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Technical Paper

Particle Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Engines during Engine Start-Up (Cranking)

2019-04-02
2019-01-1182
Engine start-up (cranking) can be an important source of particle emissions from vehicles. With the penetration of GDI vehicles in the global vehicle fleet, it is important to analyze and understand the contribution of start-up particle emissions from GDI vehicles, and the potential effects of fuel properties on that process. In this work, chassis dynamometer based investigation on the effect of several gasoline fuels (commercial and blended) on both, naturally aspirated and turbocharged GDI vehicles were conducted to understand the importance of engine start up, in particular, cranking. 10 commercially available gasoline fuels were tested on a naturally aspirated 2010 model year GDI vehicle, 3 among these commercially available fuels were tested on another 2009 model year turbocharged GDI vehicle, and 8 blended gasoline fuels were tested on 12 other GDI vehicles (7 turbocharged and 5 naturally aspirated) ranging in model years 2011-2015.
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR

2019-04-02
2019-01-0249
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry A25A-FKS 4-cylinder, 2.5-liter, naturally aspirated, Atkinson Cycle engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) was benchmarked. The engine was tested on an engine dynamometer with and without its 8-speed automatic transmission, and with the engine wiring harness tethered to a complete vehicle parked outside of the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, onboard diagnostics (OBD) data, and Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded. This paper documents the test results under idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation. Motoring torque, wide open throttle (WOT) torque and fuel consumption are measured during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels.
Journal Article

Design and Implementation of a D-EGR® Mixer for Improved Dilution and Reformate Distribution

2017-03-28
2017-01-0647
The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine has shown improved efficiency and emissions while minimizing the challenges of traditional cooled EGR. The concept combines the benefits of cooled EGR with additional improvements resulting from in-cylinder fuel reformation. The fuel reformation takes place in the dedicated cylinder, which is also responsible for producing the diluents for the engine (EGR). The D-EGR system does present its own set of challenges. Because only one out of four cylinders is providing all of the dilution and reformate for the engine, there are three “missing” EGR pulses and problems with EGR distribution to all 4 cylinders exist. In testing, distribution problems were realized which led to poor engine operation. To address these spatial and temporal mixing challenges, a distribution mixer was developed and tested which improved cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variation of EGR rate through improved EGR distribution.
Journal Article

Automated Driving Impediments

2016-09-27
2016-01-8007
Since the turn of the millennium, automated vehicle technology has matured at an exponential rate, evolving from research largely funded and motivated by military and agricultural needs to a near-production market focused on everyday driving on public roads. Research and development has been conducted by a variety of entities ranging from universities to automotive manufacturers to technology firms demonstrating capabilities in both highway and urban environments. While this technology continues to show promise, corner cases, or situations outside the average driving environment, have emerged highlighting scenarios that impede the realization of full automation anywhere, anytime. This paper will review several of these corner cases and research deficiencies that need to be addressed for automated driving systems to be broadly deployed and trusted.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cold Start Technologies on a 3L Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0823
Increasingly stringent emissions regulations require that modern diesel aftertreatment systems must warm up and begin controlling emissions shortly after startup. While several new aftertreatment technologies have been introduced that focus on lowering the aftertreatment activation temperature, the engine system still needs to provide thermal energy to the exhaust for cold start. A study was conducted to evaluate several engine technologies that focus on improving the thermal energy that the engine system provides to the aftertreatment system while minimizing the impact on fuel economy and emissions. Studies were conducted on a modern common rail 3L diesel engine with a custom dual loop EGR system. The engine was calibrated for low engine-out NOx using various combustion strategies depending on the speed/load operating condition.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study and Secondary Circuit Model Calibration Using Spark Calorimeter Testing

2015-04-14
2015-01-0778
The presented work describes how spark calorimeter testing was used for parametric study and secondary circuit model calibration. Tests were conducted at different pressures, sparkplug gaps and supplied primary energies. The conversion efficiency increases and the spark duration decreases when the gas pressure or the sparkplug gap size is increased. Both gas pressure and sparkplug gas size increase the positive column voltage which represents part of the electrical energy delivered to the gas. The opposite direction occurs when the supplied primary energy is increased. The testing results were then used to calibrate the secondary circuit model which consisted of the sparkplug, the sparkplug gap and the secondary wiring. A step-by-step method was used to calibrate the three constants of the model to match the calculated delivered energy with test data during arc / glow phase.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Characterization of the Dual-Fuel Combustion Process in an Optically Accessible Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1670
The dual-fuel combustion process of ethanol and n-heptane was characterized experimentally in an optically accessible engine and numerically through a chemical kinetic 3D-CFD investigation. Previously reported formaldehyde PLIF distributions were used as a tracer of low-temperature oxidation of straight-chained hydrocarbons and the numerical results were observed to be in agreement with the experimental data. The numerical and experimental evidence suggests that a change in the speed of flame propagation is responsible for the observed behavior of the dual-fuel combustion, where the energy release duration is increased and the maximum rate of pressure rise is decreased. Further, an explanation is provided for the asymmetrical energy release profile reported in literature which has been previously attributed to an increase in the diffusion-controlled combustion phase.
Journal Article

