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Technical Paper

Knock and Pre-Ignition Limits on Utilization of Ethanol in Octane-on-Demand Concept

2019-09-09
2019-24-0108
Octane-on-Demand (OoD) is a promising technology for reducing greenhouse emissions from automobiles. The concept utilizes a low-octane fuel for low and mid load operating conditions, and a high-octane additive is added at high load operating conditions. Researchers have focused on the minimum ethanol content required for operating at high load conditions when the low-octane fuel becomes knock limited. However, it is also widely known that ethanol has a high tendency to pre-ignite, which has been linked with its high laminar flame speed and surface ignition tendency. Moreover, ethanol has a lower stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, requiring a larger injected fuel mass per cycle. A larger fuel mass increases the potential for oil dilution by the liquid fuel, creating precursors for pre-ignition. Hence, the limits on ethanol addition owing to pre-ignition also need consideration before the technology can be implemented.
Technical Paper

A Study of Lean Burn Pre-Chamber Concept in a Heavy Duty Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0107
Due to stringent emission standards, the demand for higher efficiency engines has been unprecedentedly high in recent years. Among several existing combustion modes, pre-chamber spark ignition (PCSI) emerges to be a potential candidate for high-efficiency engines. Research on the pre-chamber concept exhibit higher indicated efficiency through lean limit extension while maintaining the combustion stability. In this study, a unique pre-chamber geometry was tested in a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine at low load lean conditions. The geometry features a narrow throat, which was designed to be packaged inside a commercial diesel injector pocket. The pre-chamber was fueled with methane while the main chamber was supplied with an ethanol/air mixture.
Technical Paper

The Physical and Chemical Effects of Fuel on Gasoline Compression Ignition

2019-04-02
2019-01-1150
In the engine community, gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines are at the forefront of research and efforts are being taken to commercialize an optimized GCI engine in the near future. GCI engines are operated typically at Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode as it offers better control of combustion with improved combustion stability. While the transition in combustion homogeneity from convectional Compression Ignition (CI) to Homogenized Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion via PPC has been comprehensively investigated, the physical and chemical effects of fuel on GCI are rarely reported at different combustion modes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of physical and chemical properties of fuels on GCI is investigated. In-order to investigate the reported problem, low octane gasoline fuels with same RON = 70 but different physical properties and sensitivity (S) are chosen.
Technical Paper

Combustion Stratification and Dynamic Flame Tracing Analysis of Partially Premixed Combustion in a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Low-Octane Fuel

2019-04-02
2019-01-1151
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a low-temperature combustion concept, which is between conventional diesel compression ignition (CI) and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). In PPC mode, the start of injection timing (SOI) is earlier than that of CI and later than that of HCCI and stratified in-cylinder fuel/air mixture can be formed to control the auto-ignition by the fuel injection timing. Gasoline fuel is beneficial for PPC mode because of its superior resistance to auto-ignition, which can enhance fuel-air charge mixing process with longer ignition delay time. The scope of this study is to investigate in-cylinder auto-ignition, combustion evolution, combustion stratification, and engine-out emissions at PPC operating mode under lean and low load engine conditions with different injection timings. Primary reference fuel PRF77, was selected as the low-octane test fuel.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

2019-01-15
2019-01-0071
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mixture Formation and Injection Strategies on Stochastic Pre-Ignition

2018-09-10
2018-01-1678
Stochastic pre-ignition remains one of the major barriers limiting further engine downsizing and down-speeding; two widely used strategies for improving the efficiency of spark-ignited engines. One of the most cited mechanisms thought to be responsible for pre-ignition is the ignition of a rogue droplet composed of lubricant oil and fuel. This originates during mixture formation from interactions between the fuel spray and oil on the cylinder liner. In the present study, this hypothesis is further examined using a single cylinder supercharged engine which employs a range of air-fuel mixture formation strategies. These strategies include port-fuel injection (PFI) along with side and central direct injection (DI) of an E5 gasoline (RON 97.5) using single and multiple injection events. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations are then used to explain the observed trends.
Technical Paper

Compression Ignition of Low Octane Gasoline under Partially Premixed Combustion Mode

