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Technical Paper

Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds from a Combined Dual Port Injection/Direct-Injection Technology Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has changed the exhaust composition in comparison with the older port fuel injection (PFI) systems. More recently, light-duty vehicle engine manufactures have combined these two technologies to take advantage of the knock benefits and fuel economy of GDI with the low particulate emission of PFI. These dual injection strategy engines have made a change in the combustion emission composition produced by these engines. Understanding the impact of these changes is essential for automotive companies and aftertreatment developers. A novel sampling system was designed to sample the exhaust generated by a dual injection strategy gasoline vehicle using the United States Federal Test Procedure (FTP). This sampling system was capable of measuring the regulated emissions as well as collecting the entire exhaust from the vehicle for measuring unregulated emissions.
Technical Paper

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Diesel Engine Exhaust Both with and without Aftertreatment

Since the conception of the internal combustion engine, smoky and ill-smelling exhaust was prevalent. Over the last century, significant improvements have been made in improving combustion and in treating the exhaust to reduce these effects. One group of compounds typically found in exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), usually occurs at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust. Some of these compounds are considered carcinogenic, and most are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). Many methods have been developed for sampling, handling, and analyzing PAH. For this study, an improved method for dilute exhaust sampling was selected for sampling the PAH in diesel engine exhaust. This sampling method was used during transient engine operation both with and without aftertreatment to show the effect of aftertreatment.
Technical Paper

Effect of Lubricant Oil on Particle Emissions from a Gasoline Direct Injection Light-Duty Vehicle

Gasoline direction injection (GDI) engines have been widely used by light-duty vehicle manufacturers in recent years to meet stringent fuel economy and emissions standards. Particulate Matter (PM) mass emissions from current GDI engines are primarily composed of soot particles or black carbon with a small fraction (15% to 20%) of semi-volatile hydrocarbons generated from unburned/partially burned fuel and lubricating oil. Between 2017 and 2025, PM mass emissions regulations in the USA are expected to become progressively more stringent going down from current level of 6 mg/mile to 1 mg/mile in 2025. As PM emissions are reduced through soot reduction, lubricating oil derived semi-volatile PM is expected to become a bigger fraction of total PM mass emissions.
Journal Article

Design and Implementation of a D-EGR® Mixer for Improved Dilution and Reformate Distribution

The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine has shown improved efficiency and emissions while minimizing the challenges of traditional cooled EGR. The concept combines the benefits of cooled EGR with additional improvements resulting from in-cylinder fuel reformation. The fuel reformation takes place in the dedicated cylinder, which is also responsible for producing the diluents for the engine (EGR). The D-EGR system does present its own set of challenges. Because only one out of four cylinders is providing all of the dilution and reformate for the engine, there are three “missing” EGR pulses and problems with EGR distribution to all 4 cylinders exist. In testing, distribution problems were realized which led to poor engine operation. To address these spatial and temporal mixing challenges, a distribution mixer was developed and tested which improved cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variation of EGR rate through improved EGR distribution.
Journal Article

Extension of Analytical Methods for Detailed Characterization of Advanced Combustion Engine Emissions

Advanced combustion strategies used to improve efficiency, emissions, and performance in internal combustion engines (IC) alter the chemical composition of engine-out emissions. The characterization of exhaust chemistry from advanced IC engines requires an analytical system capable of measuring a wide range of compounds. For many years, the widely accepted Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Auto/Oil procedure[1,2] has been used to quantify hydrocarbon compounds between C1 and C12 from dilute engine exhaust in Tedlar polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) bags. Hydrocarbons greater than C12+ present the greatest challenge for identification in diesel exhaust. Above C12, PVF bags risk losing the higher molecular weight compounds due to adsorption to the walls of the bag or by condensation of the heavier compounds. This paper describes two specialized exhaust gas sampling and analytical systems capable of analyzing the mid-range (C10 - C24) and the high range (C24+) hydrocarbon in exhaust.
Journal Article

Automated Driving Impediments

Since the turn of the millennium, automated vehicle technology has matured at an exponential rate, evolving from research largely funded and motivated by military and agricultural needs to a near-production market focused on everyday driving on public roads. Research and development has been conducted by a variety of entities ranging from universities to automotive manufacturers to technology firms demonstrating capabilities in both highway and urban environments. While this technology continues to show promise, corner cases, or situations outside the average driving environment, have emerged highlighting scenarios that impede the realization of full automation anywhere, anytime. This paper will review several of these corner cases and research deficiencies that need to be addressed for automated driving systems to be broadly deployed and trusted.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Hydrocarbon Measurement with FTIR and FID in a Dual Fuel Locomotive Engine

Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Criteria Pollutant Emissions from D-EGR® Light Duty Vehicle

