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Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Impact of Exhaust Turbine Redesign, for Narrow VGT Operating Range, on the Performance of Diesel Engines with Assisted Turbocharger

2019-04-02
2019-01-0326
Electrically assisted turbochargers are a promising technology for improving boost response of turbocharged engines. These systems include a turbocharger shaft mounted electric motor/generator. In the assist mode, electrical energy is applied to the turbocharger shaft via the motor function, while in the regenerative mode energy can be extracted from the shaft via the generator function, hence these systems are also referred to as regenerative electrically assisted turbochargers (REAT). REAT allows simultaneous improvement of boost response and fuel economy of boosted engines. This is achieved by optimally scheduling the electrical assist and regeneration actions. REAT also allows the exhaust turbine to operate within a narrow range of optimal vane positions relative to the unassisted variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The ability to operate within a narrow range of VGT vane positions allows an opportunity for a more optimal turbine design for a REAT system.
Technical Paper

The Development of Low Temperature Three-Way Catalysts for High Efficiency Gasoline Engines of the Future: Part II

2018-04-03
2018-01-0939
It is anticipated that future gasoline engines will have improved mechanical efficiency and consequently lower exhaust temperatures at low load conditions, although the exhaust temperatures at high load conditions are expected to remain the same or even increase due to the increasing use of downsized turbocharged engines. In 2014, a collaborative project was initiated at Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the University of Michigan to develop three-way catalysts with improved performance at low temperatures while maintaining the durability of current TWCs. This project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and is intended to show progress toward the USDRIVE target of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at 150 °C after high mileage aging. The testing protocols specified by the USDRIVE ACEC team for stoichiometric S-GDI engines were utilized during the evaluation of experimental catalysts at all three facilities.
Technical Paper

Impacts of Drive Cycle and Ambient Temperature on Modelled Gasoline Particulate Filter Soot Accumulation and Regeneration

2018-04-03
2018-01-0949
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are used as an efficient solution to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions on gasoline vehicles. GPFs are ceramic wall-flow filters and are normally located downstream of conventional three-way catalysts (TWC) [1]. The study in this paper is intended to evaluate the impact of drive cycle and ambient temperature on modelled GPF soot accumulation and regeneration. The test data were obtained through real road testing in Chinese cities including Nanjing, Hainan and Harbin. Five 2.0 L gasoline turbo direct-injection (GTDI) prototype vehicles from several China Stage 6 applications were employed for the road tests. The results of the testing indicated that a drive cycle with low engine speed and engine load, like a typical city road in rush hour traffic in Nanjing, had a low probability of generating high GPF temperatures (> 600 °C) and sufficient oxygen to regenerate the GPF.
Technical Paper

Improving Transient Torque Response for Boosted Engines with VCT and EGR

2018-04-03
2018-01-0861
Modern gasoline engines have increased part-load fuel economy and specific power output through technologies such as downsizing, turbocharging, direct injection, and exhaust gas recirculation. These engines tend to have higher sensitivity to driving behavior because of the steady-state efficiency versus output characteristics (e.g., sweet spot at lower output) and the dynamic response characteristics (e.g., turbo lag). It has been observed that the technologies aimed at increased engine efficiency may improve fuel economy for less aggressive cycles and drivers while hurting fuel economy for more aggressive cycles and drivers. The higher degrees of freedom in these engines and the increased sensitivity make controls and calibration more complex and more important at the same time.
Journal Article

Tier 2 Test Fuel Impact to Tier 3 Aftertreatment Systems and Calibration Countermeasures

2018-04-03
2018-01-0941
During the course of emissions and fuel economy (FE) testing, vehicles that are calibrated to meet Tier 3 emissions requirements currently must demonstrate compliance on Tier 3 E10 fuel while maintaining emissions capability with Tier 2 E0 fuel used for FE label determination. Tier 3 emissions regulations prescribe lower sulfur E10 gasoline blends for the U.S. market. Tier 3 emissions test fuels specified by EPA are required to contain 9.54 volume % ethanol and 8-11 ppm sulfur content. EPA Tier 2 E0 test fuel has no ethanol and has nominal 30 ppm sulfur content. Under Tier 3 rules, Tier 2 E0 test fuel is still used to determine FE. Tier 3 calibrations can have difficulty meeting low Tier 3 emissions targets while testing with Tier 2 E0 fuel. Research has revealed that the primary cause of the high emissions is deactivation of the aftertreatment system due to sulfur accumulation on the catalysts.
Journal Article

