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Technical Paper

Multi-dimensional Modeling of Non-equilibrium Plasma for Automotive Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0198
While spark-ignition (SI) engine technology is aggressively moving towards challenging (dilute and boosted) combustion regimes, advanced ignition technologies generating non-equilibrium types of plasma are being considered by the automotive industry as a potential replacement for the conventional spark-plug technology. However, there are currently no models that can describe the low-temperature plasma (LTP) ignition process in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that are typically used in the multi-dimensional engine modeling community. A key question for the engine modelers that are trying to describe the non-equilibrium ignition physics concerns the plasma characteristics. A key challenge is also represented by the plasma formation timescale (nanoseconds) that can hardly be resolved within a full engine cycle simulation.
Journal Article

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Subcritical Near-Nozzle Spray Structure and Primary Atomization in the Engine Combustion Network Spray D

2018-04-03
2018-01-0277
In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the ECN in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition enabled quantification of distributions of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 14 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details. Due to its computational efficiency, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was able to provide spray predictions across a broad range of conditions.
Journal Article

Applying Advanced CFD Analysis Tools to Study Differences between Start-of-Main and Start-of-Post Injection Flow, Temperature and Chemistry Fields Due to Combustion of Main-Injected Fuel

2015-09-06
2015-24-2436
This paper is part of a larger body of experimental and computational work devoted to studying the role of close-coupled post injections on soot reduction in a heavy-duty optical engine. It is a continuation of an earlier computational paper. The goals of the current work are to develop new CFD analysis tools and methods and apply them to gain a more in depth understanding of the different in-cylinder environments into which fuel from main- and post-injections are injected and to study how the in-cylinder flow, thermal and chemical fields are transformed between start of injection timings. The engine represented in this computational study is a single-cylinder, direct-injection, heavy-duty, low-swirl engine with optical components. It is based on the Cummins N14, has a cylindrical shaped piston bowl and an eight-hole injector that are both centered on the cylinder axis. The fuel used was n-heptane and the engine operating condition was light load at 1200 RPM.
Journal Article

Comparison of Near-Field Structure and Growth of a Diesel Spray Using Light-Based Optical Microscopy and X-Ray Radiography

2014-04-01
2014-01-1412
A full understanding and characterization of the near-field of diesel sprays is daunting because the dense spray region inhibits most diagnostics. While x-ray diagnostics permit quantification of fuel mass along a line of sight, most laboratories necessarily use simple lighting to characterize the spray spreading angle, using it as an input for CFD modeling, for example. Questions arise as to what is meant by the “boundary” of the spray since liquid fuel concentration is not easily quantified in optical imaging. In this study we seek to establish a relationship between spray boundary obtained via optical diffused backlighting and the fuel concentration derived from tomographic reconstruction of x-ray radiography. Measurements are repeated in different facilities at the same specified operating conditions on the “Spray A” fuel injector of the Engine Combustion Network, which has a nozzle diameter of 90 μm.
Journal Article

PLIF Measurements of Thermal Stratification in an HCCI Engine under Fired Operation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1291
Tracer-based PLIF temperature diagnostics have been used to study the distribution and evolution of naturally occurring thermal stratification (TS) in an HCCI engine under fired and motored operation. PLIF measurements, performed with two excitation wavelengths (277, 308 nm) and 3-pentanone as a tracer, allowed investigation of TS development under relevant fired conditions. Two-line PLIF measurements of temperature and composition were first performed to track the mixing of the fresh charge and hot residuals during intake and early compression strokes. Results showed that mixing occurs rapidly with no measureable mixture stratification remaining by early compression (220°CA aTDC), confirming that the residual mixing is not a leading cause of thermal stratification for low-residual (4-6%) engines with conventional valve timing.
Journal Article

Determination of Cycle Temperatures and Residual Gas Fraction for HCCI Negative Valve Overlap Operation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0343
Fuel injection during negative valve overlap offers a promising method of controlling HCCI combustion, but sorting out the thermal and chemical effects of NVO fueling requires knowledge of temperatures throughout the cycle. Computing bulk temperatures throughout closed portions of the cycle is relatively straightforward using an equation of state, once a temperature at one crank angle is established. Unfortunately, computing charge temperatures at intake valve closing for NVO operation is complicated by a large, unknown fraction of residual gases at unknown temperature. To address the problem, we model blowdown and recompression during exhaust valve opening and closing events, allowing us to estimate in-cylinder charge temperatures based on exhaust-port measurements. This algorithm permits subsequent calculation of crank-angle-resolved bulk temperatures and residual gas fraction over a wide range of NVO operation.
Journal Article