In this study, the criteria pollutant emissions from a light duty vehicle equipped with Dedicated EGR® technology were compared with emissions from an identical production GDI vehicle without externally cooled EGR. In addition to the comparison of criteria pollutant mass emissions, an analysis of the gaseous and particulate chemistry was conducted to understand how the change in combustion system affects the optimal aftertreatment control system. Hydrocarbon emissions from the vehicle were analyzed usin g a variety of methods to quantify over 200 compounds ranging in HC chain length from C1 to C12. The particulate emissions were also characterized to quantify particulate mass and number. Gaseous and particulate emissions were sampled and analyzed from both vehicles operating on the FTP-75, HWFET, US06, and WLTP drive cycles at the engine outlet location.
Journal Article

Impact of EGR Quality on the Total Inert Dilution Ratio

A series of tests were performed on a gasoline powered engine with a Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) system. The results showed that changes in engine performance, including improvements in burn rates and stability and changes in emissions levels could not be adequately accounted for solely due to the presence of reformate in the EGR stream. In an effort to adequately characterize the engine's behavior, a new parameter was developed, the Total Inert Dilution Ratio (TIDR), which accounts for the changes in the EGR quality as inert gases are replaced by reactive species such as CO and H2.
Technical Paper

Novel Renewable Additive for Diesel Engines

A novel oxygenate, 5-methyl furoate ethyl ester (EF), was made by a chemical process from biomass and ethanol. This compound was then used as a renewable diesel additive at concentrations up to 10 percent by volume. This unique ester, which is similar in composition to a know food additive, was studied for engine performance in comparison with two other oxygenated alternatives (i.e. ethanol - EtOH and ethyl levulinate - EL) and with B20 (20 percent biodiesel). Tests were performed with a 2012 6.7 L Ford diesel engine using the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure. The emission results indicated that a blend of the ester with diesel was comparable to the base fuel. In addition, the results also indicated that EF reduces the formation of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide. Other properties of EF seem to improve the physical properties of the blended fuel such as lubricity and viscosity when compared to the base fuel.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects Study with In-Use Two-Stroke Motorcycles and All-Terrain-Vehicles

This paper covers work performed for the California Air Resources Board and US Environmental Protection Agency by Southwest Research Institute. Emission measurements were made on four in-use off-road two-stroke motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles utilizing oxygenated and non-oxygenated fuels. Emission data was produced to augment ARB and EPA's off-road emission inventory. It was intended that this program provide ARB and EPA with emission test results they require for atmospheric modeling. The paper describes the equipment and engines tested, test procedures, emissions sampling methodologies, and emissions analytical techniques. Fuels used in the study are described, along with the emissions characterization results. The fuel effects on exhaust emissions and operation due to ethanol content and fuel components is compared.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Lubrication Oil as an Ignition Source in Dual Fuel Combustion Engine

Dual fuel engines have shown significant potential as high efficiency powerplants. In one example, SwRI® has run a high EGR, dual-fuel engine using gasoline as the main fuel and diesel as the ignition source, achieving high thermal efficiencies with near zero NOx and smoke emissions. However, assuming a tank size that could be reasonably packaged, the diesel fuel tank would need to be refilled often due to the relatively high fraction of diesel required. To reduce the refill interval, SwRI investigated various alternative fluids as potential ignition sources. The fluids included: Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD), Biodiesel, NORPAR (a commercially available mixture of normal paraffins: n-pentadecane (normal C15H32), and n-hexadecane (normal C16H34)) and ashless lubrication oil. Lubrication oil was considered due to its high cetane number (CN) and high viscosity, hence high ignitability.
Technical Paper

Locomotive Emissions Measurements for Various Blends of Biodiesel Fuel

The objective of this project was to assess the effects of various blends of biodiesel on locomotive engine exhaust emissions. Systematic, credible, and carefully designed and executed locomotive fuel effect studies produce statistically significant conclusions are very scarce, and only cover a very limited number of locomotive models. Most locomotive biodiesel work has been limited to cursory demonstration programs. Of primary concern to railroads and regulators is understanding any exhaust emission associated with biodiesel use, especially NOX emissions. In this study, emissions tests were conducted on two locomotive models, a Tier 2 EMD SD70ACe and a Tier 1+ GE Dash9-44CW with two baseline fuels, conventional EPA ASTM No. 2-D S15 (commonly referred to as ultra-low sulfur diesel - ULSD) certification diesel fuel, and commercially available California Air Resource Board (CARB) ULSD fuel.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Characterization of the Dual-Fuel Combustion Process in an Optically Accessible Engine

The dual-fuel combustion process of ethanol and n-heptane was characterized experimentally in an optically accessible engine and numerically through a chemical kinetic 3D-CFD investigation. Previously reported formaldehyde PLIF distributions were used as a tracer of low-temperature oxidation of straight-chained hydrocarbons and the numerical results were observed to be in agreement with the experimental data. The numerical and experimental evidence suggests that a change in the speed of flame propagation is responsible for the observed behavior of the dual-fuel combustion, where the energy release duration is increased and the maximum rate of pressure rise is decreased. Further, an explanation is provided for the asymmetrical energy release profile reported in literature which has been previously attributed to an increase in the diffusion-controlled combustion phase.
Technical Paper

