments (DoE). By this method transfer functions are obtained that can be used to optimize the system using analytical tools. The emissions show a complex dependence on the nozzle geometry. The emission dependence on nozzle geometry varies greatly over the engine operating range.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Sensing in an Optical HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

2007-01-23
2007-01-0009
Ion current sensors have high potential utility for obtaining feedback signals directly from the combustion chamber in internal combustion engines. This paper describes experiments performed in a single-cylinder optical engine operated in HCCI mode with negative valve overlap to explore this potential. A high-speed CCD camera was used to visualize the combustion progress in the cylinder, and the photographs obtained were compared with the ion current signals. The optical data indicate that the ions responsible for the chemiluminescence from the HCCI combustion have to be in contact with the sensing electrode for an ion current to start flowing through the measurement circuit. This also means that there will be an offset between the time at which 50% of the fuel mass has burned and 50% of the ion current peak value is reached, which is readily explained by the results presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

Galvanic Corrosion of Die Cast Magnesium Exposed on Vehicles and in Accelerated Laboratory Tests

2006-04-03
2006-01-0255
Galvanic corrosion between die cast AZ91D and AM60B and different fastener systems has been evaluated by exposure on trucks and in accelerated laboratory tests. The exposure time on the trucks was 3 years, corresponding to a mileage of about 300000 km. Samples were retracted and evaluated after 1 and 2 years exposure. Similar samples were also exposed to the Volvo Indoor Corrosion Test and the General Motors GM9540P-cycle B test. The correlation between the field data and the laboratory tests was evaluated, as was the sharp difference in the performance of the fastener systems in the two accelerated laboratory tests.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Models' Appearance Impact on Observers' Ergonomic Assessment

2005-06-14
2005-01-2722
The objective of this paper is to investigate whether different appearance modes of the digital human models (DHM or manikins) affect the observers when judging a working posture. A case where the manikin is manually assembling a battery in the boot with help of a lifting device is used in the experiment. 16 different pictures were created and presented for the subjects. All pictures have the same background, but include a unique posture and manikin appearance combination. Four postures and four manikin appearances were used. The subjects were asked to rank the pictures after ergonomic assessment based on posture of the manikin. Subjects taking part in the study were either manufacturing engineering managers, simulation engineers or ergonomists. Results show that the different appearance modes affect the ergonomic judgment. A more realistic looking manikin is rated higher than the very same posture visualized with a less natural appearance.
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