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Technical Paper

Effect of Valve-Cam Ramps on Valve Train Dynamics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0801
Testing of an OHC valve train with hydraulic lash adjuster in which the valve displacements, velocities and accelerations were measured and analyzed in both time and frequency domains, coupled with analysis of the frequency content of the valve acceleration function and its ramps, show that traditional designs of the opening and closing ramps used on some IC engine valve cams can exacerbate vibration in the follower system causing higher levels of spring surge and noise. Suggestions are made for improvement to the design of the beginning and ending transitions of valve motion which can potentially reduce dynamic oscillation and vibration in the follower train.
Technical Paper

The Car as a Peripheral, Adapting a Portable Computer to a Vehicle Intranet

1998-10-19
98C030
This paper discusses the feasibility and issues associated with integrating a consumer off-the shelf product into a vehicle. For this evaluation, we selected a handheld personal computer (HPC), cellular telephone and modem to integrate with the vehicle audio, climate and system controls. Connectivity between the HPC and the vehicle is established by the use of the standard infrared serial data link that comes with the HPC. Connectivity outside the vehicle uses a cellular telephone for voice and a cellular digital packet data (CDPD) modem for data. This system is built into the Dodge ESX-2 hybrid powered concept vehicle for demonstration.
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Internet on Electric-Drive Vehicle Choices

1998-10-19
98C057
The rapid growth of information technology has the potential to affect many of the reasons why people drive. The Internet is arguably the most significant recent milestone in the growth of information technology. This paper examines the ways Internet communication might affect the travel experience by a) eliminating traditional reasons for personal travel, b) providing new reasons, c) changing the balance between personal and freight travel, and d) changing trip length distribution. Changes of the types listed could affect the product demand "mix" for electric, hybrid-electric and fuel cell vehicles being developed.
Technical Paper

Analyzing Vibrations in an IC Engine Valve Train

1998-02-23
980570
This study analyzes the vibration characteristics of the valve train of a 2.0L SOHC Chrysler Corp. Neon engine over a range of operating speeds to investigate and demonstrate the advantages and limitations of various dynamic measurements such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration in this application. The valve train was tested in a motoring fixture at speeds of 500 to 3500 camshaft rpm. The advantages of analyzing both time and frequency domain measurements are described. Both frequency and order analysis were done on the data. The theoretical order spectra of cam displacement and acceleration were computed and compared to the experimental data. Deconvolution was used to uncover characteristic frequencies of vibration in the system. The theoretical cam acceleration spectrum was deconvolved from measured acceleration spectra to reveal the frequency response function of the follower system.
Technical Paper

Can the k-ε Model Withstand the Challenges Posed by Complex Industrial Flows?

1997-04-08
971516
The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solution for three-dimensional flow about rotating short cylinders using the computer program AIRFLO3D. The flow Reynolds number was kept at 106 for all computations. The drag forces on the cylinder were obtained for different rotational speeds. Predictions were obtained for both an isolated cylinder and a cylinder on a moving ground. The standard k-ε model was employed to model the turbulence. Computed drag coefficients agreed well with the previous experimental data up to a spin ratio (=rω/V) of 1.5.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy for the In-Cylinder Flow of a Four-Valve 3.5L SI Engine Using 3-D LDV Measurements

1997-02-24
970793
A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows.
Technical Paper

Tumble and Swirl Quantification within a Motored Four-Valve SI Engine Cylinder Based on 3-D LDV Measurements

1997-02-24
970792
The flow field contained within ten planes inside a cylinder of a 3.5 liter, 24-valve, V-6 engine was mapped using a three-dimensional Laser Doppler Velocimetry (3-D LDV) system. A total of 1,548 LDV measurement locations were used to construct the time history of the in-cylinder flow fields during the intake and compression strokes. The measurements began during the intake stroke at a crank angle of 60° ATDC and continued until approximately 280° ATDC. The ensemble averaged LDV measurements allowed for a quantitative analysis of the dynamic in-cylinder flow process in terms of tumble and swirl motions. Both of these quantities were calculated at every 1.8 crank degrees during the described measurement interval. Tumble calculations were performed about axes in multiple planes in both the Cartesian directions perpendicular to the plane of the piston top. Swirl calculations were also accomplished in multiple planes that lie parallel to the plane of the piston top.
Technical Paper