Multi-Vehicle Evaluation of Gasoline Additive Packages: A Fourth Generation Protocol for the Assessment of Intake System Deposit Removal

2009-11-02
2009-01-2635
Building on two decades of expertise, a fourth generation fleet test protocol is presented for assessing the response of engine performance to gasoline additive treatment. In this case, the ability of additives to remove pre-existing deposit from the intake systems of port fuel injected vehicles has been examined. The protocol is capable of identifying real benefits under realistic market conditions, isolating fuel performance from other effects thereby allowing a direct comparison between different fuels. It is cost efficient and robust to unplanned incidents. The new protocol has been applied to the development of a candidate fuel additive package for the North American market. A vehicle fleet of 5 quadruplets (5 sets of 4 matched vehicles, each set of a different model) was tested twice, assessing the intake valve clean-up performance of 3 test fuels relative to a control fuel.
Technical Paper

Mild Regenerative Braking to Enhance Fuel Economy via Lowered Engine Load Due to Alternator

2008-10-12
2008-01-2560
Brake energy recovery is one of the key components in today's hybrid vehicles that allows for increased fuel economy. Typically, major engineering changes are required in the drivetrain to achieve these gains. The objective of this paper is to present a concept of capturing brake energy in a mild hybrid approach without any major modifications to the drivetrain or other vehicular systems. With fuel costs rising, the additional component cost incurred in the presented concept may be recovered quickly. In today's vehicles, alternators supply the electrical power for the engine and vehicle accessories whenever the engine is running. As vehicle electrical demands increase, this load is an ever-increasing part of the engine's output, negatively impacting fuel economy. By using a regenerative device (alternator) on the drive shaft (or any other part of the power train), electrical energy can be captured during braking.
Technical Paper

An Engine Start/Stop System for Improved Fuel Economy

2007-04-16
2007-01-1777
During city traffic or heavily congested roads, a vehicle can consume a substantial amount of fuel idling when the vehicle is stopped. Due to regulation enforcement, auto manufacturers are developing systems to increase the mileage and reduce emissions. Turning off the engine at traffic lights and regenerative braking systems are simple ways to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In order to develop strong manufacturer and consumer interest, this type of operation needs to be automated such that the stop/start functionality requires no driver interaction and takes place without the intervention of the vehicle operator. Valeo Electrical Systems has developed such a system that replaces the OEM engine alternator with a starter/alternator driven by a standard multi-ribbed V belt. To avoid a break and dual voltage network, this system is based on a 12V electrical system using an Enhanced Power Supply.
Technical Paper

Comparative Abuse Testing of 36 V and 12 V Battery Designs

2006-04-03
2006-01-1272
Comparative abuse tests were performed on commercially available 12 V and 36 V battery designs. Four methods were chosen from SAE J2464 standard, Electrical Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing, March 1999, and modified to apply them to typical-sized automotive batteries. The four tests included a Penetration Test, Crush Test, Radiant Heat Test, and Short Circuit Test. Both the 12 V and 36 V batteries showed minimal reactions to the tests, and there was no significant difference between results of the two designs with respect to the abuse tests performed. It should be stressed however, that this project was limited in scope and was not intended to be a thorough investigation in the batteries safety hazards.
Technical Paper

Accessory Electrification in Class 8 Tractors

2006-04-03
2006-01-0215
Fuel costs to operate large trucks have risen substantially in the last few years and, based on petroleum supply/demand curves, that trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Non-propulsion or parasitic loads in a large truck account for a significant percentage of overall engine load, leading to reductions in overall vehicle fuel economy. Electrification of parasitic loads offers a way of minimizing non-propulsion engine loads, using the full motive force of the engine for propulsion and maximizing vehicle fuel economy. This paper covers the integration and testing of electrified accessories, powered by a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) in a Class 8 tractor. It is a continuation of the efforts initially published in SAE paper 2005-01-0016.
Technical Paper

Roadmap for Hybridization of Military Tactical Vehicles: How Can We Get There?

2002-11-18
2002-01-3048
The U.S. Army's National Automotive Center has contracted with Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (IITRI), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Advanced Propulsion, LLC, to evaluate the effects on fuel consumption and logistics that would result from hybridizing the powertrains of the Army's tactical wheeled vehicle fleet. This paper will outline the approach taken to perform that evaluation and present a synopsis of results achieved to date.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic System Configurations for Improved Efficiency

2002-03-19
2002-01-1433
The design and selection of a hydraulic system for a particular machine is based upon a variety of factors which include: functionality, performance, safety, cost, reliability, duty cycle, component availability, and efficiency. With higher fuel costs and requirements to reduce engine exhaust emissions, new hydraulic system configurations should be considered. Traditional hydraulic systems conssume an excessive amount of energy due to metering losses. A single pump usually supplies flow to multiple functions, with differing flow and pressure requirements resulting in excessive metering losses. The energy of mass and inertial loads is usually dissipated by metering losses. Opportunities exist for reducing metering losses by the use of multiple pumps and by using hydrostatic control of individual functions. Hydrostatic control also allows for energy recovery when used in conjunction with an energy storage system.
Technical Paper