Passive Hydrocarbon Trap to Enable SULEV-30 Tailpipe Emissions from a Flex-Fuel Vehicle on E85 Fuel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0944
Future LEV-III tailpipe (TP) emission regulations pose an enormous challenge forcing the fleet average of light-duty vehicles produced in the 2025 model year to perform at the super ultralow emission vehicle (SULEV-30) certification levels (versus less than 20% produced today). To achieve SULEV-30, regulated TP emissions of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) hydrocarbons (HCs) and oxygenates plus oxides of nitrogen (NOx) must be below a combined 30 mg/mi (18.6 mg/km) standard as measured on the federal emissions certification cycle (FTP-75). However, when flex-fuel vehicles use E85 fuel instead of gasoline, NMOG emissions at cold start are nearly doubled, before the catalytic converter is active. Passive HC traps (HCTs) are a potential solution to reduce TP NMOG emissions. The conventional HCT design was modified by changing the zeolite chemistry so as to improve HC retention coupled with more efficient combustion during the desorption phase.
Journal Article

Benefits of Pd Doped Zeolites for Cold Start HC/NOx Emission Reductions for Gasoline and E85 Fueled Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0948
In the development of HC traps (HCT) for reducing vehicle cold start hydrocarbon (HC)/nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, zeolite-based adsorbent materials were studied as key components for the capture and release of the main gasoline-type HC/NOx species in the vehicle exhaust gas. Typical zeolite materials capture and release certain HC and NOx species at low temperatures (<200°C), which is lower than the light-off temperature of a typical three-way catalyst (TWC) (≥250°C). Therefore, a zeolite alone is not effective in enhancing cold start HC/NOx emission control. We have found that a small amount of Pd (<0.5 wt%) dispersed in the zeolite (i.e., BEA) can significantly increase the conversion efficiency of certain HC/NOx species by increasing their release temperature. Pd was also found to modify the adsorption process from pure physisorption to chemisorption and may have played a role in the transformation of the adsorbed HCs to higher molecular weight species.
Journal Article

A New Catalyzed HC Trap Technology that Enhances the Conversion of Gasoline Fuel Cold-Start Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0938
Passive in-line catalyzed hydrocarbon (HC) traps have been used by some manufacturers in the automotive industry to reduce regulated tailpipe (TP) emissions of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) during engine cold-start conditions. However, most NMOG molecules produced during gasoline combustion are only weakly adsorbed via physisorption onto the zeolites typically used in a HC trap. As a consequence, NMOG desorption occurs at low temperatures resulting in the use of very high platinum group metal (PGM) loadings in an effort to combust NMOG before it escapes from a HC trap. In the current study, a 2.0 L direct-injection (DI) Ford Focus running on gasoline fuel was evaluated with full useful life aftertreatment where the underbody converter was either a three-way catalyst (TWC) or a HC trap. A new HC trap technology developed by Ford and Umicore demonstrated reduced TP NMOG emissions of 50% over the TWC-only system without any increase in oxides of oxygen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Measurement of Diluted Combustion Using a Multi-Electrode Spark Plug

2018-04-03
2018-01-1134
Close-loop feedback combustion control is essential for improving the internal combustion engines to meet the rigorous fuel efficiency demands and emission legislations. A vital part is the combustion sensing technology that diagnoses in-cylinder combustion information promptly, such as using cylinder pressure sensor and ion current measurement. The promptness and fidelity of the diagnostic are particularly important to the potential success of using intra-cycle control for abnormal cycles such as super knocking and misfiring. Many research studies have demonstrated the use of ion-current sensing as feedback signal to control the spark ignition gasoline engines, with the spark gap shared for both ignition and ion-current detection. During the spark glow phase, the sparking current may affect the combustion ion current signal. Moreover, the electrode gap size is optimized for sparking rather than measurement of ion current.
Journal Article

The Influence of Fuel Cetane Number on Catalyst Light-Off Operation in a Modern Diesel Engine

