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Journal Article

Integrated Ball-Screw Based Upset Process for Index Head Rivets Used in Wing Panel Assembly

2015-09-15
2015-01-2491
A new high speed forming process for fatigue rated index head rivets used in wing panel assembly using ball-screw based servo squeeze actuation has been developed. The new process is achieved using a combination of force and position control and is capable of forming to 40,000 lbs at rates of up to 200,000 lbs/second whilst holding the part location to within +/− 10 thousandths of an inch. Multi-axis riveting machines often have positioning axes that are also used for fastener upset. It is often the case that while a CNC is used for positioning control, another secondary controller is used to perform the fastener upset. In the new process, it has been possible to combine the control of the upset process with the machine CNC, thus eliminating any separate controllers. The fastener upset force profile is controlled throughout the forming of the rivet by using a closed loop force control system that has a load cell mounted directly behind the stringer side forming tool.
Technical Paper

Ejection Seat Cushions Static Evaluation for Three Different Installation Rail Angles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0806
Jet fighter missions have been known to last extended period of time. The need for a comfortable and safe seat has become paramount considering that fact that uncomfortable seats can lead to numerous health issues. Several health effects like numbness, pressure sore, low back pain, and vein thrombosis have been associated with protracted sitting. The cushion, and of late the installation rail angle are the only components of the ejection seat system that can be modified to reduce these adverse effects. A comprehensive static comfort evaluation study for ejection seats was conducted. It provides comparison between a variety of operational and prototype cushions (baseline cushion, honeycomb and air-cushion) and three different installation rail angles (14°, 18°, and 22°). Three operational cockpit environment mockups with adjustable installation rail angle were built. Ten volunteer subjects, six females and four males, ages 19 to 35, participated in the seat comfort evaluation.
Journal Article

Self-Configuring Hybrid Duct System and Attachment Technologies for Environmental Control Systems

2009-11-10
2009-01-3277
Environmental Control Systems (ECS) ducts on airplanes are primarily fabricated from aluminum or thermoset composites, depending on temperature and pressure requirements. It is imperative to fabricate lightweight, cost effective, durable, and repairable systems with minimal tooling. It is also important that the duct systems are easy to assemble even with alignment issues resulting from structural variations, tolerance accumulation, variation from thermal expansion of different materials, and inherent duct stiffness. These requirements create an opportunity and need for a technology that can address all of these issues, while increasing performance at the same time. This report provides a background on current ECS ducting systems.
Technical Paper

Efficient Assembly Integration and Test (EAIT) Moves Theory to Practice at a System Level to Effect Lean Outcomes on the Shop Floor

2009-11-10
2009-01-3169
This paper will describe the Efficient Assembly Integration and Test (EAIT) system level project operated as a partnership among Boeing business units, universities, and suppliers. The focus is on the successful implementation and sharing of technology solutions to develop a model based, multi-product pulsed line factory of the future. The EAIT philosophy presented in this paper focuses on a collaborative environment that is tightly woven with the Lean Initiatives at Boeing's satellite development center. The prototype is comprised of a platform that includes a wireless instrumentation system, rapid bonding materials and virtual test of guidance hardware there are examples of collaborative development in collaboration with suppliers. Wireless tools and information systems are also being developed across the Boeing Company. Virtual reality development will include university partners in the US and India.
Technical Paper

Modification of the USOS to Support Installation and Activation of the Node 3 Element

2009-07-12
2009-01-2416
The International Space Station (ISS) program is nearing an assembly complete configuration with the addition of the final resource node module in early 2010. The Node 3 module will provide critical functionality in support of permanent long duration crews aboard ISS. The new module will permanently house the regenerative Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and will also provide important habitability functions such as waste management and exercise facilities. The ISS program has selected the Port side of the Node 1 “Unity” module as the permanent location for Node 3 which will necessitate architecture changes to provide the required interfaces. The USOS ECLSS fluid and ventilation systems, Internal Thermal Control Systems, and Avionics Systems require significant modifications in order to support Node 3 interfaces at the Node 1 Port location since it was not initially designed for that configuration.
Journal Article

Status of the International Space Station (ISS) Trace Contaminant Control System

2009-07-12
2009-01-2353
A habitable atmosphere is a fundamental requirement for human spaceflight. To meet this requirement, the cabin atmosphere must be constantly scrubbed to maintain human life and system functionality. The primary system for atmospheric scrubbing of the US on-orbit segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS). As part of the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems' (ECLSS) atmosphere revitalization rack in the US Lab, the TCCS operates continuously, scrubbing trace contaminants generated primarily by two sources: the metabolic off-gassing of crew members and the off-gassing of equipment in the ISS. It has been online for approximately 95% of the time since activated in February 2001. The TCCS is comprised of a charcoal bed, a catalytic oxidizer, and a lithium hydroxide post-sorbent bed, all of which are designed to be replaced on-orbit when necessary.
Journal Article