Visualization of Diesel Spray Penetration, Cool-Flame, Ignition, High-Temperature Combustion, and Soot Formation Using High-Speed Imaging

2009-04-20
2009-01-0658
Shadowgraph/schlieren imaging techniques have often been used for flow visualization of reacting and non-reacting systems. In this paper we show that high-speed shadowgraph visualization in a high-pressure chamber can also be used to identify cool-flame and high-temperature combustion regions of diesel sprays, thereby providing insight into the time sequence of diesel ignition and combustion. When coupled to simultaneous high-speed Mie-scatter imaging, chemiluminescence imaging, pressure measurement, and spatially-integrated jet luminosity measurements by photodiode, the shadowgraph visualization provides further information about spray penetration after vaporization, spatial location of ignition and high-temperature combustion, and inactive combustion regions where problematic unburned hydrocarbons exist. Examples of the joint application of high-speed diagnostics include transient non-reacting and reacting injections, as well as multiple injections.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Direct Injection Processes for Hydrogen and LTC Engine Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0939
Direct injection (DI) has proven to be a promising option in Diesel and low temperature combustion engines. In conventional Diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) applications, DI lowers soot and NOx production and improves fuel economy. In hydrogen fueled engines, DI provides the appropriate energy density required for high efficiency and low NOx emissions. To realize the full benefit of DI, however, the effect of various injection parameters, such as injection timing, duration, pressure, and dilution, must be investigated and optimized under a range of engine operating conditions. In this work, we have developed a model for high-fidelity calculations of DI processes using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique and an advanced property evaluation scheme. Calculations were performed using an idealized domain to establish a baseline level of validation.
Technical Paper

EMC/EMI Testing on a Modest Budget

2007-10-30
2007-01-4202
When considering the addition of radio frequency reception and transmission equipment to the suite of electronics already installed on a modern motor vehicle, numerous issues must be considered and tested to ensure reliable and safe operation not only of the additional equipment but the vehicle itself. This paper addresses some of the major issues and suggests modest design and testing practices that will accomplish the desired reliability and safety. The modest design and testing proposed addresses good engineering practices of electrically bonding metallic surfaces of the vehicle, grounding equipment, shielding signal cables, introducing filters, and appropriately separating cables into bundles.
Technical Paper

Perception and Autonomous Navigation Using a Priori Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-1160
Autonomous Navigation for military unmanned ground vehicles requires the ability to act without human intervention in increasingly difficult environments such as off-road terrain and military operations in urban terrain (MOUT). One method to accomplish this is through the combination of a local perception sensor suite with an a priori route planner and a local guidance algorithm that provides an automated obstacle detection, classification, and avoidance capability. This paper will detail the feasibility of this approach based on preliminary test results.
Technical Paper

On the Validation of a Mathematical Model of a Foam Encapsulated System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0457
As technical and non-technical constraints make testing of complex physical systems more restrictive, an increased reliance on modeling and simulation of large systems has arisen. Time and/or frequency domain analyzes of finite element models are performed on massively parallel computers. Due to the high consequence of these analyses, there is a need to quantitatively assess the predictive accuracy of finite element models used to simulate these complex physical systems relative to any available experimental results. In this paper we outline our understanding of model validation and the process followed to make a determination of the validity of a model. An example will be used to demonstrate the process.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Quantitative Laser-Induced Incandescence and SMPS Measurements of EGR Effects on Particulate Emissions from a TDI Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2715
A comparison of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements of diesel particulate matter (PM) was performed. The results reveal the significance of the aggregate nature of diesel PM on interpretation of size and volume fraction measurements obtained with an SMPS, and the accuracy of primary particle size measurements by LII. Volume fraction calculations based on the mobility diameter measured by the SMPS substantially over-predict the space-filling volume fraction of the PM. Correction algorithms for the SMPS measurements, to account for the fractal nature of the aggregate morphology, result in a substantial reduction in the reported volume. The behavior of the particulate volume fraction, mean and standard deviation of the mobility diameter, and primary particle size are studied as a function of the EGR for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads for a turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion: An Integrated View Combining Laser Diagnostics, Chemical Kinetics, And Empirical Validation

1999-03-01
1999-01-0509
This paper proposes a structure for the diesel combustion process based on a combination of previously published and new results. Processes are analyzed with proven chemical kinetic models and validated with data from production-like direct injection diesel engines. The analysis provides new insight into the ignition and particulate formation processes, which combined with laser diagnostics, delineates the two-stage nature of combustion in diesel engines. Data are presented to quantify events occurring during the ignition and initial combustion processes that form soot precursors. A framework is also proposed for understanding the heat release and emission formation processes.
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