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Technical Paper

Development of a Natural Gas Engine with Diesel Engine-like Efficiency Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0225
Present day natural gas engines have a significant efficiency disadvantage but benefit with low carbon-dioxide emissions and cheap three-way catalysis aftertreatment. The aim of this work is to improve the efficiency of a natural gas engine on par with a diesel engine. A Cummins-Westport ISX12-G (diesel) engine is used for the study. A baseline model is validated in three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The challenge of this project is adapting the diesel engine for the natural gas fuel, so that the increased squish area of the diesel engine piston can be used to accomplish faster natural gas burn rates. A further increase efficiency is achieved by switching to D-EGR technology. D-EGR is a concept where one or more cylinders are run with excess fueling and its exhaust stream, containing H2 and CO, is cooled and fed into the intake stream. With D-EGR although there is an in-cylinder presence of a reactive H2-CO reformate, there is also higher levels of dilution.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Dedicated EGR on a 12 L Natural Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1143
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) converted a Cummins ISX 12 G in-line six-cylinder engine to a Dedicated EGRTM (D-EGRTM) configuration. D-EGR is an efficient way to produce reformate and increase the EGR rate. Two of the six cylinders were utilized as the dedicated cylinders. This supplied a nominal EGR rate of 33% compared to the baseline engine utilizing 15-20% EGR. PFI injectors were added to dedicated cylinders to supply the extra fuel required for reformation. The engine was tested with a high energy dual coil offset (DCO®) ignition system. The stock engine was tested at over 70 points to map the performance, 13 of these points were at RMC SET points. The D-EGR converted engine was tested at the RMC SET points for comparison to the baseline. The initial results from the D-EGR conversion show a 4% relative BTE improvement compared to the baseline due to the increased EGR rate at 1270 rpm, 16 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Diesel Spray with Non-Circular Nozzle - Part I: Inert Spray

2019-01-15
2019-01-0065
Numerous studies have characterized the impact of high injection pressure and small nozzle holes on spray quality and the subsequent impact on combustion. Higher injection pressure or smaller nozzle diameter usually reduce soot emissions owing to better atomization quality and fuel-air mixing enhancement. The influence of nozzle geometry on spray and combustion of diesel continues to be a topic of great research interest. An alternate approach impacting spray quality is investigated in this paper, specifically the impact of non-circular nozzles. The concept was explored experimentally in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion chamber (CVCC). Non-reacting spray evaluations were conducted at various ambient densities (14.8, 22.8, 30 kg/m3) under inert gas of Nitrogen (N2) while injection pressure was kept at 100 MPa. Shadowgraph imaging was used to obtain macroscopic spray characteristics such as spray structure, spray penetration, and the spray cone angle.
Technical Paper

On-Road Monitoring of Low Speed Pre-Ignition

2018-09-10
2018-01-1676
To meet increasingly stringent emissions and fuel economy regulations, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have recently developed and deployed small, high power density engines. Turbocharging, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) has enabled a rapid engine downsizing trend. While these turbocharged GDI (TGDI) engines have indeed allowed for better fuel economy in many light duty vehicles, TGDI technology has also led to some unintended consequences. The most notable of these is an abnormal combustion phenomenon known as low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI is an uncontrolled combustion event that takes place prior to spark ignition, often resulting in knock, and has been known to cause catastrophic engine damage. LSPI propensity depends on a number of factors including engine design, calibration, fuel properties and engine oil formulation. Several engine tests have been developed within the industry to better understand the phenomenon of LSPI.
Technical Paper

The New BAIC High Efficiency Turbocharged Engine with LPL-EGR

2017-10-08
2017-01-2414
The new Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC) engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance of high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulations. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers. Cooled LPL-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently allowed for increased compression ratio and improved thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped increase low-speed torque. Additionally, the intake and exhaust systems were improved along with optimization of the combustion chamber design.
Journal Article

An Efficient, Durable Vocational Truck Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0660
This paper describes the potential for the use of Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) in a gasoline powered medium truck engine. The project goal was to determine if it is possible to match the thermal efficiency of a medium-duty diesel engine in Class 4 to Class 7 truck operations. The project evaluated a range of parameters for a D-EGR engine, including displacement, operating speed range, boosting systems, and BMEP levels. The engine simulation was done in GT-POWER, guided by experimental experience with smaller size D-EGR engines. The resulting engine fuel consumption maps were applied to two vehicle models, which ran over a range of 8 duty cycles at 3 payloads. This allowed a thorough evaluation of how D-EGR and conventional gasoline engines compare in fuel consumption and thermal efficiency to a diesel. The project results show that D-EGR gasoline engines can compete with medium duty diesel engines in terms of both thermal efficiency and GHG emissions.
Journal Article

Development of a Structurally Optimized Heavy Duty Diesel Cylinder Head Design Capable of 250 Bar Peak Cylinder Pressure Operation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2232
Historically, heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine designs have evolved along the path of increased power output, improved fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust gas emissions, driven both by regulatory and market requirements. The various technologies employed to achieve this evolution have resulted in ever-increasing engine operating cylinder pressures, higher than for any other class of internal combustion engine. Traditional HDD engine design architecture limits peak cylinder pressure (PCP) to about 200 bar (2900 psi). HDD PCP had steadily increased from the early 1970's until the mid 2000's, at which point the structural limit was reached using traditional methods and materials. Specific power output reversed its historical trend and fell at this time as a result of technologies employed to satisfy new emissions requirements, most notably exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
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