Columbus Thermal Hydraulic Operations with US Payloads

2009-07-12
2009-01-2555
After launch and activation activities, the Columbus module started its operational life on February 2008 providing resources to the internal and external experiments. In March 2008 two US Payloads were successfully installed into Columbus Module: Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and a US payload of the Express rack family, Express Rack 3, carrying the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) experiment. They were delivered to the European laboratory from the US laboratory and followed few months later by similar racks; Human Research Facility 1 (HRF1) and HRF2. The following paper provides an overview of US Payloads, giving their main features and experiments run inside Columbus on year 2008. Flight issues, mainly on the hydraulic side are also discussed. Engineering evaluations released to the flight control team, telemetry data, and relevant mathematical models predictions are described providing a background material for the adopted work-around solutions.
Journal Article

Disturbance of Electronics in Low-Earth Orbits by High Energy Electron Plasmas

2009-07-12
2009-01-2339
Electrical disturbances caused by charging of cables in spacecraft can impair electrical systems for long periods of time. The charging originates primarily from electrons trapped in the radiation belts of the earth. The model Space Electrons Electromagnetic Effects (SEEE) is applied in computing the transient charge and electric fields in cables on spacecraft at low to middle earth altitudes. The analysis indicated that fields exceeding dielectric breakdown strengths of common dielectric materials are possible in intense magnetic storms for systems with inadequate shielding. SEEE also computes the minimal shielding needed to keep the electric fields below that for dielectric breakdown.
Technical Paper

Integrated Electrical System Testing and Modeling for Risk Mitigation

2008-11-11
2008-01-2897
International Space Station (ISS) Payload Engineering Integration (PEI) organization adopted the advanced computation and simulation technology to develop integrated electrical system models based on the test data of various sub-units. This system model was used end-to-end to mitigate system risk for the integrated Space Shuttle Pre-launch and Landing configurations. The Space Shuttle carries the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), a pressurize transportation carrier, and the Laboratory Freezer for ISS, a freezer rack for storage and transport of science experiments from/to the ISS, is carried inside the MPLM. An end-to-end electrical system model for Space Shuttle Pre-Launch and Landing configurations, including the MPLM and Freezer, provided vital information for integrated electrical testing and to assess Mission success. The Pre-Launch and Landing configurations have different power supplies and cables to provide the power for the MPLM and the Freezer.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Circuit Analysis and Testing for International Space Station Science Experiments

2008-11-11
2008-01-2911
The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Engineering Integration (PEI) organization has developed the critical capabilities in dynamic circuit modeling and simulation to analyze electrical system anomalies during testing and operation. This presentation provides an example of the processes, tools and analytical techniques applied to the improvement of science experiments over-voltage clamp circuit design which is widely used by ISS science experiments. The voltage clamp circuit of Science Rack exhibits parasitic oscillations when a voltage spike couples to the Field-Effect Transistor (FET) in the clamp circuit. The oscillation can cause partial or full conduction of the shunt FET in the circuit and may result in the destruction of the FET. In addition, the voltage clamp circuit is not designed to detect the high current through the FET, and this condition can result in damage to surrounding devices. These abnormal operations were analyzed by dynamic circuit simulation and tests.
Journal Article

A Fresh Look at Radiation Exposures from Major Solar Proton Events

2008-06-29
2008-01-2164
Solar proton events (SPEs) represent the single-most significant source of acute radiation exposure during space missions. Historically, an exponential in rigidity (particle momentum) fit has been used to express the SPE energy spectrum using GOES data up to 100 MeV. More recently, researchers have found that a Weibull fit better represents the energy spectrum up to 1000 MeV (1 GeV). In addition, the availability of SPE data extending up to several GeV has been incorporated in analyses to obtain a more complete and accurate energy spectrum representation. In this paper we discuss the major SPEs that have occurred over the past five solar cycles (~50+ years) in detail - in particular, Aug 1972 and Sept & Oct 1989 SPEs. Using a high-energy particle transport/dose code, radiation exposure estimates are presented for various thicknesses of aluminum. The effects on humans and spacecraft systems are also discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable and Flexible Track Positioning System for Aircraft Manufacturing Processes

2007-09-17
2007-01-3781
The Boeing Company has recently developed a portable positioning system based upon its patented flexible vacuum track technology, in support of its commitment to lean manufacturing techniques. The positioning system, referred to as Mini Flex Track, was initially developed as an inexpensive drilling system that minimizes machine setup time, does not require extensive operator training due to its simple user interface, is general purpose enough to be used in varying airplane applications, and meets strict accuracy requirements for aircraft manufacturing. The system consists of a variable length vacuum track that conforms to a range of contours, a two-axis numerically-controlled positioning carriage that controls machine motion, an additional rail perpendicular to the vacuum rail that provides transverse motion, and an end effector that can perform various tasks.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Radiation Environments in Deep Space

