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Technical Paper

Performance Predictions for High Efficiency Stoichiometric Spark Ignited Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0995
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is exploring the feasibility of extending the performance and fuel efficiency of the spark ignition (SI) engine to match that of the emission constrained compression (CI) engine, whilst retaining the cost effective 3-way stoichiometric aftertreatment systems associated with traditional SI light duty engines. The engine concept, which has a relatively high compression ratio and uses heavy EGR, is called “HEDGE”, i.e. High Efficiency Durable Gasoline Engine. Whereas previous SwRI papers have been medium and heavy duty development focused, this paper uses results from simulations, with some test bed correlations, to predict multicylinder torque curves, brake thermal efficiency and NOx emissions as well as knock limit for light and medium duty applications.
Technical Paper

The Heavy Duty Gasoline Engine - A Multi-Cylinder Study of a High Efficiency, Low Emission Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-1135
SwRI has developed a new technology concept involving the use of high EGR rates coupled with a high-energy ignition system in a gasoline engine to improve fuel economy and emissions. Based on a single-cylinder study [1], this study extends the concept of a high compression ratio gasoline engine with EGR rates > 30% and a high-energy ignition system to a multi-cylinder engine. A 2000 MY Isuzu Duramax 6.6 L 8-cylinder engine was converted to run on gasoline with a diesel pilot ignition system. The engine was run at two compression ratios, 17.5:1 and 12.5:1 and with two different EGR systems - a low-pressure loop and a high pressure loop. A high cetane number (CN) diesel fuel (CN=76) was used as the ignition source and two different octane number (ON) gasolines were investigated - a pump grade 91 ON ((R+M)/2) and a 103 ON ((R+M)/2) racing fuel.
Technical Paper

HCCI in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine-Effects of Engine Variables

2004-06-08
2004-01-1971
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) experiments were performed in a variable compression ratio single cylinder engine. This is the fourth paper resulting from work performed at Southwest Research Institute in this HCCI engine. The experimental variables, in addition to speed and load, included compression ratio, EGR level, intake manifold pressure and temperature, fuel introduction location, and fuel composition. Mixture preparation and start of reaction control were identified as fundamental problems that required non-traditional mixture preparation and control strategies. The effects of the independent variable on the start of reaction have been documented. For fuels that display significant pre-flame reactions, the start of the pre-flame reactions is controlled primarily by the selection of the fuel and the temperature history of the fuel air mixture.
Technical Paper

The Heavy-Duty Gasoline Engine - An Alternative to Meet Emissions Standards of Tomorrow

2004-03-08
2004-01-0984
A technology path has been identified for development of a high efficiency, durable, gasoline engine, targeted at achieving performance and emissions levels necessary to meet heavy-duty, on-road standards of the foreseeable future. Initial experimental and numerical results for the proposed technology concept are presented. This work summarizes internal research efforts conducted at Southwest Research Institute. An alternative combustion system has been numerically and experimentally examined. The engine utilizes gasoline as the fuel, with a combination of enabling technologies to provide high efficiency operation at ultra-low emissions levels. The concept is based upon very highly-dilute combustion of gasoline at high compression ratio and boost levels. Results from the experimental program have demonstrated engine-out NOx emissions of 0.06 g/hp/hr, at single-cylinder brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) above thirty-four percent.
Technical Paper

Effects of Water-Fuel Emulsions on Spray and Combustion Processes in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2892
Significant reductions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines have been realized through fueling with water-fuel emulsions. However, the physical and chemical in-cylinder mechanisms that affect these pollutant reductions are not well understood. To address this issue, laser-based and chemiluminescence imaging experiments were performed in an optically-accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine using both a standard diesel fuel (D2) and an emulsion of 20% water, by mass (W20). A laser-based Mie-scatter diagnostic was used to measure the liquid-phase fuel penetration and showed 40-70% greater maximum liquid lengths with W20 at the operating conditions tested. At some conditions with low charge temperature or density, the liquid phase fuel may impinge directly on in-cylinder surfaces, leading to increased PM, HC, and CO emissions because of poor mixing.
Technical Paper

EPA HDEWG Program-Engine Tests Results

2000-06-19
2000-01-1858
In 1997 the US EPA formed a Heavy-Duty Engine Working Group (HDEWG) in the Mobile Sources Technical Advisory Subcommittee to address the questions related to fuel property effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The Working Group consisted of members from EPA and the oil refining and engine manufacturing industries. The goal of the Working Group was to help define the role of the fuel in meeting the future emissions standards in advanced technology engines (beyond 2004 regulated emissions levels). To meet this objective a three-phase program was developed. Phase I was designed to demonstrate that a prototype engine, located at Southwest Research Institute, represented similar emissions characteristics to that of certain manufacturers prototype engines. Phase II was designed to document the effects of selected fuel properties using a statistically designed fuel matrix in which cetane number, density, and aromatic content and type were the independent variables.
Technical Paper

