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Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Spray Structure and Spray/Wall Interactions in a Constant Volume Pressure Vessel

High-speed movie films, and laser-diffraction drop sizing were used to evaluate the structure, penetration rate, cone angle, and drop size distribution of diesel sprays in a constant volume pressure vessel. As further means of evaluating the data, comparisons are made between the film measurements, and calculations from a dense gas jet model. In addition to the high-speed film data that describes the overall structure of the spray as a function of time, a laser diffraction instrument was used to measure drop size distribution through a cross-section of the spray. In terms of the growth of the total spray volume (a rough measure of the amount of air entrained in the spray), spray impingement causes an initial delay, but generally the same overall growth rate as an equivalent unimpeded spray. Agreement between measurements and calculations is excellent for a diesel spray with a 0.15 mm D orifice and relatively high injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Composition Effects on Ignition and Emissions

Four broad boiling range materials, representative of current and future feedstocks for diesel fuel, were processed to two levels of sulfur and aromatic content. These materials were then distilled into six to eight fractions each. The resulting 63 fuels were then characterized physically and chemically, and tested in both a constant volume combustion apparatus and a single cylinder diesel engine. The data obtained from these analyses and tests have been analyzed graphically and statistically. The results of the initial statistical analysis, reported here, indicate that the ignition quality of a fuel is dependent not only on the overall aromatic content, but also on the composition of the material formed during hydroprocessing of the aromatics. The NOx emissions, however, are related mainly to the aromatic content of the fuel, and the structure of the aromatic material.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Injector Hole Shapes on Diesel Sprays

Twelve different hole shapes for diesel injector tips were characterized with DF-2 diesel fuel for spray cone angle over a range of injection pressures from 21 MPa (3 kpsi) to 69 MPa (10 kpsi). A baseline and two of the most radical designs were also tested for drop-size distribution and liquid volume fraction (liquid fuel-air ratio) over a range of pressures from 41 MPa (6 kpsi) to 103 MPa (15 kpsi). All hole shapes were circular in cross-section with minimum diameters of 0.4 mm (0.016 in.), and included converging and diverging hole shapes. Overall hole lengths were constant at 2.5 mm (0.098 in.), for an L/d of 6.2. However, the effective L/d may have been less for some of the convergent and divergent shapes.
Technical Paper

Emissions Measurements in a Steady Combusting Spray Simulating the Diesel Combustion Chamber

In-cylinder control of particulate emissions in a diesel engine depends on careful control and understanding of the fuel injection and air/fuel mixing process. It is extremely difficult to measure physical parameters of the injection and mixing process in an operating engine, but it is possible to simulate some diesel combustion chamber conditions in a steady flow configuration whose characteristics can be more easily probed. This program created a steady flow environment in which air-flow and injection sprays were characterized under non-combusting conditions, and emissions measurements were made under combusting conditions. A limited test matrix was completed in which the following observations were made. Grid-generated air turbulence decreased particulates, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, while CO2 and NOx levels were increased. The turbulence accelerated combustion, resulting in more complete combustion and higher temperatures at the measurement location.