Inductances of Automotive Electromagnetic Devices

2002-03-04
2002-01-0143
A quantitative relationship between inductances and operating currents of automotive electromagnetic devices was necessary for experimentally assessing the nature of the spark that occurs when a current-carrying conductor in an automobile electrical system is broken. Various automotive electromagnetic devices were obtained, and their inductances and dc operating currents were measured. A plot of the data showed, as expected, that an inverse relationship existed, and regression analysis showed that the relationship could be expressed as where L is inductance in millihenries, and I is current in amperes. This formula, which provided sufficient accuracy for the intended experiments, may be used for estimating the inductance of an automotive electromagnetic device if the current drawn by the device is known.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particle Size Distribution of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine During FTP Transient Cycle Using ELPI

2000-06-19
2000-01-2001
Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured for the diluted exhaust of a 1991 diesel engine during the US FTP transient cycle for heavy-duty diesel engines. The engine was operated on US 2-D on-highway diesel fuel. The particle measurement system consisted of a full flow dilution tunnel as the primary dilution stage, an air ejector pump as the secondary dilution stage, and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for particle size distribution measurements. Particle number emission rate was the highest during the Los Angeles Non Freeway (LANF) and the Los Angeles Freeway (LAF) segments of the transient cycle. However, on brake specific number basis the LAF had the lowest emission level. The particle size distribution was monomodal in shape with a mode between 0.084 μm and 0.14 μm. The shape of the size distribution suggested no presence of nanoparticles below the lower detection limit of the instrument (0.032 μm), except during engine idle.
Technical Paper

Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV

2000-04-02
2000-01-1556
A detailed component performance, ratings, and cost study was conducted on series and parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations for several battery pack and main electric traction motor voltages while meeting stringent Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) power delivery requirements. A computer simulation calculated maximum current and voltage for each component as well as power and fuel consumption. These values defined the peak power ratings for each HEV drive system's electric components: batteries, battery cables, boost converter, generator, rectifier, motor, and inverter. To identify a superior configuration or voltage level, life cycle costs were calculated based on the components required to execute simulated drive schedules. These life cycle costs include the initial manufacturing cost of components, fuel cost, and battery replacement cost over the vehicle life.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Ignition Behaviour of the ASTM D-613 Primary Reference Fuels and Full Boiling Range Diesel Fuels in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) - Part III

1999-10-25
1999-01-3591
This paper reports on the third part of a continued study (SAE Papers 961182, 971636) to develop the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™). Past research has shown that this automated laboratory/refinery apparatus can be used to accurately predict the cetane number of middle distillates and alternative fuels using small sample volumes (< 50 mL). The paper reports on the main objective of a study performed by Advanced Engine Technology Ltd. (AET), in co-operation with its research partners. The primary research objective of this work is to further the understanding of fuel preparation (fuel air mixing) and start of combustion processes in the IQT™. Key to this understanding is the manner in which single molecule compounds and full boiling-range diesel fuels behave during these processes. Insights are provided into the manner in which the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-613 primary reference fuels (PRFs) undergo fuel preparation and start of combustion in the IQT™.
Technical Paper

Analysis For A Parallel Four-Wheel Propane Electric Hybrid Vehicle

1999-08-17
1999-01-2907
This paper analyzes the hybridization of a conventionally powered light duty front wheel drive pick up truck by adding an electric motor driven rear axle. Also studied are the effects of using propane fuel instead of gasoline. This hybrid powertrain configuration can be described as a parallel hybrid electric vehicle. Supervisory power management control has been developed to best determine the proportion of load to be provided by the engine and/or electric motor. To perform these analyses, a simulation tool (computer model of the powertrain components) was developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK'. The models account for the thermal and mechanical efficiencies of the components and are designed to develop control strategies for meeting road loads with improved fuel economy and reduced emissions. Results of this study have shown that fuel economy can be improved and emissions reduced using commercially available components (motor, rear axle, and lead acid batteries).
Technical Paper

Determination of Wear Index to Predict Fuel Filtration Performance

1999-03-01
1999-01-0003
The Beta ratio and filtration ratio are two common rating systems used to designate the abrasive filtration efficiency of fuel filters. Previous research developed a series of wear curves to predict the effects of abrasive particles of varying sizes on fuel injector performance. Based on this data, a formula was generated to predict injector wear based on the number of 5-, 10-, and 15-μm particles in the effluent. This value is called the wear index. (1,2)1 Various fuel filters with the same manufacturer rating were evaluated on a test engine to determine the wear index for each of these fuel filters. The results demonstrate the differences between these “similar” fuel filters and how the wear index provides additional information as compared to Beta and filtration ratios.
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