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Journal Article

The Shift in Relevance of Fuel RON and MON to Knock Onset in Modern SI Engines Over the Last 70 Years

Since the advent of the spark ignition engine, the maximum engine efficiency has been knock limited. Knock is a phenomena caused by the rapid autoignition of fuel/air mixture (endgas) ahead of the flame front. The propensity of a fuel to autoignite corresponds to its autoignition chemistry at the local endgas temperature and pressure. Since a fuel blend consists of many components, its autoignition chemistry is very complex. The octane index (OI) simplifies this complex autoignition chemistry by comparing a fuel to a Primary Reference Fuel (PRF), a binary blend of iso-octane and n-heptane. As more iso-octane is added into the blend, the PRF is less likely to autoignite. The OI of a fuel is defined as the volumetric percentage of iso-octane in the PRF blend that exhibits similar knocking characteristics at the same engine conditions.
Journal Article

Trends in Performance Characteristics of Modern Automobile SI and Diesel Engines

A prior study (Chon and Heywood, [1]) examined how the design and performance of spark-ignition engines evolved in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. This paper carries out a similar analysis of trends in basic engine design and performance characteristics over the past decade. Available databases on engine specifications in the U.S., Europe, and Japan were used as the sources of information. Parameters analyzed were maximum torque, power, and speed; number of cylinders and engine configuration, cylinder displacement, bore, stroke, compression ratio; valvetrain configuration, number of valves and their control; port or direct fuel injection; naturally-aspirated or turbocharged engine concepts; spark-ignition and diesel engines. Design features are correlated with these engine’s performance parameters, normalized by engine and cylinder displacement.
Journal Article

Fuel Economy Benefits and Aftertreatment Requirements of a Naturally Aspirated HCCI-SI Engine System

This vehicle simulation study estimates the fuel economy benefits of an HCCI engine system and assesses the NOx, HC and CO aftertreatment performance required for compliance with emissions regulations on U.S. and European regulatory driving cycles. The four driving cycles considered are the New European Driving Cycle, EPA City Driving Cycle, EPA Highway Driving Cycle, and US06 Driving Cycle. For each driving cycle, the following influences on vehicle fuel economy were examined: power-to-weight ratio, HCCI combustion mode operating range, driving cycle characteristics, requirements for transitions out of HCCI mode when engine speeds and loads are within the HCCI operating range, fuel consumption and emissions penalties for transitions into and out of HCCI mode, aftertreatment system performance and tailpipe emissions regulations.
Technical Paper

A Deterministic Model for Lubricant Transport within Complex Geometry under Sliding Contact and its Application in the Interaction between the Oil Control Ring and Rough Liner in Internal Combustion Engines

A general deterministic hydrodynamic lubrication model [1] was modified to study the interaction between a Twin Land Oil Control Ring (TLOCR) and a liner with cross-hatch liner finish. Efforts were made to customize the general model to simulate the particular sliding condition of TLOCR/liner interaction with proper boundary conditions. The results show that model is consistent, robust, and efficient. The lubricant mass conservation was justified and discussed. Then analysis was conducted on the lubricant transport between the deep grooves/valleys and plateau part of the surface to illustrate the importance of deep grooves in oil supply to the plateau part and hydrodynamic pressure generation. Furthermore, since the TLOCR land running surface is completely flat and parallel to the nominal liner axis, the liner finish micro geometry is fully responsible for the hydrodynamic pressure rise, which was found to be sufficient to support significant portion of the total ring radial load.
Technical Paper

The Influences of Cylinder Liner Honing Patterns and Oil Control Ring Design Parameters on the Interaction between the Twinland Oil Control Ring and the Cylinder Liner in Internal Combustion Engines