2018-09-10
2018-01-1797
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is an operating mode that lies between the conventional compression ignition (CI) mode and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode. The combustion in this mixed mode is complex as it is neither diffusion-controlled (CI mode) nor governed solely by chemical kinetics (HCCI mode). In this study, CFD simulations were performed to evaluate flame index, which distinguishes between zones having a premixed flame and non-premixed flame. Experiments performed in the optical engine supplied data to validate the model. In order to realize PPC, the start of injection (SOI) was fixed at −40 CAD (aTDC) so that a required ignition delay is created to premix air/fuel mixture. The reference operating point was selected to be with 3 bar IMEP and 1200 rpm. Naphtha with a RON of 77 and its corresponding PRF surrogate were tested. The simulations captured the general trends observed in the experiments well.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Premixed and Diffusion Flames in PPC and CI Combustion Modes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0899
The experimental in-cylinder combustion process was compared with the numerical simualtion for naphtha fuel under conventional compression ignition (CI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions. The start of injection timing (SOI) with the single injection strategy was changed from late of −10 CAD aTDC to early of −40 CAD aTDC. The three-dimensional full cycle engine combustion simulation was performed coupling with gas phase chemical kinetics by the CFD code CONVERGE™. The flame index was used for evaluating the combustion evolution of premixed flame and diffusion flame. The results show that the flame index could be used as an indicator for in-cylinder homogeneity evaluation. Hydroperoxyl shows a similar distribution with the premixed combustion. Formaldehyde could be used as an indicator for low temperature combustion.
Technical Paper

Low Load Limit Extension for Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0896
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is widely studied for the benefits of simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOX) and soot emissions without compromising the engine efficiency. Despite this advantage, the operational range for GCI is not widely expanded, as the auto-ignition of fuel at low load condition is difficult. The present study aims to extend the low load operational limit for GCI using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy. The engine used for the current experimentation is a single cylinder diesel engine that runs at an idle speed of 800 rpm with a compression ratio of 17.3. The engine is operated at homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) combustion modes with the corresponding start of injection (SOI) at −180 CAD (aTDC) and −30 CAD (aTDC), respectively.
Technical Paper

Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

2018-04-03
2018-01-0925
Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of High Reactivity Gasoline Fuel Sprays under Vaporizing and Reactive Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0292
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines are becoming more popular alternative for conventional spark engines to harvest the advantage of high volatility. Recent experimental study demonstrated that high reactivity gasoline fuel can be operated in a conventional mixing controlled combustion mode producing lower soot emissions than that of diesel fuel under similar efficiency and NOx level [1]. Therefore, there is much interest in using gasoline-like fuels in compression ignition engines. In order to improve the fidelity of simulation-based GCI combustion system development, it is mandatory to enhance the prediction of spray combustion of gasoline-like fuels. The purpose of this study is to model the spray characteristics of high reactivity gasoline fuels and validate the models with experimental results obtained through an optically accessible constant volume vessel under vaporizing [2] and reactive conditions [3].
Technical Paper

Reduced Gasoline Surrogate (Toluene/n-Heptane/iso-Octane) Chemical Kinetic Model for Compression Ignition Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0191
Toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) (mixture of toluene, iso-octane and heptane) is a suitable surrogate to represent a wide spectrum of real fuels with varying octane sensitivity. Investigating different surrogates in engine simulations is a prerequisite to identify the best matching mixture. However, running 3D engine simulations using detailed models is currently impossible and reduction of detailed models is essential. This work presents an AramcoMech reduced kinetic model developed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) for simulating complex TPRF surrogate blends. A semi-decoupling approach was used together with species and reaction lumping to obtain a reduced kinetic model. The model was widely validated against experimental data including shock tube ignition delay times and premixed laminar flame speeds. Finally, the model was utilized to simulate the combustion of a low reactivity gasoline fuel under partially premixed combustion conditions.
Technical Paper

Some Insights on the Stochastic Nature of Knock and the Evolution of Hot Spots in the End-Gas During the Engine Cycle from Experimental Measurements of Knock Onset and Knock Intensity

2017-10-08
2017-01-2233
Knock in spark ignition engines is stochastic in nature. It is caused by autoignition in hot spots in the unburned end-gas ahead of the expanding flame front. Knock onset in an engine cycle can be predicted using the Livengood-Wu integral if the variation of ignition delay with pressure and temperature as well as the pressure and temperature variation with crank angle are known. However, knock intensity (KI) is determined by the evolution of the pressure wave following knock onset. In an earlier paper (SAE 2017-01-0689) we showed that KI can be approximated by KI = Z (∂T/∂x)-2 at a fixed operating condition, where Z is a function of Pko, the pressure, and (∂T/∂x) is the temperature gradient in the hot spot at knock onset. Then, from experimental measurements of KI and Pko, using five different fuels, with the engine operating at boosted conditions, a probability density function for (∂T/∂x) was established.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization of a Multi-Cylinder CI Engine Running with a Low RON Gasoline Fuel Considering Different Air Loop and After-Treatment Configurations