2007-07-09
2007-01-3114
Both humans and onboard radiosensitive systems (electronics, materials, payloads and experiments) are exposed to the deleterious effects of the harsh space radiations found in the space environment. The purpose of this paper is to present the space radiation environment extended to deep space based on environment models for the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn and compare these radiation environments with the earth's radiation environment, which is used as a comparative baseline. The space radiation environment consists of high-energy protons and electrons that are magnetically “trapped” in planetary bodies that have an intrinsic magnetic field; this is the case for earth, Jupiter, and Saturn (the moon and Mars do not have a magnetic field). For the earth this region is called the “Van Allen belts,” and models of both the trapped protons (AP-8 model) and electrons (AE-8 model) have been developed.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Risk Assessment from Space Radiation Exposure for Future Space Exploration Missions

2007-07-09
2007-01-3116
Protecting astronauts from space radiation exposure is an important challenge for mission design and operations for future exploration-class and long-duration missions. Crew members are exposed to sporadic solar particle events (SPEs) as well as to the continuous galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). If sufficient protection is not provided the radiation risk to crew members from SPEs could be significant. To improve exposure risk estimates and radiation protection from SPEs, detailed evaluations of radiation shielding properties are required. A model using a modern CAD tool ProE™, which is the leading engineering design platform at NASA, has been developed for this purpose. For the calculation of radiation exposure at a specific site, the cosine distribution was implemented to replicate the omnidirectional characteristic of the 4π particle flux on a surface.
Technical Paper

Development and Deployment of Orbital Drilling at Boeing

2006-09-12
2006-01-3152
Orbital hole drilling technology has shown a great deal of promise for cost savings on applications in the aerospace industry where burr free, high quality holes are a necessity. This presentation will show some of the basic research on orbital drilling development Boeing is doing with the Advanced Manufacturing Research Center at Sheffield University and the deployment of the technology into production programs within The Boeing Company.
Technical Paper

The Personal Computer Transport Analyzer Program

2006-07-17
2006-01-2050
Since flight requirements often necessitate last-minute re-analysis, it became crucial to develop flexible and comprehensive transport phenomena analysis software that would quickly ensure all vehicle and payload requirements would be satisfied. The software would replace various mainframe-based software, such as the Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (TRASYS) and the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). The software would need to have the flexibility to employ models that could be developed and modified as vehicle systems change. By use of event files which contain simple, intuitive commands, the characteristics of individual missions could be built as inputs to the model. By moving the Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS) system model to the PC environment, each analyst would have execution, storage, and processing management control. And of course, software portability would be greatly increased.
Technical Paper

ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project - 2006 Update

2006-07-17
2006-01-2161
The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered.
Technical Paper

Microbial Characterization of Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Hardware Surfaces after Five Years of Operation in the International Space Station

2006-07-17
2006-01-2157
A flex hose assembly containing aqueous coolant from the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consisting of a 2 foot section of Teflon hose and quick disconnects (QDs) and a Special Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) heat exchanger containing separate channels of IATCS coolant and iodinated water used to cool spacesuits and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) were returned for destructive analyses on Shuttle return to flight mission STS-114. The original aqueous IATCS coolant used in Node 1, the Laboratory Module, and the Airlock consisted of water, borate (pH buffer), phosphate (corrosion control), and silver sulfate (microbiological control) at a pH of 9.5 ± 0.5.
Technical Paper

Integrated Ceramic Composite Firewall

2005-10-03
2005-01-3430
This white paper will outline the material and processes, which have been developed for the fabrication and application of an integrated composite firewall primary structure for use in military and commercial aircraft. Military and commercial aircraft have requirements to protect occupants from fire. One specific fire protection requirement is to contain a (1100°C/2000°F) flame for 15 minutes. This protection on composites is usually provided by a metallic firewall attached to the composite structure. The integrated ceramic composite firewall is an improvement over existing metallic firewall technology. This technology reduces cost, part count, weight, and manufacturing complexity of composites, which require fire protection. The integrated ceramic composite firewall material and process incorporates ceramic fabric and film adhesive into one unique material.
Technical Paper

Columbus to Human Research Facility Hydraulic Compatibility Test: Analysis and Results

2005-07-11
2005-01-3119
ESA and NASA agencies agreed to run an interface compatibility test at the EADS facility between the Columbus flight module and a duplicate ground unit of a currently on-orbit US International Standard Payload Rack, the Human Research Facility (HRF) Flight Prototype Rack (FPR). The purpose of the test was to demonstrate the capability to run US payloads inside the European ISS module Columbus. One of the critical aspects to be verified to ensure suitable operations of the two systems was the combined performance of the hydraulic controls resident in the HRF and Columbus coolant loops. A hydraulic model of the HRF FPR was developed and combined with the Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) model. Several coupled thermal-hydraulic test cases were then performed, preceded by mathematical analysis, required to predict safe test conditions and to optimize the Columbus valve configurations.
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