This paper discusses the influences of several cylinder liner honing surface geometrical features on the interaction between the piston twin land oil control ring (TLOCR) and the cylinder liner by using the deterministic hydrodynamic model [1] and the twin land oil control ring model [2]. Additionally, the key design parameters of the TLOCR, including ring tension and land axial width are studied. The results show significant effects of three liner honing surface features beyond height distribution, including plateau wavelength, groove density and honing angle in hydrodynamic pressure generation. The study in oil control ring design parameters reveals that both ring tension and land axial width have important influences on friction and oil consumption, and their competing effects are discussed subsequently.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Model the Lubrication and Friction between the Twin-Land Oil Control Ring and Liner with Consideration of Micro Structure of the Liner Surface Finish in Internal Combustion Engines

This paper presents a model for the lubrication and friction between a twin land oil control ring and the liner within an engine cycle. This model is based on the deterministic method, which considers micro geometry of the liner finish and its effects on both hydrodynamic lubrication and asperity contact. In this particular application, the liner surface micro features are solely responsible for hydrodynamic pressure generation due to the flat face profile of a typical twin land oil control ring, contrasting to the traditional average model where ring surface macro geometry is most important in generating hydrodynamic pressure.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Piston Secondary Motion Model Considering the Dynamic and Static Deformation of Piston Skirt and Cylinder Bore in Internal Combustion Engines

A dry piston secondary dynamics model has been developed. This model includes the detailed piston and cylinder bore hot shape geometries, and piston deformations due to combustion pressure, axial inertia and interaction with the cylinder bore, but neglects the effects of the hydrodynamic lubrication at the piston - cylinder bore interface in order to achieve faster calculation times. The piston - cylinder bore friction is calculated using a user supplied friction coefficient. This model provides a very useful, fast tool for power cylinder system analysis, provided its limitations are understood.
Journal Article

A Novel Accelerated Aging System to Study Lubricant Additive Effects on Diesel Aftertreatment System Degradation

The challenge posed by the long run times necessary to accurately quantify ash effects on diesel aftertreatment systems has led to numerous efforts to artificially accelerate ash loading, with varying degrees of success. In this study, a heavy-duty diesel engine was outfitted with a specially designed rapid lubricant degradation and aftertreatment ash loading system. Unlike previous attempts, the proposed methodology utilizes a series of thermal reactors and combustors to simulate all three major oil consumption mechanisms, namely combustion in the power cylinder, evaporative and volatile losses, and liquid losses through the valve and turbocharger seals. In order to simulate these processes, each thermal reactor allows for the precise control of the level of lubricant additive degradation, as well as the form and quantity of degradation products introduced into the exhaust upstream of the aftertreatment system.
Journal Article

The Trade-off between Automobile Acceleration Performance, Weight, and Fuel Consumption

This paper evaluates how the fuel consumption of the average new U.S. passenger car will be penalized if engine and vehicle improvements continue to be focused on developing bigger, heavier and more powerful automobiles. We quantify a parameter called the Emphasis on Reducing Fuel Consumption (ERFC) and find that there has been little focus on improving fuel consumption in the U.S. over the past twenty years. In contrast, Europe has seen significantly higher ERFC. By raising the ERFC over the next few decades, we can reduce the average U.S. new car's fuel consumption by up to some 40 percent and cut the light-duty vehicle fleet's fuel use by about a quarter. Achieving substantial fuel use reduction will remain a major challenge if automobile size, weight and power continue to dominate.
Technical Paper

Lean SI Engines: The role of combustion variability in defining lean limits

Previous research has shown the potential benefits of running an engine with excess air. The challenges of running lean have also been identified, but not all of them have been fundamentally explained. Under high dilution levels, a lean limit is reached where combustion becomes unstable, significantly deteriorating drivability and engine efficiency, thus limiting the full potential of lean combustion. This paper expands the understanding of lean combustion by explaining the fundamentals behind this rapid rise in combustion variability and how this instability can be reduced. A flame entrainment combustion model was used to explain the fundamentals behind the observed combustion behavior in a comprehensive set of lean gasoline and hydrogen-enhanced cylinder pressure data in an SI engine. The data covered a wide range of operating conditions including different compression ratios, loads, types of dilution, fuels including levels of hydrogen enhancement, and levels of turbulence.
Technical Paper