EPA HDEWG Program - Statistical Analysis

2000-06-19
2000-01-1859
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formed a Heavy-Duty Engine Working Group (HDEWG) in the Mobile Sources Technical Advisory Subcommittee in 1995. The goal of the HDEWG was to help define the role of the fuel in meeting the future emissions standards in advanced technology engines (beyond 2004 regulated emissions levels). A three-phase program was developed. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of the data collected in the Phase II program. Included is a description of the design of the fuel test matrix, and a listing of the regression equations developed to predict emissions as a function of fuel density, cetane number, monoaromatics, and polyaromatics. Also included is a description of selected analyses of the emissions from a smaller set of fuel data that allowed direct comparison of the effects of natural and boosted cetane number.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Degradation Rates of Lubricating Oil in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3574
The specific goal of this project was to determine if there is a difference in the lube oil degradation rates in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with an EGR system, as compared to the same configuration of the engine, but minus the EGR system. A secondary goal was to develop FTIR analysis of used lube oil as a sensitive technique for rapid evaluation of the degradation properties of lubricants. The test engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to meet the 2004 emissions standards. The most significant changes in the lubricant occurred during the first 50-100 hours of operation. The results clearly demonstrated that the use of EGR has a significant impact on the degradation of the engine lubricant.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Properties on Emissions from a 2.5gm NOx Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1998-10-19
982491
The engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Engine exhaust emissions, performance, and heat release rates were measured as functions of engine configuration, engine speed and load. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to achieve a NOx emissions level of 2.5 gm/hp-hr. Measurements were performed at 7 different steady-state, speed-load conditions on thirteen different test fuels. The fuel matrix was statistically designed to independently examine the effects of the targeted fuel properties. Cetane number was varied from 40 to 55, using both natural cetane number and cetane percent improver additives. Aromatic content ranged from 10 to 30 percent in two different forms, one in which the aromatics were predominantly mono-aromatic species and the other, where a significant fraction of the aromatics were either di- or tri-aromatics.
Technical Paper

Nox Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - What is the Limit?

1998-02-23
980174
Methods to reduce direct injected diesel engine emissions in the combustion chamber will be discussed in this paper. The following NOx emission reduction technologies will be reviewed: charge air chilling, water injection, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Emphasis will be placed on the development of an EGR system and the effect of EGR on NOx and particulates. The lower limit of NOx that can be obtained using conventional diesel engine combustion will be discussed. Further reductions in NOx may require changing the combustion process from a diffusion flame to a homogeneous charge combustion system.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition of Diesel Fuel

1996-05-01
961160
A single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine was modified to operate on compression ignition of homogenous mixtures of diesel fuel and air. Previous work has indicated that extremely low emissions and high efficiencies are possible if ignition of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures is accomplished. The limitations of this approach were reported to be misfire and knock. These same observations were verified in the current work. The variables examined in this study included air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, fresh intake air temperature, exhaust gas recirculation rate, and intake mixture temperatures. The results suggested that controlled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is possible. Compression ratio, EGR rate, and air fuel ratio are the practical controlling factors in achieving satisfactory operation. It was found that satisfactory power settings are possible with high EGR rates and stoichiometric fuel-air mixtures.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT)

1996-05-01
961182
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.) as an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) for laboratories and refineries. The IQT software/hardware system permits rapid and precise determination of ignition quality for middle distillate fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. Operating and test conditions were examined in the context of providing a high correlation with cetane number (CN), as determined by the ASTM D-613 method. Preliminary investigation indicates that the IQT results are highly repeatable (± 0.30 CN), providing a high sensitivity to CN variation over the 33 to 58 CN range.
Technical Paper

Injection Pressure and Intake Air Density Effects on Ignition and Combustion in a 4-Valve Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941919
Diesel engine optimization for low emissions and high efficiency involves the use of very high injection pressures. It was generally thought that increased injection pressures lead to improved fuel air mixing due to increased atomization in the fuel jet. Injection experiments in a high-pressure, high-temperature flow reactor indicated, however, that high injection pressures, in excess of 150 MPa, leads to greatly increased penetration rates and significant wall impingement. An endoscope system was used to obtain movies of combustion in a modern, 4-valve, heavy-duty diesel engine. Movies were obtained at different speeds, loads, injection pressures, and intake air pressures. The movies indicated that high injection pressure, coupled with high intake air density leads to very short ignition delay times, ignition close to the nozzle, and burning of the plumes as they traverse the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Spray Structure and Spray/Wall Interactions in a Constant Volume Pressure Vessel

1994-10-01
941918
High-speed movie films, and laser-diffraction drop sizing were used to evaluate the structure, penetration rate, cone angle, and drop size distribution of diesel sprays in a constant volume pressure vessel. As further means of evaluating the data, comparisons are made between the film measurements, and calculations from a dense gas jet model. In addition to the high-speed film data that describes the overall structure of the spray as a function of time, a laser diffraction instrument was used to measure drop size distribution through a cross-section of the spray. In terms of the growth of the total spray volume (a rough measure of the amount of air entrained in the spray), spray impingement causes an initial delay, but generally the same overall growth rate as an equivalent unimpeded spray. Agreement between measurements and calculations is excellent for a diesel spray with a 0.15 mm D orifice and relatively high injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Fuel Properties and Composition and Diesel Engine Combustion Performance and Emissions