2017-10-08
2017-01-2264
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In this context, low research octane number (RON) gasoline, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. In addition, thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel, CO2 benefits are also expected when used in such engines. In previous studies, different cetane number (CN) fuels have been evaluated and a CN 35 fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern and nozzle design have been performed on a single cylinder compression-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion Homogeneity and Emission Analysis during the Transition from CI to HCCI for FACE I Gasoline

2017-10-08
2017-01-2263
Low temperature combustion concepts are studied recently to simultaneously reduce NOX and soot emissions. Optical studies are performed to study gasoline PPC in CI engines to investigate in-cylinder combustion and stratification. It is imperative to perform emission measurements and interpret the results with combustion images. In this work, we attempt to investigate this during the transition from CI to HCCI mode for FACE I gasoline (RON = 70) and its surrogate, PRF70. The experiments are performed in a single cylinder optical engine that runs at a speed of 1200 rpm. Considering the safety of engine, testing was done at lower IMEP (3 bar) and combustion is visualized using a high-speed camera through a window in the bottom of the bowl. From the engine experiments, it is clear that intake air temperature requirement is different at various combustion modes to maintain the same combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

Blending Octane Number of Ethanol on a Volume and Molar Basis in SI and HCCI Combustion Modes

2017-10-08
2017-01-2256
The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Aromatics on Combustion Stratification and Particulate Emissions from Low Octane Gasoline Fuels in PPC and HCCI Mode

2017-09-04
2017-24-0086
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatic on combustion stratification and particulate emissions for PRF60. Experiments were performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for TPRF0 (100% v/v PRF60), TPRF20 (20% v/v toluene + 80% PRF60) and TPRF40 (40% v/v toluene + 60% PRF60). TPRF mixtures were prepared in such a way that the RON of all test blends was same (RON = 60). Single injection strategy with a fuel injection pressure of 800 bar was adopted for all test fuels. Start of injection (SOI) was changed from early to late fuel injection timings, representing various modes of combustion viz HCCI, PPC and CDC. High-speed video of the in-cylinder combustion process was captured and one-dimensional stratification analysis was performed from the intensity of images. Particle size, distribution and concentration were measured and linked with the in-cylinder combustion images.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effect on Combustion Stratification in Partially Premixed Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0089
The literature study on PPC in optical engine reveals investigations on OH chemiluminescence and combustion stratification. So far, mostly PRF fuel is studied and it is worthwhile to examine the effect of fuel properties on PPC. Therefore, in this work, fuel having different octane rating and physical properties are selected and PPC is studied in an optical engine. The fuels considered in this study are diesel, heavy naphtha, light naphtha and their corresponding surrogates such as heptane, PRF50 and PRF65 respectively. Without EGR (Intake O2 = 21%), these fuels are tested at an engine speed of 1200 rpm, fuel injection pressure of 800 bar and pressure at TDC = 35 bar. SOI is changed from late to early fuel injection timings to study PPC and the shift in combustion regime from CI to PPC is explored for all fuels. An increased understanding on the effect of fuel octane number, physical properties and chemical composition on combustion and emission formation is obtained.
Technical Paper

Low RON Gasoline Calibration on a Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine to Fulfill the Euro 6d Regulation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0091
Reducing the CO2 footprint, limiting the pollutant emissions and rebalancing the ongoing shift demand toward middle-distillate fuels are major concerns for vehicle manufacturers and oil refiners. In this context, gasoline-like fuels have been recently identified as good candidates. Straight run naphtha, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, allows for a reduction of both NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression-ignition engines. CO2 benefits are also expected thanks to naphtha’s higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel. In previous studies, wide ranges of Cetane Number (CN) naphtha fuels have been evaluated and CN 35 naphtha fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern, nozzle design and air-path technology, have been performed on a light-duty single cylinder compression-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Compression Ignition of Light Naphtha and Its Multicomponent Surrogate under Partially Premixed Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0078
Light naphtha is the light distillate from crude oil and can be used in compression ignition (CI) engines; its low boiling point and octane rating (RON = 64.5) enable adequate premixing. This study investigates the combustion characteristics of light naphtha (LN) and its multicomponent surrogate under various start of injection (SOI) conditions. LN and a five-component surrogate for LN, comprised of 43% n-pentane, 12% n-heptane, 10% 2-methylhexane, 25% iso-pentane and 10% cyclo-pentane, has been tested in a single cylinder optical diesel engine. The transition in combustion homogeneity from CI combustion to homogenized charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was then compared between LN and its surrogate. The engine experimental results showed good agreement in combustion phasing, ignition delay, start of combustion, in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release between LN and its surrogate.
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