Effects of Charge Motion Control During Cold Start of SI Engines

An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of various intake charge motion control valves (CMCVs) on mixture preparation, combustion, and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions during the cold start-up process of a port fuel injected spark ignition (SI) engine. Different charge motions were produced by three differently shaped plates in the CMCV device, each of which blocked off 75% of the engine's intake ports. Time-resolved HC, CO and CO2 concentrations were measured at the exhaust port exit in order to achieve cycle-by-cycle engine-out HC mass and in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. Combustion characteristics were examined through a thermodynamic burn rate analysis. Cold-fluid steady state experiments were carried out with the CMCV open and closed. Enhanced charge motion with the CMCV closed was found to shorten the combustion duration, which caused the location of 50% mass fraction burned (MFB) to occur up to 5° CA earlier for the same spark timing.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Gasoline Engine Knock Limited Performance and the Effects of Hydrogen Enhancement

A set of experiments was performed to investigate the effects of relative air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. Selected operating conditions were also examined with simulated hydrogen rich fuel reformate added to the gasoline-air intake mixture. For each operating condition knock limited spark advance was found for a range of octane numbers (ON) for two fuel types: primary reference fuels (PRFs), and toluene reference fuels (TRFs). A smaller set of experiments was also performed with unleaded test gasolines. A combustion phasing parameter based on the timing of 50% mass fraction burned, termed “combustion retard”, was used as it correlates well to engine performance. The combustion retard required to just avoid knock increases with relative air-fuel ratio for PRFs and decreases with air-fuel ratio for TRFs.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion Phasing, Relative Air-fuel Ratio, Compression Ratio, and Load on SI Engine Efficiency

In an effort to both increase engine efficiency and generate new, consistent, and reliable data useful for the development of engine concepts, a modern single-cylinder 4-valve spark-ignition research engine was used to determine the response of indicated engine efficiency to combustion phasing, relative air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, and load. Combustion modeling was then used to help explain the observed trends, and the limitations on achieving higher efficiency. This paper analyzes the logic behind such gains in efficiency and presents correlations of the experimental data. The results are helpful for examining the potential for more efficient engine designs, where high compression ratios can be used under lean or dilute regimes, at a variety of loads.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hydrogen Enhancement on Efficiency and NOx Emissions of Lean and EGR-Diluted Mixtures in a SI Engine

Dilute operation of a SI engine offers attractive performance incentives. Lowered combustion temperatures and changes in the mixture composition inhibit NOx formation and increase the effective value of the ratio of burned gas specific heats, increasing gross indicated efficiency. Additionally, reduced intake manifold throttling minimizes pumping losses, leading to higher net indicated efficiency. These benefits are offset by the reduced combustion speed of dilute fuel-air mixtures, which can lead to high cycle-to-cycle variation and unacceptable engine behavior characteristics. Hydrogen enhancement can suppress the undesirable consequences of dilute operation by accelerating the combustion process, thereby extending the dilution limit. Hydrogen would be produced on-board the vehicle with a gasoline reforming device such as the plasmatron. High dilution at higher loads would necessitate boosting to meet the appropriate engine specific power requirements.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization in a Hydrogen-Enhanced Lean-Burn SI Engine

As part of ongoing research on hydrogen-enhanced lean burn SI engines, this paper details an experimental combustion system optimization program. Experiments focused on three key areas: the ignition system, in-cylinder charge motion produced by changes in the inlet ports, and uniformity of fuel-air mixture preparation. Hydrogen enhancement is obtained with a H2, CO, N2 mixture produced by a fuel reformer such as the plasmatron. The ignition system tests compared a standard inductive coil scheme against high-energy discharge systems. Charge motion experiments focused on the impact of different flow and turbulence patterns generated within the cylinder by restrictor plates at the intake port entrance, as well as novel inlet flow modification cones. The in-cylinder fluid motion generated by each configuration was characterized using swirl and tumble flow benches. Mixture preparation tests compared a standard single-hole pintle port fuel injector against a fine atomizing 12-hole injector.
Technical Paper

