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Journal Article

Development and Application of a Virtual NOx Sensor for Robust Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0951
To meet future emission targets, it becomes increasingly important to optimize the synergy between engine and aftertreatment system. By using an integrated control approach minimal fluid (fuel and DEF) consumption is targeted within the constraints of emission legislation during real-world operation. In such concept, the on-line availability of engine-out NOx emission is crucial. Here, the use of a Virtual NOx sensor can be of great added-value. Virtual sensing enables more direct and robust emission control allowing, for example, engine-out NOx determination during conditions in which the hardware sensor is not available, such as cold start conditions. Furthermore, with use of the virtual sensor, the engine control strategy can be directly based on NOx emission data, resulting in reduced response time and improved transient emission control. This paper presents the development and on-line implementation of a Virtual NOx sensor, using in-cylinder pressure as main input.
Technical Paper

Development, Validation and ECM Embedment of a Physics-Based SCR on Filter Model

2016-09-27
2016-01-8075
SCR on Filter (SCRoF) is an efficient and compact NOX and PM reduction technology already used in series production for light-duty applications. The technology is now finding its way into the medium duty and heavy duty market. One of the key challenges for successful application is the robustness to real world variations. The solution to this challenge can be found by using model-based control algorithms, utilizing state estimation by physics-based catalyst models. This paper focuses on the development, validation and real time implementation of a physics-based control oriented SCRoF model. An overview of the developed model will be presented, together with a brief description of the model parameter identification and validation process using engine test bench measurement data. The model parameters are identified following a streamlined approach, focusing on decoupling the effects of deNOx and soot phenomena.
Journal Article

Robust Emission Management Strategy to Meet Real-World Emission Requirements for HD Diesel Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0998
Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low fuel consumption and good drivability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, where an optimal fuel consumption for each application is not always met in practice. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy, is able to deal with these variations in operating conditions, while meeting legislation limits and obtaining on-line cost optimization. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment, optimal air-path setpoints are computed, which balances EGR and SCR usage.
Technical Paper

Experimental Demonstration of RCCI in Heavy-Duty Engines using Diesel and Natural Gas

2014-04-01
2014-01-1318
Premixed combustion concepts like PCCI and RCCI have attracted much attention, since these concepts offer possibilities to reduce engine out emissions to a low level, while still achieving good efficiency. Most RCCI studies use a combination of a high-cetane fuel like diesel, and gasoline as low-cetane fuel. Limited results have been published using natural gas as low-cetane fuel; especially full scale engine results. This study presents results from an experimental study of diesel-CNG RCCI operation on a 6 cylinder, 8 l heavy duty engine with cooled EGR. This standard Tier4f diesel engine was equipped with a gas injection system, which used single point injection and mixed the gaseous fuel with air upstream of the intake manifold. For this engine configuration, RCCI operating limits have been explored. In the 1200-1800 rpm range, RCCI operation with Euro-VI engine out NOx and soot emissions was achieved between 2 and 9 bar BMEP without EGR.
Journal Article

Integrated Emission Management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1310
A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Following a model-based approach, Integrated Emission Management offers a framework for future control strategy development. This approach alleviates calibration complexity, since it allows to make optimal trade-offs in an operational cost sense. The potential of the presented cost-optimal control strategy is demonstrated for a modern heavy-duty Euro VI engine. The studied diesel engine is equipped with cooled EGR, Variable Geometry Turbocharger, and a DPF-SCR aftertreatment system.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach for Calibration and Validation by Simulation of Emission Control Solutions for Next Generation Off-Road Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0309
The next generation off-road vehicles will see additional exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, ranging from DOC-SCR only to full DOC-DPF-SCR-AMOX systems. This will increase system complexity and development effort significantly. Emission requirements and the high number of vehicle configurations within the off-road industry will require a new process for development and validation. The introduced model-based approach using physical models of aftertreatment can reduce development effort and cost, improve performance robustness and help to identify performance issues early in the development process. A method to investigate and optimize a large matrix of variations by simulation is introduced. This can lead to a significant reduction in the number of required calibrations and can assist in the development of design specifications for the aftertreatment system. A case study for SCR calibration successfully demonstrates the potential of model-based development.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure-Based Control in Heavy-Duty EGR Diesel Engines Using a Virtual Heat Release and Emission Sensor

