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Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of Cetane Number on the Energy Balance between Differently Sized Engines

This paper investigates the effect of the cetane number (CN) of a diesel fuel on the energy balance between a light duty (1.9L) and medium duty (4.5L) diesel engine. The two engines have a similar stroke to bore (S/B) ratio, and all other control parameters including: geometric compression ratio, cylinder number, stroke, and combustion chamber, have been kept the same, meaning that only the displacement changes between the engine platforms. Two Coordinating Research Council (CRC) diesel fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) were studied. The two fuels were selected to have a similar distillation profile and aromatic content, but varying CN. The effects on the energy balance of the engines were considered at two operating conditions; a “low load” condition of 1500 rev/min (RPM) and nominally 1.88 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), and a “medium load” condition of 1500 RPM and 5.65 BMEP.
Technical Paper

Influencing Parameters of Brake Fuel Conversion Efficiency with Diesel / Gasoline Operation in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

Research on dual-fuel engine systems is regaining interest as advances in combustion reveal enabling features for attaining high efficiencies. Although this movement is manifested by development of advanced modes of combustion (e.g., reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion, or RCCI), the possibility of gasoline / diesel conventional combustion exists, which is characterized by premixed gasoline and direct-injected diesel fuel at conventional diesel injection timing. This study evaluates the effects of operating parameter on fuel conversion efficiency for gasoline / diesel conventional combustion in a medium duty diesel engine. Through adjustment of gasoline ratio (mass basis), injection timing and rail pressure (with adjustments to diesel fuel quantity to hold torque constant), the combustion, performance and emissions are studied.
Technical Paper

A Highly Stable Two-Phase Thermal Management System for Aircraft

Future electronics and photonics systems, weapons systems, and environmental control systems in aircraft will require advanced thermal management technology to control the temperature of critical components. Two-phase Thermal Management Systems (TMS) are attractive because they are compact, lightweight, and efficient. However, maintaining stable and reliable cooling in a two-phase flow system presents unique design challenges, particularly for systems with parallel evaporators during thermal transients. Furthermore, preventing ingress of liquid into a vapor compressor during variable-gravity operation is critical for long-term reliability and life. To enable stable and reliable cooling, a highly stable two-phase system is being developed that can effectively suppress flow instability in a system with parallel evaporators. Flow stability is achieved by ensuring that only single-phase liquid enters the evaporators.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Nitric Oxide Formation Through the Use of Barium Additive and Two-Stage Model

As emission standards become more stringent, many studies have been carried out to understand and reduce the emissions from diesel combustion engines, among which nitric oxide (NO) emissions and soot are known to have the trade-off relation during combustion processes. One aspect of this trade-off is manifested by the role radiation heat transfer plays on post-flame gas temperature, thus affecting NO formation. For example, a decrease in in-cylinder soot decreases radiation heat transfer causing an increase in post-flame gas temperature and partially contributing to the corresponding soot-NO relationship with an increase in NO formation. This topic has re-emerged with the increased use of biodiesel; a potential explanation for the so-called "biodiesel NOx penalty" is biodiesel's inherently reduced in-cylinder soot.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel Consumption and Cyclic Variability with Pulsed Energy Spark Plug

Conventional spark plugs ignite a fuel-air mixture via an electric-to-plasma energy transfer; the effectiveness of which can be described by an electric-to-plasma energy efficiency. Although conventional spark plug electric-to-plasma efficiencies have historically been viewed as adequate, it might be wondered how an increase in such an efficiency might translate (if at all) to improvements in the flame initiation period and eventual engine performance of a spark-ignition engine. A modification can be made to the spark plug that places a peaking capacitor in the path of the electrical current; upon coil energizing, the stored energy in the peaking capacitor substantially increases the energy delivered by the spark. A previous study has observed an improvement in the electric-to-plasma energy efficiency to around 50%, whereas the same study observed conventional spark plug electric-to-plasma energy efficiency to remain around 1%.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Influence of EGR and Fuel Pressure on the Emissions in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

In the wake of global focus shifting towards the health and conservation of the planet, greater importance is placed upon the hazardous emissions of our fossil fuels, as well as their finite supply. These two areas remain intense topics of research in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the fuel efficiency of vehicles, a sector which is a major contributor to society's global CO₂ emissions and consumer of fossil-fuel resources. A particular solution to this problem is the diesel engine, with its inherently fuel-lean combustion, which gives rise to low CO₂ production and higher efficiencies than other potential powertrain solutions. Diesel engines, however, typically exhibit higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot engine-out emissions than their gasoline counterparts. NOx is an ingredient to ground-level ozone production and smoke is a possible carcinogen, both of which are facing stricter emissions regulations.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) Engines Using Low Heat Rejection (LHR) Concepts