Automated Test Request and Data Acquisition System for Vehicle Emission Testing

1997-02-24
970273
Due to new regulations, emissions development and compliance testing have become more complex. The amount of data acquired, the number of test types, and the variety of test conditions have increased greatly. Due to this increase, managing test information from request to analysis of results has become a critical factor. Also, automated test result presentation and test storage increases the value and quality of each test. This paper describes a computer system developed to cope with the increasing complexity of vehicle emission testing.
Technical Paper

Traction Batteries - Their Effects on Electric Vehicle Performance

1997-02-24
970240
A few years ago, electric vehicles (EVs) were considered to be objects of the distant future … technology that was still in its infancy, not yet ready and for those outside the “high pollution” areas probably not even worth the expenditure. But the present day scenario has changed dramatically. In the United States of America, several states are following California's lead and the need for the operating fleets to commit to purchase of Zero Emission vehicles (ZEVs) is becoming a requirement. In order to make the technology available to the utilities … as well as the public, state of the art, affordable batteries are essential for making EVs a reality and an effective means of transportation.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of HC Emissions During Cold Start of Gasoline Engines

1995-10-01
952402
A cycle-by-cycle analysis of HC emissions from each cylinder of a four-stroke V-6, 3.3 L production engine was made during cold start. The HC emissions were measured in the exhaust port using a high frequency flame ionization detector (FID). The effect of the initial startup position of the piston and valves in the cycle on combustion and HC emissions from each cylinder was examined. The mass of fuel injected, burned and emitted was calculated for each cycle. The equivalence ratio of the charge in the firing cycles was determined. The analysis covered the first 120 cycles and included the effect of engine transients on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Engine Misfire Detection by Ionization Current Monitoring

1995-02-01
950003
Engine misfires cause a negative impact on exhaust emissions. Severe cases could damage the catalyst system permanently. These are the basic reasons why CARB (California Air Resources Board) mandated the detection of engine misfires in their OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics II) regulations. For the last several years, automobile manufacturers and their suppliers have been working diligently on various solutions for the “Misfire Detection” challenge. Many have implemented a solution called “Crankshaft Velocity Fluctuation” (CVF), which utilizes the crank sensor input to calculate the variation of the crankshaft rotational speed. The theory is that any misfires will contribute to a deceleration of the crankshaft velocity due to the absence of pressure torque. This approach is marginal at best due to the fact that there could be many contributors to a crankshaft velocity deceleration under various operating conditions. To sort out which is a true misfire is a very difficult task.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Phase-Shift Measurement of the Time-Resolved UBHC Emissions

1995-02-01
950161
The UBHC emissions during cold starting need to be controlled in order to meet the future stringent standards. This requires a better understanding of the characteristics of the time resolved UBHC signal measured by a high frequency FID and its phasing with respect to the valve events. The computer program supplied with the instrument and currently used to compute the phase shift has many uncertainties due to the unsteady nature of engine operation during starting. A new technique is developed to measure the in-situ phase shift of the UBHC signal under the transient thermodynamic and dynamic conditions of the engine. The UBHC concentration is measured at two locations in the exhaust manifold of one cylinder in a multicylinder port injected gasoline engine. The two locations are 77 mm apart. The downstream probe is positioned opposite to a solenoid-operated injector which delivers a gaseous jet of hydrocarbon-free nitrogen upon command.
Technical Paper

Changes in Reliability During the Design and Development Process of a Vehicle's Electrical/Electronic Systems

1995-02-01
950826
The changes in reliability of the Electrical/Electronic Systems of a vehicle-line during its early design and development engineering processes have been studied. A computerized vehicle failure tracking system was used to provide results from several stages of early development vehicle testing at the proving grounds. The data were analyzed using a software program that assumes that failures in a repairable system, such as a car, occur as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Results suggest that, under normal circumstances, a significant and quantitative improvement in reliability is achievable as the system or component design progresses through the early design and development processes. This also provides a means of predicting future system(s) reliability when the system(s) is in production.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computer Simulation Analysis of Transients on an Automobile Communication Bus

