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Technical Paper

Comparison of Emission Characteristics of Conventional, Hydrotreated, and Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

This study compared diesel exhaust emission from four different diesel fuels: a conventional low sulfur D2 diesel (0.03% sulfur, 28% aromatics), California Air Resources Board (CARB) diesel (0.015% sulfur, 8% aromatics), “Swedish” diesel (<0.001% sulfur, 4% aromatics), and a Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel (<0.0001% sulfur, <0.1% aromatics) fuel. The comparison included regulated emissions, hydrocarbon speciation, air toxics, aldehydes and ketones, particle size distribution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Testing was conducted using a Cummins B-Series engine installed both in a heavy light-duty truck operating on a chassis dynamometer and on an engine dynamometer. The chassis driving cycles included city, highway, and aggressive driving operation. Engine dynamometer tests included the U.S. transient cycle.