Load Control for an HCCI Engine

Homogeneous-Charge-Compression-Ignition (HCCI) engine operation in a vehicle drive cycle is a very dynamic process. In this paper, a controller is devised on the premise that the vehicle is operating under Drive-By-Wire so that the driver commands the engine torque output according to the perceived vehicle speed. Thus a load-following controller is appropriate. Such a controller was developed for a single cylinder engine with electromagnetic variable valve timing control (also known as Controlled-Auto-Ignition (CAI) operation). Under open-loop operation within the CAI regime, the results indicated that the engine response was bipolar in nature: (a) the engine either responded quasi-statically to the open-loop control, or (b) the CAI combustion failed. The latter happened in a load increase process in which the per-cycle increment was too high.
Technical Paper

Modeling Engine Oil Vaporization and Transport of the Oil Vapor in the Piston Ring Pack of Internal Combustion Engines

A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of a number of distinct paraffin hydrocarbons, a set of equations governing the oil vapor density variations were derived by applying mass conservation law to the amount of oil vaporized from the piston and the amount of oil vapor transported within the piston ring pack. The model was applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine. First, the case with the maximum oil supply to all the piston regions was studied. The results showed that, under this condition, the oil consumption from piston vaporization alone was far greater than the typical oil consumption value measured in the engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Substantial Spark Retard on SI Engine Combustion and Hydrocarbon Emissions

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of substantial spark retard on combustion, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, and exhaust temperature, under cold engine conditions. A single-cylinder research engine was operated at 20° C fluid temperatures for various spark timings and relative air/fuel ratios. Combustion stability was observed to decrease as the phasing of the 50% mass fraction burned (MFB) occurred later in the expansion stroke. A thermodynamic burn rate analysis indicated combustion was complete at exhaust valve opening with -20° before top dead center (BTDC) spark timings. Chemical and thermal energy of the exhaust gas was tracked from cylinder-exit to the exhaust runner. Time-resolved HC concentrations measured in the port and runner were mass weighted to obtain an exhaust HC mass flow rate. Results were compared to time averaged well downstream HC levels.
Technical Paper

Fuel Sulfur and Aging Effects on the Oxygen Storage Capacity in Three-Way Catalytic Converters

The catalyst oxygen storage capacities were measured over a test matrix consisted of fuels with 7, 33, 266 and 500 ppm sulfur, and of dynamometer-aged catalysts simulating 4K, 50K and 150K vehicle miles. A methodology was developed to relate the post-catalyst λ sensor response following an engine lean-step-transient to the total oxygen storage sites available. The time resolved NOx concentration profiles (which were most sensitive to the oxygen storage) in the catalyst were measured with the engine operating at λ modulations of various amplitudes and frequencies. The oxygen storage capacity deterioration comprised two multiplicative factors - an age factor which decreased quickly initially (by a factor of 2 from 4K to 50K miles), and then more modestly (by 30% from 50 to 150K miles), and a fuel sulfur factor which decreased by 10% for every 150 ppm increase in sulfur level.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Hydrocarbon Emissions Behaviors in Stopping and Restarting

Engine Hydrocarbon (HC) emissions behaviors in the shut down and re-start processes were examined in a production 4-cylinder 2.4 L engine. Depending on when the power to the ECU was cut off relative to the engine events, there could be two or three mis-fired cylinders (i.e. cylinders with fuel injected but no ignition). The total HC pumped out by the engine into the catalyst in the stopping process was ∼ 4 mg (approximately equaled to the amount of one injection at idle condition). Because the size of the catalyst was larger than the total exhaust volume in the stopping process, this HC was not observed at the catalyst exit. The catalyst temperature was also not affected. When the engine was purged after shut down (by cranking the engine with the injectors and ignition disconnected), the total exit HC was 33 mg. In a restart 90 minutes after shut down, the integrated amount of HC emissions due to residual fuel from the stopping process was 16 mg.