1995-02-01
950038
Voltage and current surges are a major concern when it comes to ensuring the functional integrity of electrical and electronic components and modules in an automobile system. This paper presents a computer simulation study for analyzing the effect of high voltage spikes and current load dump on a new Integrated Driver/Receiver (IDR) IC, currently being developed for a J1850 Data Communication Bus in an automobile. It describes the modeling and simulation of the protection structure proposed for the device. The simulation study yields a prediction of current and voltage capability of the protection circuit based on thermal breakdown and transient responses of the circuit. Two levels of modeling, namely, the behavioral level model and the component level model, are used to generate the simulation results. Experimental data will be acquired and used to validate the simulation model when the actual device becomes available.
Technical Paper

Network I/O and System Considerations

1995-02-01
950036
The J1850 bus requirements promote an unique and well characterized physical layer behavior developed through the learning curve of previous multiplex solutions. Design requirements such as: 1) Reliably interconnecting all of the vehicle's most complex modules, 2) Consistently withstanding the vehicle's harsh environment, and 3) Meeting SAE's functionality requirements, were all a formidable task to achieve. This paper will highlight the path taken to achieve a J1850 Bus interface which successfully met all of the design and functional goals. Chrysler's C2D insights will be discussed and related to goals for J1850. Other design considerations will also be discussed such as EMC issues, custom test equipment, and vehicle and component testability. In turn, silicon processes with special structures and topologies will be discussed relating the specific design with the needed electrical behavior. The HIP7020 J1850 BUS TRANSCEIVER I/O for MULTIPLEX WIRING accomplishes these requirements.
Technical Paper

OPNET J1850 Network Simulator

1995-02-01
950037
MIL 3's OPNET simulator was used to model Chrysler's J1850 bus. Modeled were both J1850 bus characteristics and those portions of control modules (e.g., the engine controller) which communicate on the bus. Current Chrysler control module algorithms and proposed Chrysler J1850 message formats were used to design the control module models. The control module models include all messages which are transmitted at fixed intervals over the J1850 bus. The effects of function-based messages (e.g., messages to be transmitted on a particular sensor or push-button reading) on system load were investigated by transmitting an additional message with a fixed, relatively high priority at 50 millisecond intervals.
Technical Paper

Architecture and Operation of the HIP7010 J1850 Byte-Level Interface Circuit

1995-02-01
950035
As a cost effective solution to making microcontroller based systems “J1850[1] aware”, a peripheral device (the HIP7010) was developed to extend the capabilities of standard microcontrollers. From the perspective of the Host, the peripheral device handles J1850 messages as a series of bytes (similar in concept to a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter [UART]). The architecture of the HIP7010 is discussed. The design of the J1850 interface, state machine, status/control blocks, cyclical redundancy check (CRC) hardware, host interface, and fail-safe features are detailed. Illustrations are provided of: Host/HIP7010 interfacing; message transmission and reception; error handling; and In-Frame Response (IFR) generation.
Technical Paper

The Behavior of Multiphase Fuel-Flow in the Intake Port

1994-03-01
940445
Most of the current fuel supply specifications, including the key parameters in the transient fuel control strategies, are experimentally determined since the complexity of multiphase fuel flow behavior inside the intake manifold is still not quantitatively understood. Optimizing these specifications, especially the parameters in transient fueling systems, is a key issue in improving fuel efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions. In this paper, a model of fuel spray, wall-film flow and wall-film vaporization has been developed to gain a better understanding of the multiphase fuel-flow behavior within the intake manifold which may help to determine the fuel supply specifications in a multi-point injection system.
Technical Paper

The Radio Mounting System

1994-03-01
940260
Chrysler Corporation Interior Electrical\Entertainment Department currently has three different mounting tab configurations on the radio escutcheon required by five platforms for radio installation. Prior to the re-organization into platforms, the corporation had one corporate mounting configuration. The reorganization into platforms encouraged diversification including different radio mounting locations. This however, requires three separate part numbers for the same radio unit, resulting in additional cost. How can we assure product diversification between platforms while controlling cost and managing complexity?
Technical Paper

Chrysler 8.0-Liter V-10 Engine

1993-11-01
933033
Chrysler Corporation has developed an 8.0-liter engine for light truck applications. Numerous features combine to produce the highest power and torque ratings of any gasoline-fueled light truck engine currently available while also providing commensurate durability. These features include: a deep-skirt ten-cylinder 90° “V” block, a Helmholtz resonator intake manifold that enhances both low and mid-range torque, light die cast all-aluminum pistons for low vibration, a unique firing order for smooth operation, a “Y” block configuration for strength and durability, a heavy duty truck-type thermostat to control warm up, and a direct ignition system.
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