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Technical Paper

Simulation of Radiated Noise from a Transmission Side Cover

Powertrain noise is often dominated by the radiation from individual panels or covers. A structural side cover for a front wheel drive transmission represents a complex noise and vibration design problem. Amongst the NVH concerns are the radiation of structural borne sound and the sound transmission loss characteristics. This paper addresses the use of acoustic boundary elements and structural finite elements to predict the radiation of noise from a structural side cover. A comparison is made to experimental measurements, and discussion provided for practical application of these modeling methods to total side cover design.
Technical Paper

The Use of Pre-Test Analysis Procedures for FE Model/Test Correlation of a Transmission Side Cover

The widespread use of finite element models in assessing system dynamics for NVH evaluation has led to a recognition of the need for improved procedures for correlating models to experimental results. With the greater occurrence of finite element models preceding the first prototype hardware, it is now practical to employ pre-test analysis procedures to guide the execution of the tests in the correlation process. This aids in the efficiency of the test process, ensuring that the test article is neither under nor over instrumented. The test-analysis model (TAM) that results from the pre-test simulation provides a means to compare the test and model both during the test and during the model updating process. This paper discusses procedures for pre-test analyses and demonstrates their application to the correlation of a transmission side cover.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Rotational Vibrations of RWD Output Shafts and Characterization of the Resulting Effect on Passenger Perceived Noise

In rear wheel drive vehicles, passenger perceived tonal noise is often generated by high frequency rotational vibrations of the transmission output shaft. This rotational vibration is excited by the transmission and couples with the dynamic and inertial properties of the driveline and suspension to generate forces through the suspension attachment locations. This paper demonstrates an approach which uses experimental techniques to measure the rotational dynamics of the output shaft and noise path analysis procedures to predict the vehicle system interaction and resulting vehicle noise contribution from this path. An evaluation of three rotational data acquisition techniques, a measurement technique used to characterize a vehicle's torsional acoustic sensitivity, and an application of mobility coupling to the torsional noise path is presented.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of In-Vehicle Boom Noise

In the design of an automobile, an important consideration is to minimize the amount of “boom” noise that the vehicle occupant could experience. Vehicles equipped with four cylinder engines can experience powertrain boom noise in the 40 to 200 Hz frequency range. Boom noise can also be generated by road input, and it is just as annoying. In this paper, a CAE methodology for predicting boom noise is demonstrated for a vehicle in the early design stage in which only 3-D CAD geometry exists. From the CAD geometry, a detailed finite element (FE) model is constructed. This FE model is then coupled with an acoustic model of the interior cavity. The coupled structural-acoustic model is used to predict acoustic response due to powertrain inputs. As a part of the detailed design process, various design modifications were considered and implemented in the vehicle system model. Many of these modifications proved successful at reducing the boom levels in the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Assessment of Powered Seat Adjusters

With the extensive improvements achieved in vehicle driveline and road noise quality manufacturers are turning their attention to component and ancillary noise sources and expecting their suppliers to include sound quality in the assessment of their designs. This paper describes an investigative project into the principal components contributing to the perceived sound quality of powered seat adjusters in passenger vehicles and the statistical methods of analyzing jury preference data.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Analysis for the Prediction of Vehicle Body Acoustic Sensitivities

Body acoustic sensitivity, defined as the interior sound pressure due to a unit force applied to the body, has a major influence on the powertrain and road noise of a vehicle. Body acoustic sensitivity can be predicted analytically in the design stage of a vehicle program using structural-acoustic analysis. Recognition and correction of potential problems at this stage is a cost effective approach to improving a vehicle’s NVH performance. This paper describes the structural-acoustic analysis procedure. Techniques for developing the structural and acoustic models and coupling them to form a structural-acoustic system model are discussed. An application of the procedure for prediction and improvement of body acoustic sensitivity is given for a passenger vehicle.
Technical Paper

Practical Considerations of Vehicle Noise and Vibration Simulation Using an Improved Dynamic Impedance Method

The design of automotive components for low structure-borne interior noise and vibration is facilitated by the ability to reliably simulate total vehicle system response over a wide operating frequency range. This requires that the car body, its interior acoustic cavity, and critical chassis components must be included in the overall dynamic model. Unfortunately, most noise and vibration problems occur in the 200-1000 Hz frequency range where finite element and experimental modal methods have limited applicability. This is due to the high modal density, high damping levels, and sensitivity to fine geometric detail. A simulation method has been proposed earlier which uses component finite element models and component experimental transfer functions to predict combined system response [1]. This method has allowed for a practical approach to automotive system noise and vibration simulation.
Technical Paper

Incorporation of Analytical Simulations into the NVH Design and Development Process of the Nissan Quest