1994-03-01
941018
Five different diesel fuel feedstocks were processed to two levels of aromatic (0.05 sulfur, and then 10 percent) content. These materials were distilled into 6 to 8 narrow boiling range fractions that were each characterized in terms of the properties and composition. The fractions were also tested at five different speed load conditions in a single cylinder engine where high speed combustion data and emissions measurements were obtained. Linear regression analysis was used to develop relationships between the properties and composition, and the combustion and emissions characteristics as determined in the engine. The results are presented in the form of the regression equations and discussed in terms of the relative importance of the various properties in controlling the combustion and emissions characteristics. The results of these analysis confirm the importance of aromatic content on the cetane number, the smoke and the NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Composition Effects on Ignition and Emissions

1993-10-01
932735
Four broad boiling range materials, representative of current and future feedstocks for diesel fuel, were processed to two levels of sulfur and aromatic content. These materials were then distilled into six to eight fractions each. The resulting 63 fuels were then characterized physically and chemically, and tested in both a constant volume combustion apparatus and a single cylinder diesel engine. The data obtained from these analyses and tests have been analyzed graphically and statistically. The results of the initial statistical analysis, reported here, indicate that the ignition quality of a fuel is dependent not only on the overall aromatic content, but also on the composition of the material formed during hydroprocessing of the aromatics. The NOx emissions, however, are related mainly to the aromatic content of the fuel, and the structure of the aromatic material.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Injector Hole Shapes on Diesel Sprays

1992-02-01
920623
Twelve different hole shapes for diesel injector tips were characterized with DF-2 diesel fuel for spray cone angle over a range of injection pressures from 21 MPa (3 kpsi) to 69 MPa (10 kpsi). A baseline and two of the most radical designs were also tested for drop-size distribution and liquid volume fraction (liquid fuel-air ratio) over a range of pressures from 41 MPa (6 kpsi) to 103 MPa (15 kpsi). All hole shapes were circular in cross-section with minimum diameters of 0.4 mm (0.016 in.), and included converging and diverging hole shapes. Overall hole lengths were constant at 2.5 mm (0.098 in.), for an L/d of 6.2. However, the effective L/d may have been less for some of the convergent and divergent shapes.
Technical Paper

Emissions Measurements in a Steady Combusting Spray Simulating the Diesel Combustion Chamber

1992-02-01
920185
In-cylinder control of particulate emissions in a diesel engine depends on careful control and understanding of the fuel injection and air/fuel mixing process. It is extremely difficult to measure physical parameters of the injection and mixing process in an operating engine, but it is possible to simulate some diesel combustion chamber conditions in a steady flow configuration whose characteristics can be more easily probed. This program created a steady flow environment in which air-flow and injection sprays were characterized under non-combusting conditions, and emissions measurements were made under combusting conditions. A limited test matrix was completed in which the following observations were made. Grid-generated air turbulence decreased particulates, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, while CO2 and NOx levels were increased. The turbulence accelerated combustion, resulting in more complete combustion and higher temperatures at the measurement location.
Technical Paper

Engine and Constant Volume Bomb Studies of Diesel ignition and Combustion

1988-10-01
881626
Changing fuel quality, increasingly stringent exhaust emission standards, demands for higher efficiency, and the trend towards higher specific output, all contribute to the need for a better understanding of the ignition process in diesel engines. In addition to the impact on the combustion process and the resulting performance and emissions, the ignition process controls the startability of the engine, which, in turn, governs the required compressions ratio and several of the other engine design parameters. The importance of the ignition process is reflected in the fact that the only combustion property that is specified for diesel fuel is the ignition delay time as indicated by the cetane number. The objective of the work described in this paper was to determine the relationship between the ignition process as it occurs in an actual engine, to ignition in a constant volume combustion bomb.
Technical Paper

Control of Diesel Exhaust Emissions in Underground Coal Mines - Steady-State and Transient Engine Tests with a Five Percent Water-in-Fuel Microemulsion

1983-02-01
830555
This paper is the fourth in a series describing work sponsored by the Bureau of Mines to reduce diesel particulate and gaseous emissions through fuel modification. A stabilized water microemulsion fuel developed in previous work was tested in a Caterpillar 3304 NA four-cylinder engine with compression ratio and injection timing and rate optimized for this fuel to demonstrate the emissions reductions achieved. It was tested in both standard and optimum configurations with both baseline DF-2 and optimized microemulsion fuels. Gaseous and particulate data are presented from steady-state tests using a computer-operated mini-dilution tunnel and from transient tests using a total exhaust dilution tunnel. The optimized engine-fuel combination was effective in reducing particulates and oxides of nitrogen in steady-state tests. However, the standard engine-fuel combination provided the lowest particulate and NOx emissions in transient tests.
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