2010-04-12
2010-01-0564
This paper presents a cylinder pressure-based control (CPBC) system for conventional diesel combustion with high EGR levels. Besides the commonly applied heat release estimation, the CPBC system is extended with a new virtual NOx and PM sensor. Using available cylinder pressure information, these emissions are estimated using a physically based combustion model. This opens the route to advanced On-Board Diagnostics and to optimized fuel consumption and emissions during all operating conditions. The potential of closed-loop CA50 and IMEP control is demonstrated on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty EGR engine. For uncalibrated injectors and fuel variations, the combustion control system makes the engine performance robust for the applied variations and reduces the need for a time-consuming calibration process. Cylinder balancing is shown to enable auto-calibration of fuel injectors and to enhance fuel flexibility.
Journal Article

Cost and Fuel Efficient SCR-only Solution for Post-2010 HD Emission Standards

2009-04-20
2009-01-0915
A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meet post-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy duty applications. The proposed concept is based on an engine from a EURO IV SCR application, which is considered optimal with respect to fuel economy and costs. The addition of advanced SCR after treatment comprising a standard and a close-coupled SCR catalyst offers a feasible emission solution, especially suited for EURO VI. In this paper, results of a simulation study are presented. This study concentrates on optimizing SCR deNOx performance. Simulation results of cold start FTP and WHTC test cycles are presented to demonstrate the potential of the close-coupled SCR concept. Comparison with measured engine out emissions of an EGR engine shows that a close-coupled SCR catalyst potentially has NOx reduction performance as good as EGR. Practical issues regarding the use of an SCR catalyst in close-coupled position will be addressed, as well as engine and exhaust layout.
Technical Paper

Appliance of High EGR Rates With a Short and Long Route EGR System on a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0906
The goal of this work was to investigate the possibilities of applying high EGR rates with low NOx and PM emission levels on a two-stage turbocharged 12 liter heavy duty diesel engine. The EGR is applied by using a long and short route EGR system. For the ESC operating points A25 and C100 EGR is applied, such that the NOx emission is 0.5 g/kWh. Lowest PM level and BSFC are achieved when long route EGR is applied in A25 and short route is applied in C100. Increasing the fuel line pressure is an effective way to reduce PM at high EGR rate engine running conditions. At a fuel line pressure of 2400 bar PM emission are 0.06 g/kWh for A25 and 0.54 g/kWh for C100. At C100 the PM reduction coincides with also a significant fuel consumption improvement. Retarding the injection timing at C100 can improve the PM emission further to a level of 0.13 g/kWh at the expense of an increase in BSFC.
Technical Paper

Is Closed-Loop SCR Control Required to Meet Future Emission Targets?

2007-04-16
2007-01-1574
To meet 2010 emission targets, optimal SCR system performance is required. In addition, attention has to be paid to in-use compliance requirements. Closed-loop control seems an attractive option to meet the formulated goals. This study deals with the potential and limitations of closed-loop SCR control. High NOx conversion in combination with acceptable NH3 slip can be realized with an open-loop control strategy. However, closed-loop control is needed to make the SCR system robust for urea dosage inaccuracy, catalyst ageing and NOx engine-out variations. Then, the system meets conformity of production and in-use compliance norms. To demonstrate the potential of closed-loop SCR control, a NOx sensor based control strategy with cross-sensitivity compensation is compared with an adaptive surface coverage/NH3 slip control strategy and an open-loop strategy. The adaptive surface coverage/NH3 slip control strategy shows best performance over simulated ESC and ETC cycles.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Urea SCR deNOx Systems for HD Diesel Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-0154
In the past decade, SCR deNOx technology with urea injection has grown to maturity. European OEMs will apply SCR deNOx to meet future heavy-duty emissions legislation starting with EURO-4 (2005/2006). Numerous research programs in Europe and the US have shown a variety of system layouts and control strategies. The main differences are formed by: the engine-out NOx calibration the application of an NO to NO2 catalyst open-loop or closed-loop urea dosage control. This paper gives an overview of possible SCR system configurations that are required for different stages of future emission legislation. Engine-out NOx emission is strongly influenced by ambient conditions. Projections in this study show that a combination of cold climate and a wintergrade fuel is the most severe: it may lead to 30% lower engine-out NOx emission with respect to laboratory conditions.
Technical Paper