Comparison of SCR Catalyst Performance on RMC SET Emission Cycle between an Engine and a High Flow Burner Rig

Government agencies like EPA play an important role through regulation to reduce emissions and fuel consumption and to drive technological developments to reduce the environmental impact of burning petroleum fuels. Emissions testing and control is one of the leading and growing fields in the development of modern vehicles. Recently, Cummins Emissions Solutions (CES) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) worked jointly in order to achieve a method to conduct emissions testing efficiently and effectively. The collaborative work between the two organizations led to the usage of FOCAS HGTR™ (a diesel-based burner test rig at SwRI) to simulate the exhaust conditions generated by a 2010 ISX Cummins production engine operating over an EPA standard Ramped Modal Cycle Supplemental Emissions Test (RMC SET) cycle.
Journal Article

The Effects of Piston Crevices and Injection Strategy on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines

The spark ignition (SI) engine has been known to exhibit several different abnormal combustion phenomena, such as knock or pre-ignition, which have been addressed with improved engine design or control schemes. However, in highly boosted SI engines, Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), a pre-ignition event typically followed by heavy knock, has developed into a topic of major interest due to its potential for engine damage. Previous experiments associated increases in hydrocarbon emissions with the blowdown event of an LSPI cycle [1]. Also, the same experiments showed that there was a dependency of the LSPI activity on fuel and/or lubricant compositions [1]. Based on these findings it was hypothesized that accumulated hydrocarbons play a role in LSPI and are consumed during LSPI events. A potential source for accumulated HC is the top land piston crevice.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of Diesel and Alternative Diesel Fuels in Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Conventional diesel fuel has been in the market for decades and used successfully to run diesel engines of all sizes in many applications. In order to reduce emissions and to foster energy source diversity, new fuels such as alternative and renewable, as well as new fuel formulations have entered the market. These include biodiesel, gas-to-liquid, and alternative formulations by states such as California. Performance variations in fuel economy, emissions, and compatibility for these fuels have been evaluated and debated. In some cases contradictory views have surfaced. “Sustainable”, “Renewable”, and “Clean” designations have been interchanged. Adding to the confusion, results from one fuel in one type of engine such as an older heavy-duty engine, is at times compared to that of another fuel in another type such as a modern light-duty engine. This study was an attempt to compare the performance of several fuels in identical environments, using the same engine, for direct comparison.
Journal Article

Development of a Solid Exhaust Particle Number Measurement System Using a Catalytic Stripper Technology

A solid particle number measurement system (SPNMS) was developed using a catalytic stripper (CS) technology instead of an evaporation tube (ET). The ET is used in commercially available systems, compliant with the Particle Measurement Program (PMP) protocol developed for European Union (EU) solid particle number regulations. The catalytic stripper consists of a small core of a diesel exhaust oxidation catalyst. The SPNMS/CS met all performance requirements under the PMP protocol. It showed a much better performance in removing large volatile tetracontane particles down to a size well below the PMP lower cut-size of 23 nm, compared to a SPNMS equipped with an ET instead of a CS. The SPNMS/CS also showed a similar performance to a commercially available system when used on a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine exhaust.
Journal Article

Performance and Emissions of Diesel and Alternative Diesel Fuels in a Heavy-duty Industry-Standard Older Engine

Conventional diesel fuel has been in the market for decades and used successfully to run diesel engines of all sizes in many applications. In order to reduce emissions and to foster energy source diversity, new fuels such as alternative and renewable, as well as new fuel formulations have entered the market. These include biodiesel, gas-to-liquid, and alternative formulations by states such as California. Performance variations in fuel economy, emissions, and compatibility for these fuels have been evaluated and debated. In some cases contradictory views have surfaced. “Sustainable”, “Renewable”, and “Clean” designations have been interchanged. Adding to the confusion, results from one fuel in one type of engine such as an older heavy-duty engine, is at times compared to that of another type such as a modern light-duty. This study was an attempt to compare the performance of several fuels in an identical environment, using the same engine, for direct comparison.
Journal Article

Multi-Vehicle Evaluation of Gasoline Additive Packages: A Fourth Generation Protocol for the Assessment of Intake System Deposit Removal

Building on two decades of expertise, a fourth generation fleet test protocol is presented for assessing the response of engine performance to gasoline additive treatment. In this case, the ability of additives to remove pre-existing deposit from the intake systems of port fuel injected vehicles has been examined. The protocol is capable of identifying real benefits under realistic market conditions, isolating fuel performance from other effects thereby allowing a direct comparison between different fuels. It is cost efficient and robust to unplanned incidents. The new protocol has been applied to the development of a candidate fuel additive package for the North American market. A vehicle fleet of 5 quadruplets (5 sets of 4 matched vehicles, each set of a different model) was tested twice, assessing the intake valve clean-up performance of 3 test fuels relative to a control fuel.