An overview of the analytical noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) simulations performed to support the design and development of the Nissan Quest mini-van is presented. The use of analytical techniques on this project was unique in that analytical results were used to drive the pre-prototype design efforts, as well as to assist in the prototype development phase. Analytical models were developed, and simulations performed, prior to the release of prototype drawings. The simulation results identified necessary changes which were incorporated into the design. Once prototype vehicles became available, analytical simulations and development testing were used hand-in-hand to minimize development time as well as to optimize the cost, weight, and performance of NVH countermeasures. The extensive use of analytical simulations in the design and development process was critical in achieving the aggressive NVH performance objectives set for the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Experimental-Analytical Simulation of Structure-Borne Noise and Vibration Problems In Automotive Systems

The design of automotive components for low structure-borne interior noise and vibration requires the ability to reliably simulate total vehicle system response over a wide operating frequency range. This implies that the car body, its interior acoustic cavity, and critical structural components must be included in this overall dynamic model. Unfortunately, most noise and vibration problems occur in the 200-1000 Hz frequency range where existing finite element and experimental modal methods have limited applicability. This is due to the high modal density, high damping levels, and sensitivity to fine geometric detail. Moreover, it is highly doubtful that these methods will ever be practical tools for the study of the total body dynamics over the frequency range of 200-1000Hz. In this paper, a practical hybrid experimental-analytical approach is proposed in response to the need to simulate high frequencies structure-borne noise and vibration in automotive systems.
Technical Paper

Design for Product Quality

A truck cab latch assembly is presented as an example to illustrate the usefulness of computer based geometrical and statistical modeling. An economic analysis is conducted to show a typical cost benefit of the approach. Further applications of the approach relative to existing computer design tools is discussed as a topic for presentation in a later paper. Various packages currently available from SDRC are referenced as typical examples of these tools. Product cost is shown to be significantly reduced using this method. Correlation of the manufacturing scenerio to a “real world” situation is discussed.
Technical Paper

Field Testing of “Reference Vehicles” as an Aid to the Design Analysis Process for Earthmoving Equipment

New design analysis methods for the structural development and evaluation of earthmoving equipment have been heavily utilized in recent years. In particular, this increased utilization has focused on the use of finite element methods for analyzing stresses in structural components and the use of combined experimental/analytical modeling techniques, such as the “Building Block Approach,” for studying the system response of complete vehicles. The presence of these predictive methods has placed a new burden on test activities which support vehicle design and analysis. Properly planned tests on “reference vehicles,” i.e., existing vehicles for which new designs are needed, can play an important role in directing the new vehicle design efforts. This paper will discuss automated methods for collecting, analyzing, interpreting and handling data for effectively supporting design analysis needs.
Technical Paper

System Modeling Techniques to Improve the Ride and Vibration Isolation Characteristics of Heavy Equipment

Much attention has been devoted to the importance of vehicle dynamics relative to human response ride criteria. The present work extends this effort by providing a practical computerized design approach in which the vehicle designer selects a representative terrain input, either sinusoidal or power spectral density, to excite a vehicle model constructed by the modal Building Block method. To evaluate vehicle ride the resulting system response, accounting for human dynamic characteristics, is compared to accepted ride criteria, such as ISO spectra and absorbed power. An example involving an agricultural tractor is presented to illustrate the approach.
Technical Paper

Improved Techniques for Dynamic Analysis of Earthmoving Equipment

A proved concept in dynamic analysis of complex machinery is the “building block” approach. Individual components, or building blocks, of the total system are analyzed separately, and then mathematically combined to predict the total system dynamic behavior. The building block concept has become a practical design tool with recent developments in sophisticated finite element techniques and computer interfaced testing equipment. This paper describes the state-of-the-art analytical and experimental methods used to determine the component properties and assemble total system models. Specifically, the application of these methods to the dynamic analysis and design of earthmoving equipment is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Transmission Noise Reduction

This paper discusses the nature of noise production of automotive transmissions and the various measures which may be taken to reduce operating noise. The measures discussed include investigation and modification of the gear-shaft system dynamics in both bending and torsion. Also discussed are determination of dynamic characteristics of the transmission housing and ways of reducing the levels of vibration of housing areas and of decreasing the radiation efficiency of those areas.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Failure Analysis of Earthmoving Equipment*

This paper describes techniques for dynamic evaluation of complex mechanical systems, particularly construction equipment. By coupling experimental and analytical techniques, a thorough understanding of system performance can be obtained, and improved predictions of dynamic failures can be made. In particular, the ability to obtain reliable predictions of system stress and/or vibration response to adverse loading conditions is presented. It is not necessary or advisable to restrict the testing of earthmoving and agricultural equipment to static loading conditions only. Dynamic studies, using combined automatic transfer function analysis (TFA) equipment and related computer capabilities, are practical and beneficial. The object of this paper is to point out advantages of dynamic investigations and to present another tool for construction and agricultural machinery engineers in their continuing endeavor to improve their products.