Low temperature combustion (LTC) modes for reciprocating engines have been demonstrated with relatively high thermal efficiencies. These new combustion modes involve various combinations of stratification, lean mixtures, high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), multiple injections, variable valve timings, two fuels, and other such features. LTC engines may be attractive in combination with low heat rejection (LHR) engine concepts. The current work is aimed at evaluating the thermodynamic advantages of such a LTC-LHR engine. A thermodynamic cycle simulation was used to evaluate the effect of cylinder wall temperature on the engine performance, emissions and second law characteristics. An automotive engine at 2000 rpm with a bmep of 900 kPa was considered. Both a conventional and a LTC design were compared. The LTC engine realized small gains in efficiency whereas the conventional engine did not realize any significant gains as the cylinder wall temperature was increased.
Technical Paper

Results from a Thermodynamic Cycle Simulation for a Range of Inlet Oxygen Concentrations Using Either EGR or Oxygen Enriched Air for a Spark-Ignition Engine

An engine cycle simulation which included the second law of thermodynamics was used to examine the engine performance and the thermodynamic characteristics of a spark ignition engine as functions of the oxygen inlet concentration. A wide range of oxygen inlet concentrations (12% to 40% by volume) was considered. For oxygen inlet concentrations less than 21%(v), EGR was used, and for oxygen inlet concentrations greater than 21%(v), oxygen enriched inlet air was used. Two EGR configurations were considered: (1) cooled and (2) adiabatic. In general, engine efficiencies decreased, heat transfer increased, nitric oxide emissions increased, and the destruction of availability (exergy) decreased as the oxygen concentration increased.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computer-Aided Tool for System Description, Modeling, Analysis and Integration for Screening Planetary Habitation Alternatives

The objective of this work is to develop a computer-aided tool that enables the development, screening, modeling, analysis, and integration of physico-chemical and bio-regenerative components of Advanced Life Support System (ALS) system. The tool has the following four main components that are interrelated and automatically integrated: Process configuration. Particular emphasis is given to food production (e.g., syrup and flour from sweet potato, starch from sweet potato, breakfast cereal from sweet potato). Modeling and analysis for mass and energy tracking and budgeting System integration (both functional as well material and energy integration) Metrics evaluation (e.g., Equivalent System Mass (ESM)) Modeling and analysis is achieved by developing material- and energy-budgeting models. Various forms of mass and energy are tracked through fundamental as well as semi-empirical models. These models include kinetics, mass transfer, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics.
Technical Paper

Operating Characteristics of a Spark-Ignition Engine Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Effects of Speed and Load

A thermodynamic cycle simulation was used to obtain the performance, energy and availability characteristics as functions of speed and load for an automotive spark-ignition engine. Availability is an important thermodynamic property related to the second law of thermodynamics. The manner in which the total original energy and availability are used, displaced or destroyed is exhibited. As an example of the results, the availability destroyed by the combustion process (as a percentage of the fuel availability) ranged between 20.3 and 21.4%. This fraction was lowest for the highest speeds and loads, since these conditions were best at preserving the fuel availability.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Study Between Two Parallel Hybrid Control Concepts

Two parallel HEV control concepts: ‘thermostat’ and ‘power split’ are compared in this paper. To achieve a substantial improvement in fuel economy, the ‘thermostat’ or ‘on/off’ control technique intended to improve the fuel efficiency of a series HEV has been adopted and designed for parallel HEV. Among different ‘power split’ concepts developed for parallel hybrids only the ‘electrically assist’ algorithm is considered in this paper. These two control concepts are compared for three parallel HEV architectures: pre-transmission, post-transmission and continuous variable transmission hybrids. The comparison study also includes the effect of hybridization factor-the ratio of the electric power to the total propulsion power. The matrices of comparison are level of performance, energy consumption and exhaust emissions. The SAE J1711 partial charge test procedure is followed.
Technical Paper

A Review of Investigations Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics to Study Internal-Combustion Engines

Investigations that have used the second law of thermodynamics to study internal-combustion engines in a detailed manner date back to the late 1950s. Over two dozen previous investigations which have used the second law of thermodynamics or availability analyses were identified. About two-thirds of these have been completed for diesel engines, and the other one-third have been completed for spark-ignition engines. The majority of these investigations have been completed since the 1980s. A brief description of each of these investigations is provided. In addition, representative results are presented for both compression-ignition (diesel) and spark-ignition engines to illustrate the type of information obtained by the use of second law analyses. Both instantaneous values for the engine availability, and the overall values for energy and availability are described.