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Technical Paper

Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds from a Combined Dual Port Injection/Direct-Injection Technology Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle

2019-09-09
2019-24-0051
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has changed the exhaust composition in comparison with the older port fuel injection (PFI) systems. More recently, light-duty vehicle engine manufactures have combined these two technologies to take advantage of the knock benefits and fuel economy of GDI with the low particulate emission of PFI. These dual injection strategy engines have made a change in the combustion emission composition produced by these engines. Understanding the impact of these changes is essential for automotive companies and aftertreatment developers. A novel sampling system was designed to sample the exhaust generated by a dual injection strategy gasoline vehicle using the United States Federal Test Procedure (FTP). This sampling system was capable of measuring the regulated emissions as well as collecting the entire exhaust from the vehicle for measuring unregulated emissions.
Technical Paper

Combined Benefits of Variable Valve Actuation and Low-Pressure EGR on SI Engine Efficiency Part 1: Part Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-0241
Modern spark ignited engines face multiple barriers to achieving higher thermal efficiency. This study investigated the potential of utilizing both continuously variable valve actuation (VVA) and low-pressure cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve engine thermal efficiency at part-load conditions. Six speed / load points were investigated on a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. A design of experiment (DoE) approach using the Box-Behnken surface response model was conducted. The DoE results revealed different brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) responses to the valve phasing and the intake valve lift at different operating conditions. Further engine testing was carried out at each speed / load point to confirm the engine efficiency and combustion performance when targeting different valvetrain controls and EGR strategies. The results indicated that utilizing the VVA system could always reduce BSFC at the studied operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Combined Benefits of Variable Valve Actuation and Low-Pressure EGR on SI Engine Efficiency Part 2: High Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-0237
The abnormal autoignition of the unburned gas, namely knock, at high loads is a major challenge for modern spark ignited engines. Knock prevents the application of high compression ratios due to the increased unburned gas temperature, and it becomes increasingly severe for downsized engines with high specific powers. The current paper reports on the potential of utilizing continuously variable valve actuation (VVA) and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce knock tendency at high loads. Five speed / load points were investigated on a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) response to the valve phasing and the intake valve lift was investigated with the design of experiment (DoE) approach. The DoE was conducted using a Box-Behnken surface response model. The results exhibited insensitive response of BSFC to intake valve lift and overlap.
Technical Paper

An Exploratory Look at an Aggressive Miller Cycle for High BMEP Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0231
Through aggressive application of the Miller Cycle, using two-stage turbocharging, medium speed diesel marine and stationary power engines are demonstrating over 30 bar rated power BMEP, and over 50 percent brake thermal efficiency. The objective of this work was to use engine cycle simulation to assess the degree to which the aggressive application of the Miller Cycle could be scaled to displacements and speeds more typical of medium and heavy truck engines. A 9.2 liter six-cylinder diesel engine was modeled. Without increasing the peak cylinder pressure, improved efficiency and increased BMEP was demonstrated. The level of improvement was highly dependent on turbocharger efficiency - perhaps the most difficult parameter to scale from the larger engines. At 1600 rpm, and a combined turbocharger efficiency of 61 percent, the baseline BMEP of 24 bar was increased to over 26 bar, with a two percent fuel consumption improvement.
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR

2019-04-02
2019-01-0249
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry A25A-FKS 4-cylinder, 2.5-liter, naturally aspirated, Atkinson Cycle engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) was benchmarked. The engine was tested on an engine dynamometer with and without its 8-speed automatic transmission, and with the engine wiring harness tethered to a complete vehicle parked outside of the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, onboard diagnostics (OBD) data, and Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded. This paper documents the test results under idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation. Motoring torque, wide open throttle (WOT) torque and fuel consumption are measured during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels.
Technical Paper

Fuel Reforming and Catalyst Deactivation Investigated in Real Exhaust Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0315
Increased in-cylinder hydrogen levels have been shown to improve burn durations, combustion stability, HC emissions and knock resistance which can directly translate into enhanced engine efficiency. External fuel reformation can also be used to increase the hydrogen yield. During the High-Efficiency, Dilute Gasoline Engine (HEDGE) consortium at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), the potential of increased hydrogen production in a dedicated-exhaust gas recirculation (D-EGR) engine was evaluated exploiting the water gas shift (WGS) and steam reformation (SR) reactions. It was found that neither approach could produce sustained hydrogen enrichment in a real exhaust environment, even while utilizing a lean-rich switching regeneration strategy. Platinum group metal (PGM) and Ni WGS catalysts were tested with a focus on hydrogen production and catalyst durability.
Technical Paper

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Diesel Engine Exhaust Both with and without Aftertreatment

