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Technical Paper

On-Board Hydrogen Generation for Rapid Catalyst Light-Off

This paper describes an on-vehicle demonstration of a hydrogen-heated catalyst (HHC) system for reducing the level of cold-start hydrocarbon emissions from a gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle. The HHC system incorporated an onboard electrolyzer that generates and stores hydrogen (H2) during routine vehicle operation. Stored hydrogen and supplemental air are injected upstream of a platinum-containing automotive catalyst when the engine is started. Rapid heating of the catalytic converter occurs immediately as a result of catalytic oxidation of hydrogen (H2) with oxygen (O2) on the catalyst surface. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emission results of the hydrogen-heated catalyst-equipped vehicle demonstrated reductions of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) up to 68 and 62 percent, respectively. This study includes a brief analysis of the emissions and fuel economy effects of a 10-minute period of hydrogen generation during the FTP.
Technical Paper

Lean NOx Catalyst Evaluation and Characterization

Copper ion exchange procedures were used to prepare zeolite-based catalysts for NOx reduction in lean (oxygen-rich) exhaust. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed the presence of copper in the zeolite matrix. Zeolites were applied onto honeycomb and foam substrates, and evaluated for catalytic NOx reduction efficiency using engine exhaust. Copper-exchanged zeolite catalysts prepared for this study revealed NOx reduction of 95 percent for a period of seven minutes using previously adsorbed exhaust hydrocarbons as the reducing agent. Experiments using ethylene injection to supplement the exhaust suggest long-term and sustained NOx reduction, initially observed at 52 percent. Experimental results and performance comparisons of ZSM-5, mordenite, and Y-type zeolites are discussed. Zeolite catalysts based on Cu-mordenite showed high levels of initial NOx reduction, while results using Cu-ZSM-5 suggested better long-term activity.
Technical Paper

Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Collection for Advanced Exhaust Emission Control

This paper describes the findings of a laboratory effort to demonstrate improved automotive exhaust emission control with a cold-start hydrocarbon collection system. The emission control strategy developed in this study incorporated a zeolite molecular sieve in the exhaust system to collect cold-start hydrocarbons for subsequent release to an active catalytic converter. A prototype emission control system was designed and tested on a gasoline-fueled vehicle. Continuous raw exhaust emission measurements upstream and downstream of the zeolite molecular sieve revealed collection, storage, and release of cold-start hydrocarbons. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emission results show a 35 percent reduction in hydrocarbons emitted during the cold-transient segment (Bag 1) due to adsorption by the zeolite.