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Journal Article

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Subcritical Near-Nozzle Spray Structure and Primary Atomization in the Engine Combustion Network Spray D

In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the ECN in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition enabled quantification of distributions of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 14 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details. Due to its computational efficiency, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was able to provide spray predictions across a broad range of conditions.
Technical Paper

Refining Measurement Uncertainties in HCCI/LTGC Engine Experiments

This study presents estimates for measurement uncertainties for a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine testing facility. A previously presented framework for quantifying those uncertainties developed uncertainty estimates based on the transducers manufacturers’ published tolerances. The present work utilizes the framework with improved uncertainty estimates in order to more accurately represent the actual uncertainties of the data acquired in the HCCI/LTGC laboratory, which ultimately results in a reduction in the uncertainty from 30 to less than 1 kPa during the intake and exhaust strokes. Details of laboratory calibration techniques and commissioning runs are used to constrain the sensitivities of the transducers relative to manufacturer supplied values.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Journal Article

Comparison of Near-Field Structure and Growth of a Diesel Spray Using Light-Based Optical Microscopy and X-Ray Radiography

A full understanding and characterization of the near-field of diesel sprays is daunting because the dense spray region inhibits most diagnostics. While x-ray diagnostics permit quantification of fuel mass along a line of sight, most laboratories necessarily use simple lighting to characterize the spray spreading angle, using it as an input for CFD modeling, for example. Questions arise as to what is meant by the “boundary” of the spray since liquid fuel concentration is not easily quantified in optical imaging. In this study we seek to establish a relationship between spray boundary obtained via optical diffused backlighting and the fuel concentration derived from tomographic reconstruction of x-ray radiography. Measurements are repeated in different facilities at the same specified operating conditions on the “Spray A” fuel injector of the Engine Combustion Network, which has a nozzle diameter of 90 μm.
Journal Article

Pilot Injection Ignition Properties Under Low-Temperature, Dilute In-Cylinder Conditions

Measurements of ignition behavior, homogeneous reactor simulations employing detailed kinetics, and quantitative in-cylinder imaging of fuel-air distributions are used to delineate the impact of temperature, dilution, pilot injection mass, and injection pressure on the pilot ignition process. For dilute, low-temperature conditions characterized by a lengthy ignition delay, pilot ignition is impeded by the formation of excessively lean mixture. Under these conditions, smaller pilot mass or higher injection pressures further lengthen the pilot ignition delay. Similarly, excessively rich mixtures formed under relatively short ignition delay conditions typical of conventional diesel combustion will also prolong the ignition delay. In this latter case, smaller pilot mass or higher injection pressures will shorten the ignition delay. The minimum charge temperature required to effect a robust pilot ignition event is strongly dependent on charge O2 concentration.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Methods for Representing and Aggregating Uncertainties Involving Sparsely Sampled Random Variables - More Results

This paper discusses the treatment of uncertainties corresponding to relatively few samples of random-variable quantities. The importance of this topic extends beyond experimental data uncertainty to situations involving uncertainty in model calibration, validation, and prediction. With very sparse samples it is not practical to have a goal of accurately estimating the underlying variability distribution (probability density function, PDF). Rather, a pragmatic goal is that the uncertainty representation should be conservative so as to bound a desired percentage of the actual PDF, say 95% included probability, with reasonable reliability. A second, opposing objective is that the representation not be overly conservative; that it minimally over-estimate the random-variable range corresponding to the desired percentage of the actual PDF. The presence of the two opposing objectives makes the sparse-data uncertainty representation problem an interesting and difficult one.
Journal Article

The Feasibility of Using Raw Liquids from Fast Pyrolysis of Woody Biomass as Fuels for Compression-Ignition Engines: A Literature Review

This study summarizes the peer-reviewed literature regarding the use of raw pyrolysis liquids (PLs) created from woody biomass as fuels for compression-ignition (CI) engines. First, a brief overview is presented of fast pyrolysis and the potential advantages of PLs as fuels for CI engines. Second, a discussion of the general composition and properties of PLs relative to conventional, petroleum-derived diesel fuels is provided, with emphasis on the differences that are most likely to affect PL performance in CI-engine applications. Next, a synopsis is given of the peer-reviewed literature describing experimental studies of CI engines operated using neat PLs and PLs combined in various ways with other fuels. This literature conclusively indicates that raw PLs and PL blends cannot be used as “drop-in replacements” for diesel fuel in CI engines, which is reflected in part by none of the cited studies reporting successful operation on PL fuels for more than twelve consecutive hours.
Journal Article

Post Injections for Soot Reduction in Diesel Engines: A Review of Current Understanding