2017-08-18
2017-01-9378
The design of modern diesel-powered vehicles involves optimization and balancing of trade-offs for fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise. To meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, diesel powertrains employ aftertreatment devices to control nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter emissions and use active exhaust warm-up strategies to ensure those devices are active as quickly as possible. A typical strategy for exhaust warm-up is to operate with retarded combustion phasing, limited by combustion stability and HC emissions. The amount of exhaust enthalpy available for catalyst light-off is limited by the extent to which combustion phasing can be retarded. Diesel cetane number (CN), a measure of fuel ignition quality, has an influence on combustion stability at retarded combustion phasing. Diesel fuel in the United States tends to have a lower CN (both minimum required and average in market) than other countries.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Engine Air Induction System Hydrocarbon Traps

2017-03-28
2017-01-1014
Engine air induction systems hydrocarbon trap (HC trap) designs to limit evaporative fuel emissions, have evolved over time. This paper discusses a range of HC traps that have evolved in engine air induction systems. (AIS) The early zeolite flow through HC trap utilized an exhaust catalyst technology internal stainless steel furnace brazed substrate coated with zeolite media. This HC trap was installed in the AIS clean air tube. This design was heavy, complicated, and expensive but met the urgency of the implementation of the new evaporative emissions regulation. The latest Ford Motor Company HC trap is a simple plastic tray containing activated carbon with breathable non-woven polyester cover. This design has been made common across multiple vehicle lines with planned production annual volume in the millions. The cost of the latest HC trap bypass design is approximately 5% of the original stainless steel zeolite flow through HC trap.
Technical Paper

Virtual Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurement

2017-03-28
2017-01-1065
Exhaust temperature models are widely used in the automotive industry to estimate catalyst and exhaust gas temperatures and to protect the catalyst and other vehicle hardware against over-temperature conditions. Modeled exhaust temperatures rely on air, fuel, and spark measurements to make their estimate. Errors in any of these measurements can have a large impact on the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, air-fuel imbalances, air leaks, engine coolant temperature (ECT) or air charge temperature (ACT) inaccuracies, or any unforeseen source of heat entering the exhaust may have a large impact on the accuracy of the modeled estimate. Modern universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensors have heaters with controllers to precisely regulate the oxygen sensing element temperature. These controllers are duty cycle based and supply more or less current to the heating element depending on the temperature of the surrounding exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Diagnostics and Prognostics Based on Support Vector Machines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0975
A three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is an emissions control device, used to treat the exhaust gases in a gasoline engine. The conversion efficiency of the catalyst, however, drops with age or customer usage and needs to be monitored on-line to meet the on board diagnostics (OBD II) regulations. In this work, a non-intrusive catalyst monitor is developed to diagnose the track the remaining useful life of the catalyst based on measured in-vehicle signals. Using air mass and the air-fuel ratio (A/F) at the front (upstream) and rear (downstream) of the catalyst, the catalyst oxygen storage capacity is estimated. The catalyst capacity and operating exhaust temperature are used as an input features for developing a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm based classifier to identify a threshold catalyst. In addition, the distance of the data points in hyperspace from the calibrated threshold plane is used to compute the remaining useful life left.
Technical Paper

Selective Catalytic Reduction Control with Multiple Injectors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0943
Over the past decade urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become a leading aftertreatment solution to meet increasingly stringent Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions requirements in diesel powertrains. A common trend seen in modern SCR systems is the use of "split-brick" configurations where two SCR catalysts are placed in thermally distinct regions of the aftertreatment. One catalyst is close-coupled to the engine for fast light-off and another catalyst is positioned under-floor to improve performance at high space velocities. Typically, a single injector is located upstream of the first catalyst to provide the reductant necessary for efficient NOx reduction. This paper explores the potential benefit, in terms of improved NOx reduction, control of NH3 slip or reduced reductant consumption, of having independently actuated injectors in front of each catalyst.
Technical Paper

Exhaust System Thermal Management: A Process to Optimize Exhaust Enthalpy for Cold Start Emissions Reduction

2017-03-28
2017-01-0141
Future vehicle North American emissions standards (e.g., North American Tier 3 Bin 30 or LEVIII SULEV 30) require the exhaust catalyst to be greater than 80% efficient by 20 seconds after the engine has been started in the Federal Test Procedure. Turbocharged engines are especially challenged to deliver fast catalyst light-off since the presence of the turbocharger in the exhaust flow path significantly increases exhaust system heat losses. A solution to delivering cost effective SULEV 30 emissions in turbocharged engines is to achieve fast catalyst light-off by reducing exhaust system heat losses in cold start, without increasing catalyst thermal degradation during high load operation. A CAE methodology to assess the thermal performance of exhaust system hardware options, from the exhaust port to the catalyst brick face is described, which enables compliance with future emissions regulations.
Technical Paper

