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Technical Paper

The Remarkable Turbomachinery-Rotordynamics Developments During the Last Quarter of the 20th Century

Rotordynamics developed from the beginning of the 20th century to deal with problems associated with steam turbines. This paper deals with intense developments starting around 1975 through 2000 in rotordynamics to deal with new, larger machines running at higher speeds and higher power levels. Most of the new problems of interest dealt with subsynchronous instabilities. Issues associated with “synchromnously unstable” motion due to the Morton Effect is also reviewed.
Technical Paper

A Highly Stable Two-Phase Thermal Management System for Aircraft

Future electronics and photonics systems, weapons systems, and environmental control systems in aircraft will require advanced thermal management technology to control the temperature of critical components. Two-phase Thermal Management Systems (TMS) are attractive because they are compact, lightweight, and efficient. However, maintaining stable and reliable cooling in a two-phase flow system presents unique design challenges, particularly for systems with parallel evaporators during thermal transients. Furthermore, preventing ingress of liquid into a vapor compressor during variable-gravity operation is critical for long-term reliability and life. To enable stable and reliable cooling, a highly stable two-phase system is being developed that can effectively suppress flow instability in a system with parallel evaporators. Flow stability is achieved by ensuring that only single-phase liquid enters the evaporators.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel Consumption and Cyclic Variability with Pulsed Energy Spark Plug

Conventional spark plugs ignite a fuel-air mixture via an electric-to-plasma energy transfer; the effectiveness of which can be described by an electric-to-plasma energy efficiency. Although conventional spark plug electric-to-plasma efficiencies have historically been viewed as adequate, it might be wondered how an increase in such an efficiency might translate (if at all) to improvements in the flame initiation period and eventual engine performance of a spark-ignition engine. A modification can be made to the spark plug that places a peaking capacitor in the path of the electrical current; upon coil energizing, the stored energy in the peaking capacitor substantially increases the energy delivered by the spark. A previous study has observed an improvement in the electric-to-plasma energy efficiency to around 50%, whereas the same study observed conventional spark plug electric-to-plasma energy efficiency to remain around 1%.
Journal Article

Design with Uncertain Technology Evolution

A major decision to make in design projects is the selection of the best technology to provide some needed system functionality. In making this decision, the designer must consider the range of technologies available and the performance of each. During the useful life of the product, the technologies composing the product evolve as research and development efforts continue. The performance evolution rate of one technology may be such that even though it is not initially a preferably technology, it becomes a superior technology after a few years. Quantifying the evolution of these technologies complicates the technology selection decision. The selection of energy storage technology in the design of an electric car is one example of a difficult decision involving evolving technologies.
Technical Paper

A Layer Structured Model Based Diagnosis: Application to a Gear Box System

OBD (On Board Diagnosis) has been applied to detect malfunctions in powertrains. OBD requirements have been extended to detect various failures for ensuring the vehicle emission control system being normal. That causes further costs for additional sensors and software works. Two layers diagnosis system is proposed for a passenger car gearbox system to detect changes from normal behavior. Conventional physical constraints based diagnosis is placed on the base layer. Model based diagnosis and specific symptom finding diagnosis are built on the second layer. Conventional physical constraints based diagnosis is direct and effective way to detect the failure of system if the detected signals exceed their normal ranges. However under the case of system failure with related signals still remain in normal ranges, the conventional detection measures can not work normally. Under this case, Model based diagnosis is proposed to enhance the functionality of diagnosis system.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Proper Motor Drive Characteristics for Military Vehicle Propulsion

Due to their harsh operating environments, military vehicle drive trains have special requirements. These special requirements are usually represented by hill climbing ability, obstacle negotiation, battlefield cross country travel, hard acceleration, high speed, etc. These special requirements need the vehicle drive train to have a wider torque and speed range characteristics than commercial vehicles. We have proved that larger constant power ratio in electric motor can significantly enhance the vehicle acceleration performance. In other words, for the same acceleration performance, large constant power ratio can minimize the power rating of the traction motor drive, thus minimizing the power rating of the power source (batteries for instance). Actually, extension of the constant power range can also significantly enhance the gradeability, which is crucial for military vehicles.
Technical Paper

Investigation of High-Energy and High-Power Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Military Vehicle Application

Military and civilian vehicles are moving towards more electrification, in response to the increasing demand for multi-mode missions, fuel consumption and emissions reduction, and dual use electrical and electronic components. Consequently, the vehicle electric load is increasing rapidly. For military vehicles, these electrical loads include: the loads for electric traction (EV and HEV), cabin climate conditioning, vehicle control and actuation, actuation by wire (X by wire), sensors, reconnaissance, communications, weapons etc. All these requirements need to be supported by an efficient, fast responding and high capacity energy storage system. The electric load of a vehicle can be decomposed into two components--- static and dynamic loads. The static component is slowly varying power with limited magnitude, whereas the dynamic load is fast varying power with large magnitude. The energy storage system, accordingly, comprises of two basic elements.
Technical Paper

Effect of Extended-Speed, Constant-Power Operation of Electric Drives on the Design and Performance of EV-HEV Propulsion System

Vehicle dynamics requires extended-speed, constant-power operation from the propulsion system in order to meet the vehicle's operating constraints (e.g., initial acceleration and gradeability) with minimum power. Decrease in power rating will decrease the volume of the energy storage system. However, extending the constant power operating range of the electric drives increases its rated torque, thereby, increasing motor volume and weight. This paper investigates the effect of extended constant power operation on battery driven electric vehicle (BEV) propulsion system taking the change in motor weight and battery volume into account. Five BEV systems with five traction drive having different base speeds are simulated for this study. The performances of the BEVs are obtained using FUDS and HWYFET drive cycles. Two EV-HEV software packages ‘V-ELPH’ developed by Texas A&M University and ‘ADVISOR’ from NREL are used for simulation testing.
Technical Paper

Electrical System Architectures for Future Aircraft

This paper addresses the fundamental issues faced in the aircraft electrical system architectures. Furthermore, a brief description of the conventional and advanced aircraft power system architectures, their disadvantages, opportunities for improvement, future electric loads, role of power electronics, and present trends in aircraft power system research will be given. Finally, this paper concludes with a brief outline of the projected advancements in the future.
Technical Paper

A Charge Sustaining Parallel HEV Application of the Transmotor

An electromechanical gear is presented along with design examples utilizing the electromechanical gear in hybrid electric vehicle drive trains. The designs feature the electromechanical gear (the Transmotor) in place of traditional mechanical transmissions and/or gearing mechanisms. The transmotor is an electric motor suspended by its shafts, in which both the stator and the rotor are allowed to rotate freely. The motor thus can provide positive or negative rotational energy to its shafts by either consuming or generating electrical energy. A design example is included in which the transmotor is installed on the output shaft of an internal combustion engine. In this arrangement the transmotor can either increase or decrease shaft speed by applying or generating electrical power, allowing the ICE to operate with a constant speed.