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Technical Paper

EVA Operations Using the Spacelab Logistics Pallet for Hardware Deliveries

2001-07-09
2001-01-2201
There are a large number of space structures, orbital replacement units (ORUs) and other components that must be transported to orbit on a regular basis for the assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Some of this hardware will be ferried on the Spacelab Logistics Pallet (SLP), which has a long and reliable history of space flight successes. The carrier is well used, well qualified, and very adaptable for repeated use in accommodating cargoes of various sizes and shapes. This paper presents an overview of past, present and future hardware design solutions that accommodate EVA operations on the SLP. It further demonstrates how analysis techniques and design considerations have influenced the hardware development, EVA operations, and compliance with human engineering requirements for the SLP.
Technical Paper

Integrated Metrology & Robotics Systems for Agile Automation

2000-09-19
2000-01-3033
Aircraft manufacturing in the 21st century sees a future much different to that seen one and two decades before. Manufacturers of both military and commercial aircraft are challenged to become Lean, Agile and Flexible. As progress is slowly made toward introducing advanced assembly systems into production, the overall cost of automation is now more closely scrutinized. After spending tens of millions of dollars on large automated systems with deep foundations, many manufacturers find themselves locked into high cost manufacturing systems that have specific, inflexible configurations. This kind of scenario has caused a shift in the attitude of airframe assemblers, to go back to basics. Lean manufacturing is seen as a way to build aircraft with very low investment in equipment and tools. Today's advanced systems developers do understand the need for more affordable assembly systems.
Technical Paper

Payload Attach System for the ISS - Development and Verification for EVA Operations

1999-07-12
1999-01-2037
The process of developing a Payload Attach System (PAS) which will support a wide range of experimental and commercial payloads on the International Space Station (ISS) has experienced an interesting evolution during its design, development, test and evaluation (DDT&E) phase. This evolution has been caused in large measure by requirements intended to insure compatibility of the PAS with the extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmember during nominal and contingency operations in and around the PAS sites. As the design of the ISS transitioned from its Freedom predecessor, the effort to keep costs down by preserving as much of the original Freedom design as possible led to design decisions that challenged engineering thinking.
Technical Paper

Experience with a Geometry Programming Language for CFD Applications

1998-09-28
985572
The Boeing Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS) is a programming language with built-in geometry features. Accessible through either a graphical user interface (GUI) or through a command line, AGPS can be used by operators with different levels of experience. Distributed with AGPS are approximately 300,000 lines of macros, or command files, which automate many engineering design and analysis tasks. Most command files were developed to produce inputs to engineering analysis codes such as A502 [1] and TRANAIR [2]. In many cases, command files have been grouped together in AGPS “packages,” which offer users simple menu pick and dialog options to automate entire engineering processes.
Technical Paper

Machine Readable Coding of 777 Wing Fastening Systems Tooling

1998-09-15
982133
This paper presents a detailed overview of the advantages and benefits of using 2-D barcodes, called Data Matrix codes, on Wing Fastening System (WFS) Tooling. This project was conducted on, but not limited to, the 777 Wing Fastening System (GEMCOR) tooling including the drills, fingers, and button dies. This paper will show how using Data Matrix codes to identify tooling will: Eliminate excessive downtime due to the operator using the incorrect tooling for a given tool setup. Reduce the cost associated with panel rework due to the use of incorrect tooling. Reduce the cost associated with excessive tool inventory or last minute ordering to keep up with production needs. Track tool life information for each specific tool. Provide operators with an easy to use tool setup reference document. And provide the factory with the ability to trace panel damage or defects back to the specific machine and exact tooling used.
Technical Paper

Airplane Flow-Field Measurements

1997-10-01
975535
The utility of airplane flow-field measurements for wind-tunnel testing is reviewed. The methods and equipment developed at Boeing for these measurements are also described. The details of the latest system are presented along with typical results from recent wind-tunnel tests. Using the latest system, flow-field surveys of airplane configurations in industrial low-speed and transonic wind tunnels provide spatial distributions of lift and drag (profile and induced) with good repeatability. In addition, the probe speed and survey region is optimized so that typical full-wake surveys take 20-30 minutes to complete. Final data, displayed as total pressure, velocity vectors, vorticity contours, and distributions of lift and drag (profile and induced) are available approximately 10 minutes after survey completion.
Technical Paper

ETOPS and Service Ready Standards and Processes

1992-10-01
921919
A review of the current extended-range twin-engine operations (ETOPS) and the modifications to the standards and processes that led to its successful operational record has contributed to the feasibility of developing an airplane and preparing an operator for ETOPS at entry into service. The airplane and engine manufacturers and component suppliers have continued to expand on these modified standards and processes in their design, build, test and support programs to meet regulatory authority ETOPS requirements and to facilitate the development of regulatory authority criteria for substantiating ETOPS capability prior to entry into service. Airlines, in conjunction with the manufacturers, have also developed improved processes that meet regulatory authority requirements for preparing an operator to integrate a new airplane into its existing ETOPS programs at entry into service.
Technical Paper

Test Results of the Effects of Air Ionization on Cigarette Smoke Particulate Levels Within a Commercial Airplane

1992-07-01
921183
Passengers and flight attendants often notice a haze of smoke under the overhead stowage bins in aircraft cabins when cigarette smoking is allowed. As normally operated, the ventilation system in Boeing 737/757 aircraft does not rapidly remove this smoke haze. Air ionization systems from three vendors were tested in a 10 foot long Boeing 737/757 cabin test section with a cruise condition ventilation rate and two cigarette smoking rates to assess their effectiveness in removing smoke haze from the local breathing areas of passengers and flight attendants. Smoke particulate densities were monitored at five breathing areas and at an exit grill in the test section. All of the ionization systems significantly increased the rate of smoke removal after smoking had stopped, increasing the removal rate by about 25%. None of the systems showed a statistically significant reduction of smoke levels at the individual monitoring points while cigarettes were being smoked.
Technical Paper

High Altitude Performance of High Bypass Ratio Engines - an Airframe Manufacturer's Point of View

1969-02-01
690652
The traditional method of determining the net thrust of an engine in cruise is explained. It is shown to result in a satisfactory net thrust uncertainty for jet and low bypass ratio engines but to be unsuitable for high bypass ratio engines. A redefinition of net thrust results in a new thrust determination method, called continuity method, which yields acceptable levels of net thrust uncertainty. The new method no longer requires supporting tests in a simulated altitude facility. The question is raised whether in future programs the demonstration of guaranteed cruise performance of an engine should not be carried out in flight tests rather than in an altitude test facility.
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