This work is a technical review of past research and a synthesis of current understanding of post injections for soot reduction in diesel engines. A post injection, which is a short injection after a longer main injection, is an in-cylinder tool to reduce engine-out soot to meet pollutant emissions standards while maintaining efficiency, and potentially to reduce or eliminate exhaust aftertreatment. A sprawling literature on post injections documents the effects of post injections on engine-out soot with variations in many engine operational parameters. Explanations of how post injections lead to engine-out soot reduction vary and are sometimes inconsistent or contradictory, in part because supporting fundamental experimental or modeling data are often not available. In this paper, we review the available data describing the efficacy of post-injections and highlight several candidate in-cylinder mechanisms that may control their efficacy.
Journal Article

Study of Soot Formation and Oxidation in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), Spray A: Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

Within the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) spray combustion research frame, simultaneous line-of-sight laser extinction measurements and laser-induced incandescence (LII) imaging were performed to derive the soot volume fraction (fv). Experiments are conducted at engine-relevant high-temperature and high-pressure conditions in a constant-volume pre-combustion type vessel. The target condition, called "Spray A," uses well-defined ambient (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m₃, 15% oxygen) and injector conditions (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K). Extinction measurements are used to calibrate LII images for quantitative soot distribution measurements at cross sections intersecting the spray axis. LII images are taken after the start of injection where quasi-stationary combustion is already established.
Journal Article

Equivalence Ratio Distributions in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operating under Partially Premixed Conditions

The performance of Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) combustion relies heavily on the proper mixing between the injected fuel and the in-cylinder gas mixture. In fact, the mixture distribution has direct control over the engine-out emissions as well as the rate of heat release during combustion. The current study focuses on investigating the pre-combustion equivalence ratio distribution in a light-duty diesel engine operating at a low-load (3 bar IMEP), highly dilute (10% O₂), slightly boosted (P ⁿ = 1.5 bar) PPCI condition. A tracer-based planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was used to acquire two-dimensional equivalence ratio measurements in an optically accessible diesel engine that has a production-like combustion chamber geometry including a re-entrant piston bowl.
Journal Article

PLIF Measurements of Thermal Stratification in an HCCI Engine under Fired Operation

Tracer-based PLIF temperature diagnostics have been used to study the distribution and evolution of naturally occurring thermal stratification (TS) in an HCCI engine under fired and motored operation. PLIF measurements, performed with two excitation wavelengths (277, 308 nm) and 3-pentanone as a tracer, allowed investigation of TS development under relevant fired conditions. Two-line PLIF measurements of temperature and composition were first performed to track the mixing of the fresh charge and hot residuals during intake and early compression strokes. Results showed that mixing occurs rapidly with no measureable mixture stratification remaining by early compression (220°CA aTDC), confirming that the residual mixing is not a leading cause of thermal stratification for low-residual (4-6%) engines with conventional valve timing.
Journal Article

PIV Measurements in the Swirl-Plane of a Motored Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to investigate the structure and evolution of the mean velocity field in the swirl (r-θ) plane of a motored, optically accessible diesel engine with a typical production combustion chamber geometry under motoring conditions (no fuel injection). Instantaneous velocities were measured were made at three swirl-plane heights (3 mm, 10 mm and 18 mm below the firedeck) and three swirl ratios (2.2, 3.5 and 4.5) over a range of crank angles in the compression and expansion strokes. The data allow for a direct analysis of the structures within the ensemble mean flow field, the in-cylinder swirl ratio, and the radial profile of the tangential velocity. At all three swirl ratios, the ensemble mean velocity field contains a single dominant swirl flow structure that is tilted with respect to the cylinder axis. The axis of this structure precesses about the cylinder axis in a manner that is largely insensitive to swirl ratio.
Technical Paper

Assessment of RNG Turbulence Modeling and the Development of a Generalized RNG Closure Model

RNG k-ε closure turbulence dissipation equations are evaluated employing the CFD code KIVA-3V Release 2. The numerical evaluations start by considering simple jet flows, including incompressible air jets and compressible helium jets. The results show that the RNG closure turbulence model predicts lower jet tip penetration than the "standard" k-ε model, as well as being lower than experimental data. The reason is found to be that the turbulence kinetic energy is dissipated too slowly in the downstream region near the jet nozzle exit. In this case, the over-predicted R term in RNG model becomes a sink of dissipation in the ε-equation. As a second step, the RNG turbulence closure dissipation models are further tested in complex engine flows to compare against the measured evolution of turbulence kinetic energy, and an estimate of its dissipation rate, during both the compression and expansion processes.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Intake-Induced Flow and Injection Jet in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fueled Engine Measured by PIV

