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Technical Paper

Development of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Technology for Urban Transport in India

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is considered for automotive applications due to rapid start up, energy efficiency, high power density and less maintenance. In line with National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap of Govt. of India that aims to develop and demonstrate hydrogen powered IC engine and fuel cell based vehicle. TATA Motors Ltd. has designed, developed and successfully demonstrated “Low Floor Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus” which comprises of integrated fuel cell power system, hydrogen storage and dispensing system. The fuel cell power system, converts the stored chemical energy in the hydrogen to DC electrical energy. The power generated is regulated and used for powering the traction motor. The development of fuel cell bus consists of five stages: Powertrain sizing as per vehicle performance targets, fuel cell stack selection and balance of plant design and development, bus integration, hydrogen refueling infrastructure creation and testing of fuel cell bus.
Technical Paper

A Feedback and Feedforward Control Algorithm for a Manual Transmission Vehicle Simulation Model

Authors were challenged with a task of developing a full vehicle simulation model, with a target to simulate the electrical system performance and perform digital tests like Battery Charge Balance, in addition to the fuel efficiency estimation. A vehicle is a complicated problem or domain to model, due to the complexities of subsystems. Even more difficult task is to have a control algorithm which controls the vehicle model with the required control signals to follow the test specification. Particularly, simulating the control of a vehicle with a manual transmission is complicated due to many associated control signals (Throttle, Brake and Clutch) and interruptions like gear changes. In this paper, the development of a full vehicle model aimed at the assessment of electrical system performance of the vehicle is discussed in brief.
Technical Paper

Hill Start Assistance Developed for Buses Equipped with AMT

The AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) has attracted increasing interest of automotive researches, because it has some advantages of both MT (Manual Transmission) and AT (Automatic Transmission), such as low cost, high efficiency, easy to use and good comfort. The hill-start assistance is an important feature of AMT. The vehicle will move backward, start with jerk, or cause engine stalling if failed on the slope road. For manual transmission, hill-start depends on the driver's skills to coordinate with the brake, clutch and throttle pedal to achieve a smooth start. However, with the AMT, clutch pedal is removed and therefore, driver can’t perceive the clutch position, making it difficult to hill-start with AMT without hill-start control strategy. This paper discussed about the hill start control strategy and its functioning.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Diagnostics, End of Line and System Performance Checks for Micro Hybrid Battery Management Systems

Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities.
Technical Paper

Average-Value Model of Induction Motor Drive for Cost Effective HIL Testing of E-Motor Controller for Mild Hybrid Application

Induction motor is very much used in mild hybrid vehicles because of its low cost, rugged structure and reliability. To test the induction motor controller in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment efficiently in both motoring and generating modes, generally, an instantaneous dynamic model of induction motor drive is used which requires the instantaneous values of PWM signals of inverter switches and hence a very high sampling frequency of about twenty times the switching frequency is required to effectively capture all the switching information of MOSFETS. This requires a HIL system with very powerful processor which increases the overall cost of system. In this paper, a dynamic average-value model of induction motor drive is developed in MATLAB/Simulink which requires only the duty cycle information instead of instantaneous switching information of PWM signals. Its performance is compared with the instantaneous model which is also developed in MATLAB/Simulink.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Capacitor based Hybrid Energy Storage and Energy Management for Mild Hybrid Vehicles

In a Mild hybrid electric vehicle, a battery serves as a continuous source of energy but is inefficient in supplying peak power demands required during torque assists for short duration. Moreover, the random charging and discharging that result due to varying drive cycle of the vehicle affects the life of the battery. In this paper, an Ultra-capacitor based hybrid energy storage system (HESS) has been developed for mild hybrid vehicle which aims at utilizing the advantages of ultracapacitors by combining them with lead-acid batteries, to improve the overall performance of the battery, and to increase their useful life. Active current-sharing is achieved by interfacing ultracapacitor to the battery through a bi-directional boost dc-dc converter.
Journal Article

An Intelligent Alternator Control Mechanism for Energy Recuperation and Fuel Efficiency Improvement

With the current state of ever rising fuel prices and unavailability of affordable alternate technologies, significant research and development efforts have been invested in recent times towards improving fuel efficiency of vehicles powered with conventional internal combustion engines. To achieve this, a varied approach has been adopted by researchers to cover the entire energy chain including fuel quality, combustion quality, power generation efficiency, down-sizing, power consumption efficiency, etc. Apart from energy generation, distribution and consumption, another domain that has been subjected to significant scrutiny is energy recuperation or recovery. A moving vehicle and a running engine provide a number of opportunities for useful back-recovery and storage of energy. The most significant sources for recuperation are the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle or running engine and to a lesser extent the thermal energy from medium such as exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

A Novel and Low Cost Strategy for Distance Logging in EEPROM for OBD-I Compliance

On Board Diagnostics norms enforced by regulatory authorities of many countries require logging of distance traveled by the vehicle with MIL (malfunction indicator lamp) illuminated. This log needs to be maintained in non-volatile ECU memory. Conventional techniques maintain the log in a volatile memory during vehicle run-time and transfer the same to non-volatile memory when ignition is turned off. This requires use of a “power-hold” relay to keep an ECU power alive while the logged data in volatile memory is being transferred to non-volatile memory when ignition is switched-off. A novel strategy described in this paper avoids interface with power-hold relay, thereby reducing the system complexity. The design philosophy described makes use of an EEPROM to maintain the distance log. An innovative algorithm is employed to ensure that endurance specifications are not violated during the vehicle life-time.
Technical Paper

Feed Forward and Integral Control of an EGR Valve

Automotive embedded control systems need to implement real-time closed-loop control strategies for controlling valves, motors, etc. The implementation needs to focus on use of low cost hardware and efficient software with minimal foot-print so as to adequately meet the application requirement. This paper highlights the low cost hardware and software design concepts by way of a case study related to control of progressive EGR valve. The control strategy is based on "map-driven set-points" where percentage opening of the valve is stored in the form of 16x16 matrices. The set-points are accessed based on instantaneous throttle and engine rpm values which form the row and column indices of the map. The closed loop control algorithm eliminates the need for multiplication by implementing "feed-forward with integral control algorithm." A feed-forward map specifies the most likely PWM duty cycle to be applied to the valve for a given set-point.
Technical Paper

Development & Calibration of a Rain-Light Sensor and Controller for Indian Market

Modern vehicles complexity is increasing to meet the demands of user. Automatic wiper and headlamp activation system using rain light sensor, (RLS) is one of the popular customer requirement. RLS is a combination of an infrared rain sensor and an optical light sensor. The RLS and controller operate the front wiper once it detects rain droplets on the windscreen. It switches on the headlamps automatically when while vehicles enter in to the tunnel. During integration of a rain light sensor on a vehicle the following should be considered: customer usage pattern, environmental factors, light intensity, raining pattern and vehicle architecture limitations. This paper illustrates the methodology used calibrated a pre-developed rain light sensor for specific markets like India.