Bench Test Method for Fuel Tank Vent Valve Noise Induced by EVAP System Pressure Pulsation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0447
In gasoline Powertrain systems, the evaporative emission control (EVAP) system canister purge valve (CPV) can be actuated by pulse-width modulated (PWM) signals. The CPV is an electronically actuated solenoid. The PWM controlled CPV, when actuated, creates pressure pulsations in the system. This pulsation is sent back to the rest of the EVAP system. Given the right conditions, the fill limit vent valve (FLVV) inside the fuel tank can be excited. The FLVV internal components can be excited and produce noise. This noise can be objectionable to the occupants. Additional components within the EVAP system may also be excited in a similar way. This paper presents a bench test method using parts from vehicle’s EVAP system and other key fuel system components.
Journal Article

Data Driven Calibration Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0607
Designing a control system that can robustly detect faulted emission control devices under all environmental and driving conditions is a challenging task for OEMs. In order to gain confidence in the control strategy and the values of tunable parameters, the test vehicles need to be subjected to their limits during the development process. Complexity of modern powertrain systems along with the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) monitors with multidimensional thresholds make it difficult to anticipate all the possible scenarios. Finding optimal solutions to these problems using traditional calibration processes can be time and resource intensive. A possible solution is to take a data driven calibration approach. In this method, a large amount of data is collected by collaboration of different groups working on the same powertrain. Later, the data is mined to find the optimum values of tunable parameters for the respective vehicle functions.
Journal Article

An EGR Cooler Fouling Model: Experimental Correlation and Model Uses

2017-03-28
2017-01-0535
Thermal effectiveness of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers used in diesel engines can progressively decrease and stabilize over time due to inner fouling layer of the cooler tubes. Thermophoretic force has been identified as the major cause of diesel exhaust soot fouling, and models are proposed in the literature but improvements in simulation are needed especially for the long-term trend of soot deposition. To describe the fouling stabilization behavior, a removal mechanism is required to account for stabilization of the soot layer. Observations from previous experiments on surrogate circular tubes suggest there are three primary factors to determine removal mechanisms: surface temperature, thickness, and shear velocity. Based on this hypothesis, we developed a 1D CFD fouling model for predicting the thermal effectiveness reduction of real EGR coolers. The model includes the two competing mechanisms mentioned that results in fouling balance.
Journal Article

The Effects of CO, C2H4, and H2O on the NOx Storage Performance of Low Temperature NOx Adsorbers for Diesel Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0942
Model low temperature NOx adsorbers (LTNA) consisting of Pd on a ceria/zirconia washcoat on monoliths were evaluated for low temperature NOx storage under lean conditions to assess their potential for adsorbing the cold-start NOx emissions on a diesel engine during the period before the urea/SCR system becomes operational. A reactor-based transient test was performed with and without C2H4, CO/H2, and H2O to assess the effects of these species on the NOx storage performance. In the absence of C2H4 or CO/H2, H2O severely suppressed the NOx storage of these model LTNAs at temperatures below 100°C, presumably by blocking the storage sites. When C2H4 was included in the feedgas, H2O still suppressed the NOx storage below 100°C. However, the C2H4 significantly increased the NOx storage efficiency above 100°C, attributable to the formation of alkyl nitrites or alkyl nitrates on the catalyst.
Journal Article

The Development of Low Temperature Three-Way Catalysts for High Efficiency Gasoline Engines of the Future

2017-03-28
2017-01-0918
In anticipation that future gasoline engines will have improved fuel efficiency and therefore lower exhaust temperatures during low load operation, a project was initiated in 2014 to develop three-way catalysts (TWC) with improved activity at lower temperatures while maintaining the durability of current TWCs. This project is a collaboration between Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Michigan and is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The ultimate goal is to show progress towards the USDRIVE goal of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at 150°C after high mileage aging. A reactor was set up at Ford to follow the catalyst testing protocols established by the USDRIVE ACEC tech team for evaluating catalysts for stoichiometric gasoline direct-injection (S-GDI) engines; this protocol specifies a stoichiometric blend of CO/H2, NO, C3H6, C2H4, C3H8, O2, H2O, and CO2 for the evaluations.
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