The in-cylinder charge motion during the compression stroke of an optically accessible engine equipped with direct injection of hydrogen fuel is measured via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The evolution of the mean flow field and the tumble ratio are examined with and without injection, each with the unmodified 4-valve pent-roof engine head and with the intake ports modified to yield higher tumble. The measurements in the vertical symmetry plane of the cylinder show that intake modification produces the desired drastic increase in tumble flow, changing the tumble ratio at BDC from 0.22 to 0.70. Either intake-induced flow is completely disrupted by the high-pressure hydrogen injection from an angled, centrally located single-hole nozzle. The injection event leads to sudden reversal of the tumble. Hence the tumble ratio is negative after injection. However, the two intake configurations still differ in tumble ratio by about the same magnitude as before injection.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Optical Evolution of Gaseous Jets in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

This paper performs a parametric analysis of the influence of numerical grid resolution and turbulence model on jet penetration and mixture formation in a DI-H2 ICE. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located single-hole injector nozzle. The simulation includes the intake and exhaust port geometry, in order to account for the actual flow field within the cylinder when injection of hydrogen starts. A reduced geometry is then used to focus on the mixture formation process. The numerically predicted hydrogen mole-fraction fields are compared to experimental data from quantitative laser-based imaging in a corresponding optically accessible engine. In general, the results show that with proper mesh and turbulence settings, remarkable agreement between numerical and experimental data in terms of fuel jet evolution and mixture formation can be achieved.
Journal Article

Influence of the In-Cylinder Flow Field (Tumble) on the Fuel Distribution in a DI Hydrogen Engine Using a Single-Hole Injector

This paper examines the interaction of bulk flow and jet-induced fuel convection in an optically accessible hydrogen-fueled engine with direct injection. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of gaseous acetone as a fuel tracer was performed to obtain quantitative images of the hydrogen mole-fraction in the operating engine. With the engine motored, fuel was injected into inert bulk gas from a centrally located injector during the compression stroke. The injector had a single-hole nozzle with the jet angled at 50 degrees with respect to the vertical injector axis. Two parameters were varied in the experiments, injector orientation and tumble intensity, and for each of these, the injection timing was varied. Image series of the mean fuel mole-fraction between injection and near-TDC crank angles capture the mixture-formation process for each configuration and injection timing.
Journal Article

An Optical Study of Mixture Preparation in a Hydrogen-fueled Engine with Direct Injection Using Different Nozzle Designs

Mixture formation in an optically accessible hydrogen-fueled engine was investigated using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone as a fuel tracer. The engine was motored and fueled by direct high-pressure injection. This paper presents the evolution of the spatial distribution of the ensemble-mean equivalence ratio for six different combinations of nozzle design and injector geometry, each for three different injection timings after intake-valve closure. Asymmetric single-hole and 5-hole nozzles as well as symmetric 6-hole and 13-hole nozzles were used. For early injection, the low in-cylinder pressure and density allow the jet to preserve its momentum long enough to undergo extensive jet-wall and (for multi-hole nozzles) jet-jet interaction, but the final mixture is fairly homogeneous. Intermediately timed injection yields inhomogeneous mixtures with surprisingly similar features observed for all multi-hole injectors.
Journal Article

Sources of UHC Emissions from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operating in a Partially Premixed Combustion Regime

Sources of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions are examined for a highly dilute (10% oxygen concentration), moderately boosted (1.5 bar), low load (3.0 bar IMEP) operating condition in a single-cylinder, light-duty, optically accessible diesel engine undergoing partially-premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC). The evolution of the in-cylinder spatial distribution of UHC is observed throughout the combustion event through measurement of liquid fuel distributions via elastic light scattering, vapor and liquid fuel distributions via laser-induced fluorescence, and velocity fields via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The measurements are complemented by and contrasted with the predictions of multi-dimensional simulations employing a realistic, though reduced, chemical mechanism to describe the combustion process.
Journal Article

Pathline Analysis of Full-cycle Four-stroke HCCI Engine Combustion Using CFD and Multi-Zone Modeling

This paper investigates flow and combustion in a full-cycle simulation of a four-stroke, three-valve HCCI engine by visualizing the flow with pathlines. Pathlines trace massless particles in a transient flow field. In addition to visualization, pathlines are used here to trace the history, or evolution, of flow fields and species. In this study evolution is followed from the intake port through combustion. Pathline analysis follows packets of intake charge in time and space from induction through combustion. The local scalar fields traversed by the individual packets in terms of velocity magnitude, turbulence, species concentration and temperatures are extracted from the simulation results. The results show how the intake event establishes local chemical and thermal environments in-cylinder and how the species respond (chemically react) to the local field.