2018-09-10
2018-01-1812
Since the conception of the internal combustion engine, smoky and ill-smelling exhaust was prevalent. Over the last century, significant improvements have been made in improving combustion and in treating the exhaust to reduce these effects. One group of compounds typically found in exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), usually occurs at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust. Some of these compounds are considered carcinogenic, and most are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). Many methods have been developed for sampling, handling, and analyzing PAH. For this study, an improved method for dilute exhaust sampling was selected for sampling the PAH in diesel engine exhaust. This sampling method was used during transient engine operation both with and without aftertreatment to show the effect of aftertreatment.
Technical Paper

Effect of Lubricant Oil on Particle Emissions from a Gasoline Direct Injection Light-Duty Vehicle

2018-09-10
2018-01-1708
Gasoline direction injection (GDI) engines have been widely used by light-duty vehicle manufacturers in recent years to meet stringent fuel economy and emissions standards. Particulate Matter (PM) mass emissions from current GDI engines are primarily composed of soot particles or black carbon with a small fraction (15% to 20%) of semi-volatile hydrocarbons generated from unburned/partially burned fuel and lubricating oil. Between 2017 and 2025, PM mass emissions regulations in the USA are expected to become progressively more stringent going down from current level of 6 mg/mile to 1 mg/mile in 2025. As PM emissions are reduced through soot reduction, lubricating oil derived semi-volatile PM is expected to become a bigger fraction of total PM mass emissions.
Technical Paper

The New BAIC High Efficiency Turbocharged Engine with LPL-EGR

2017-10-08
2017-01-2414
The new Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC) engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance of high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulations. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers. Cooled LPL-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently allowed for increased compression ratio and improved thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped increase low-speed torque. Additionally, the intake and exhaust systems were improved along with optimization of the combustion chamber design.
Journal Article

Design and Implementation of a D-EGR® Mixer for Improved Dilution and Reformate Distribution

2017-03-28
2017-01-0647
The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine has shown improved efficiency and emissions while minimizing the challenges of traditional cooled EGR. The concept combines the benefits of cooled EGR with additional improvements resulting from in-cylinder fuel reformation. The fuel reformation takes place in the dedicated cylinder, which is also responsible for producing the diluents for the engine (EGR). The D-EGR system does present its own set of challenges. Because only one out of four cylinders is providing all of the dilution and reformate for the engine, there are three “missing” EGR pulses and problems with EGR distribution to all 4 cylinders exist. In testing, distribution problems were realized which led to poor engine operation. To address these spatial and temporal mixing challenges, a distribution mixer was developed and tested which improved cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variation of EGR rate through improved EGR distribution.
Journal Article

Dedicated EGR Vehicle Demonstration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0648
Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) is an EGR strategy that uses in-cylinder reformation to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. The entire exhaust of a sub-group of power cylinders (dedicated cylinders) is routed directly into the intake. These cylinders are run fuel-rich, producing H2 and CO (reformate), with the potential to improve combustion stability, knock tolerance and burn duration. A 2.0 L turbocharged D-EGR engine was packaged into a 2012 Buick Regal and evaluated on drive cycle performance. City and highway fuel consumption were reduced by 13% and 9%, respectively. NOx + NMOG were 31 mg/mile, well below the Tier 2 Bin 5 limit and just outside the Tier 3 Bin 30 limit (30 mg/mile).
Journal Article

Extension of Analytical Methods for Detailed Characterization of Advanced Combustion Engine Emissions

2016-10-17
2016-01-2330
Advanced combustion strategies used to improve efficiency, emissions, and performance in internal combustion engines (IC) alter the chemical composition of engine-out emissions. The characterization of exhaust chemistry from advanced IC engines requires an analytical system capable of measuring a wide range of compounds. For many years, the widely accepted Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Auto/Oil procedure[1,2] has been used to quantify hydrocarbon compounds between C1 and C12 from dilute engine exhaust in Tedlar polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) bags. Hydrocarbons greater than C12+ present the greatest challenge for identification in diesel exhaust. Above C12, PVF bags risk losing the higher molecular weight compounds due to adsorption to the walls of the bag or by condensation of the heavier compounds. This paper describes two specialized exhaust gas sampling and analytical systems capable of analyzing the mid-range (C10 - C24) and the high range (C24+) hydrocarbon in exhaust.
Journal Article

Automated Driving Impediments

2016-09-27
2016-01-8007
Since the turn of the millennium, automated vehicle technology has matured at an exponential rate, evolving from research largely funded and motivated by military and agricultural needs to a near-production market focused on everyday driving on public roads. Research and development has been conducted by a variety of entities ranging from universities to automotive manufacturers to technology firms demonstrating capabilities in both highway and urban environments. While this technology continues to show promise, corner cases, or situations outside the average driving environment, have emerged highlighting scenarios that impede the realization of full automation anywhere, anytime. This paper will review several of these corner cases and research deficiencies that need to be addressed for automated driving systems to be broadly deployed and trusted.
Journal Article