Single Bank NOx Adsorber for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2003-05-19
2003-01-1885
In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of steady state key points without violating pre-defined limits. With these results the NOx adsorber was evaluated and tested. Besides establishing NOx conversions and BSFC penalties the programme also looked at the adsorber capabilities of dealing with sulphur poisoning and how well the adsorber could be de-sulphurised. This programme showed clearly the stronger and weaker points in the NOx adsorber technology for heavy duty application. From NOx conversion - BSFC penalty trade off curves it became clear that at lower loads high conversions (> 90%) with small fuel penalties (< 2.5%) were possible. However at high load the conversions were reduced (< 70%) and the fuel penalties increased (> 6%).
Technical Paper

Engine Dynamometer and Vehicle Performance of a Urea SCR-System for Heavy-Duty Truck Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0286
The application of SCR deNOx aftertreatment was studied on two about 12 liter class heavy-duty diesel engines within a consortium project. Basically, the system consists of a dosage system for aqueous urea injection and a vanadia based SCR catalyst, without an upstream or downstream oxidation catalyst. The urea injection system for a DAF and a Renault V.I. (Véhicules Industriels) diesel engine was calibrated on the engine test bench taking into account dynamic effects of the catalyst. For both engine applications NOx reduction was 81% to 84% over the ESC and 72% over the ETC. CO emission increased up to 27%. PM emission is reduced by 4 to 23% and HC emission is reduced by more than 80%. These results are achieved with standard diesel fuel with about 350 ppm sulfur. The test engines and SCR deNOx systems were built into a DAF FT95 truck and a Renault V.I. Magnum truck.
Technical Paper

Development of a Model-Based Controller for a Three-Way Catalytic Converter

2002-03-04
2002-01-0475
The performance of a three-way catalytic converter under transient operation can be improved by controlling the level of oxygen stored on ceria at some optimal level. A model-based controller, with the model estimating the level of ceria coverage by oxygen, can achieve this goal. A simple, dynamic model is based on step responses of the converter and is used to train the controller off-line. The controller is a neuro-fuzzy approximation of a model predictive controller. Thus, it retains a high performance while being less computationally involving. The system performance has been experimentally tested by a specially designed, highly transient test cycle.
Technical Paper

DAF Euro-4 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with TNO EGR system and CRT Particulates Filter

2001-05-07
2001-01-1947
This paper reports on a study of the TNO venturi EGR system and the Johnson Matthey CRT particulates trap on a DAF 355 kW engine. The results obtained indicate that this EGR-CRT combination is an effective means to achieve EURO-4 emission level, while maintaining good fuel economy. EGR strategy, injection timing and air-fuel ratio were optimised in such a way that good regeneration conditions were obtained across most of the engine operating map. Also transient EGR control is optimised to combine low NOx emission during the ETC with good driveability and good engine out particulates emission. The size of the oxidation catalyst in the CRT was investigated. It appeared that the larger oxidation catalyst showed a better regeneration performance during a low temperature duty-cycle. Negative aspects of a larger oxidation catalyst are increased costs and increased NO2 emission (because of the catalyst ability to oxidise more NO into NO2).
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