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Technical Paper

The Physical and Chemical Effects of Fuel on Gasoline Compression Ignition

2019-04-02
2019-01-1150
In the engine community, gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines are at the forefront of research and efforts are being taken to commercialize an optimized GCI engine in the near future. GCI engines are operated typically at Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode as it offers better control of combustion with improved combustion stability. While the transition in combustion homogeneity from convectional Compression Ignition (CI) to Homogenized Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion via PPC has been comprehensively investigated, the physical and chemical effects of fuel on GCI are rarely reported at different combustion modes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of physical and chemical properties of fuels on GCI is investigated. In-order to investigate the reported problem, low octane gasoline fuels with same RON = 70 but different physical properties and sensitivity (S) are chosen.
Technical Paper

Combustion Stratification and Dynamic Flame Tracing Analysis of Partially Premixed Combustion in a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Low-Octane Fuel

2019-04-02
2019-01-1151
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a low-temperature combustion concept, which is between conventional diesel compression ignition (CI) and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). In PPC mode, the start of injection timing (SOI) is earlier than that of CI and later than that of HCCI and stratified in-cylinder fuel/air mixture can be formed to control the auto-ignition by the fuel injection timing. Gasoline fuel is beneficial for PPC mode because of its superior resistance to auto-ignition, which can enhance fuel-air charge mixing process with longer ignition delay time. The scope of this study is to investigate in-cylinder auto-ignition, combustion evolution, combustion stratification, and engine-out emissions at PPC operating mode under lean and low load engine conditions with different injection timings. Primary reference fuel PRF77, was selected as the low-octane test fuel.
Technical Paper

Compression Ignition of Low Octane Gasoline under Partially Premixed Combustion Mode

2018-09-10
2018-01-1797
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is an operating mode that lies between the conventional compression ignition (CI) mode and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode. The combustion in this mixed mode is complex as it is neither diffusion-controlled (CI mode) nor governed solely by chemical kinetics (HCCI mode). In this study, CFD simulations were performed to evaluate flame index, which distinguishes between zones having a premixed flame and non-premixed flame. Experiments performed in the optical engine supplied data to validate the model. In order to realize PPC, the start of injection (SOI) was fixed at −40 CAD (aTDC) so that a required ignition delay is created to premix air/fuel mixture. The reference operating point was selected to be with 3 bar IMEP and 1200 rpm. Naphtha with a RON of 77 and its corresponding PRF surrogate were tested. The simulations captured the general trends observed in the experiments well.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Premixed and Diffusion Flames in PPC and CI Combustion Modes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0899
The experimental in-cylinder combustion process was compared with the numerical simualtion for naphtha fuel under conventional compression ignition (CI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions. The start of injection timing (SOI) with the single injection strategy was changed from late of −10 CAD aTDC to early of −40 CAD aTDC. The three-dimensional full cycle engine combustion simulation was performed coupling with gas phase chemical kinetics by the CFD code CONVERGE™. The flame index was used for evaluating the combustion evolution of premixed flame and diffusion flame. The results show that the flame index could be used as an indicator for in-cylinder homogeneity evaluation. Hydroperoxyl shows a similar distribution with the premixed combustion. Formaldehyde could be used as an indicator for low temperature combustion.
Technical Paper

Low Load Limit Extension for Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0896
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is widely studied for the benefits of simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOX) and soot emissions without compromising the engine efficiency. Despite this advantage, the operational range for GCI is not widely expanded, as the auto-ignition of fuel at low load condition is difficult. The present study aims to extend the low load operational limit for GCI using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy. The engine used for the current experimentation is a single cylinder diesel engine that runs at an idle speed of 800 rpm with a compression ratio of 17.3. The engine is operated at homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) combustion modes with the corresponding start of injection (SOI) at −180 CAD (aTDC) and −30 CAD (aTDC), respectively.
Technical Paper

Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

2018-04-03
2018-01-0925
Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of High Reactivity Gasoline Fuel Sprays under Vaporizing and Reactive Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0292
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines are becoming more popular alternative for conventional spark engines to harvest the advantage of high volatility. Recent experimental study demonstrated that high reactivity gasoline fuel can be operated in a conventional mixing controlled combustion mode producing lower soot emissions than that of diesel fuel under similar efficiency and NOx level [1]. Therefore, there is much interest in using gasoline-like fuels in compression ignition engines. In order to improve the fidelity of simulation-based GCI combustion system development, it is mandatory to enhance the prediction of spray combustion of gasoline-like fuels. The purpose of this study is to model the spray characteristics of high reactivity gasoline fuels and validate the models with experimental results obtained through an optically accessible constant volume vessel under vaporizing [2] and reactive conditions [3].
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Mixing on Low Octane Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0762
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. Low octane gasoline fuel has been identified as a viable option for the GCI engine applications due to its longer ignition delay characteristics compared to diesel and in the volatility range of gasoline fuels. In this study, we have investigated the effect of different injection timings at part-load conditions using light naphtha stream in single cylinder engine experiments in the GCI combustion mode with injection pressure of 130 bar. A toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) was used as a surrogate for the light naphtha in the engine simulations performed here. A physical surrogate based on the evaporation characteristics of the light naphtha has been developed and its properties have been implemented in the engine simulations.
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