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Technical Paper

Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) Sulfur Test Method Variability: A Statistical Analysis of Reproducibility from the 2005 US EPA ULSD Round-Robin Test Program

Beginning June 1, 2006, 80% of the highway diesel fuel produced in the United States had to contain 15 ppm sulfur or less. To account for sulfur test method variability, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) allowed a 2 ppm compliance margin, meaning that in an EPA enforcement action fuel measuring 17 ppm or less would still be deemed compliant since the true sulfur level could still be 15 ppm. Concern was voiced over the appropriateness of the 2 ppm compliance margin, citing recent American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) round-robin and crosscheck test program results that showed sulfur test lab-to-lab variability (reproducibility) on the order of 4 to 5 ppm depending on test method.
Technical Paper

Impact of Lubricant Oil on Regulated Emissions of a Light-Duty Mercedes-Benz OM611 CIDI-Engine

The Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) has identified the compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) engine as a promising technology in meeting the PNGV goal of 80 miles per gallon for a prototype mid-size sedan by 2004. Challenges remain in reducing the emission levels of the CIDI-engine to meet future emission standards. The objective of this project was to perform an initial screening of crank case lubricant contribution to regulated engine-out emissions, particularly when low particulate forming diesel fuel formulations are used. The test engine was the Mercedes-Benz OM611, the test oils were a mineral SAE 5W30, a synthetic (PAO based) SAE 5W30, and a synthetic (PAO based) SAE 15W50, and the test fuels were a California-like certification fuel and an alternative oxygenated diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Performance of Different Cell Structure Converters A Total Systems Perspective

The objective of this effort was to develop an understanding of how different converter substrate cell structures impact tailpipe emissions and pressure drop from a total systems perspective. The cell structures studied were the following: The catalyst technologies utilized were a new technology palladium only catalyst in combination with a palladium/rhodium catalyst. A 4.0-liter, 1997 Jeep Cherokee with a modified calibration was chosen as the test platform for performing the FTP test. The experimental design focused on quantifying emissions performance as a function of converter volume for the different cell structures. The results from this study demonstrate that the 93 square cell/cm2 structure has superior performance versus the 62 square cell/cm2 structure and the 46 triangle cell/cm2 structure when the converter volumes were relatively small. However, as converter volume increases the emissions differences diminish.
Technical Paper

Cetane Number Prediction from Proton-Type Distribution and Relative Hydrogen Population

A theoretical model for predicting cetane number of primary reference fuels from parameters measurable by proton nuclear magnetic resonance is presented. This modeling technique is expanded to include secondary reference fuels, pure hydrocarbons, and commercial-type fuels. An evaluation of the ignition process indicated that not only hydrogen type distribution measurable by proton NMR, but also relative hydrogen population is important in predicting cetane number. Two mathematical models are developed. One predicts cetane number of saturate fuels and the second predicts cetane number of fuels containing aromatic components. The aromatic fuel model is tested using the ASTM Diesel Check Fuels and shown to predict within the standard error of the model.