Cycle-Average Heavy-Duty Engine Test Procedure for Full Vehicle Certification - Numerical Algorithms for Interpreting Cycle-Average Fuel Maps

2016-09-27
2016-01-8018
In June of 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the fuel efficiency of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. The agencies proposed that vehicle manufacturers would certify vehicles to the standards by using the agencies’ Greenhouse Gas Emission Model (GEM). The agencies also proposed a steady-state engine test procedure for generating GEM inputs to represent the vehicle’s engine performance. In the proposal the agencies also requested comment on an alternative engine test procedure, the details of which were published in two separate 2015 SAE Technical Papers [1, 2]. As an alternative to the proposed steady-state engine test procedure, these papers presented a cycle-average test procedure.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Hydrocarbon Measurement with FTIR and FID in a Dual Fuel Locomotive Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0978
Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of a Novel, Off Road, Diesel Combustion Concept

2016-04-05
2016-01-0728
There are numerous off-road diesel engine applications. In some applications there is more focus on metrics such as initial cost, packaging and transient response and less emphasis on fuel economy. In this paper a combustion concept is presented that may be well suited to these applications. The novel combustion concept operates in two distinct operation modes: lean operation at light engine loads and stoichiometric operation at intermediate and high engine loads. One advantage to the two mode approach is the ability to simplify the aftertreatment and reduce cost. The simplified aftertreatment system utilizes a non-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a relatively small lean NOx trap (LNT). Under stoichiometric operation the LNT has the ability to act as a three way catalyst (TWC) for excellent control of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Criteria Pollutant Emissions from D-EGR® Light Duty Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1006
In this study, the criteria pollutant emissions from a light duty vehicle equipped with Dedicated EGR® technology were compared with emissions from an identical production GDI vehicle without externally cooled EGR. In addition to the comparison of criteria pollutant mass emissions, an analysis of the gaseous and particulate chemistry was conducted to understand how the change in combustion system affects the optimal aftertreatment control system. Hydrocarbon emissions from the vehicle were analyzed usin g a variety of methods to quantify over 200 compounds ranging in HC chain length from C1 to C12. The particulate emissions were also characterized to quantify particulate mass and number. Gaseous and particulate emissions were sampled and analyzed from both vehicles operating on the FTP-75, HWFET, US06, and WLTP drive cycles at the engine outlet location.
Journal Article

An Efficient, Durable Vocational Truck Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0660
This paper describes the potential for the use of Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) in a gasoline powered medium truck engine. The project goal was to determine if it is possible to match the thermal efficiency of a medium-duty diesel engine in Class 4 to Class 7 truck operations. The project evaluated a range of parameters for a D-EGR engine, including displacement, operating speed range, boosting systems, and BMEP levels. The engine simulation was done in GT-POWER, guided by experimental experience with smaller size D-EGR engines. The resulting engine fuel consumption maps were applied to two vehicle models, which ran over a range of 8 duty cycles at 3 payloads. This allowed a thorough evaluation of how D-EGR and conventional gasoline engines compare in fuel consumption and thermal efficiency to a diesel. The project results show that D-EGR gasoline engines can compete with medium duty diesel engines in terms of both thermal efficiency and GHG emissions.
Journal Article

Impact of EGR Quality on the Total Inert Dilution Ratio

2016-04-05
2016-01-0713
A series of tests were performed on a gasoline powered engine with a Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) system. The results showed that changes in engine performance, including improvements in burn rates and stability and changes in emissions levels could not be adequately accounted for solely due to the presence of reformate in the EGR stream. In an effort to adequately characterize the engine's behavior, a new parameter was developed, the Total Inert Dilution Ratio (TIDR), which accounts for the changes in the EGR quality as inert gases are replaced by reactive species such as CO and H2.
Journal Article

Medium-Duty Vehicle Fuel Saving Technology Analysis to Support Phase 2 Regulations

2015-09-29
2015-01-2769
This paper presents the results of engine and vehicle simulation modeling for a wide variety of individual technologies and technology packages applied to two medium-duty vocational vehicles. Simulation modeling was first conducted on one diesel and two gasoline medium-duty engines. Engine technologies were then applied to the baseline engines. The resulting fuel consumption maps were run over a range of vehicle duty cycles and payloads in the vehicle simulation model. Results were reported for both individual engine technologies and combinations or packages of technologies. Two vehicles, a Kenworth T270 box delivery truck and a Ford F-650 tow truck were evaluated. Once the baseline vehicle models were developed, vehicle technologies were added. As with the medium-duty engines, vehicle simulation results were reported for both individual technologies and for combinations. Vehicle technologies were evaluated only with the baseline 2019 diesel medium-duty engine.
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