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Technical Paper

Injury Mechanism of the Head and Face of Children in Side Impacts

2009-04-20
2009-01-1434
This study assessed the primary involved physical components attributed to the head and face injuries of child occupants seated directly adjacent to the stuck side of a vehicle in a side impact collision. The findings presented in this study were based upon analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) for the years 1993–2007. Injury analysis was conducted for those nearside child occupants aged between 1–12 years-old. The involved children were classified as toddler-type, booster-type, or belted-type occupants. These classifications were based upon the recommended restraint system for the occupant. Injury mechanisms were assessed for the child occupants in each of the three groups. A detailed study of NASS/CDS cases was conducted to provide a greater understanding of the associated injury mechanisms.
Journal Article

A Study of the Rear Seat Occupant Safety using a 10-Year-Old Child Dummy in the New Car Assessment Program

2008-04-14
2008-01-0511
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a total of 28 frontal crashes in the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) involving the 10-year-old child Hybrid III dummy. The 10-year-old child dummy was in the rear seat. All types of vehicles (passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans and pick-up trucks) were tested to assess the effect of restraint systems such as booster and pretensioner on the rear seat occupant. In this study, the readings of the 10-year-old child dummy in rear-left and rear-right seat positions are examined. The authors apply a possible 5 star rating system, based on head and chest readings of the 10-year-old dummy. The paper also assesses the safety performance of rear seat occupants and the effect of the restraint systems on a child in the rear seat. This paper suggests that a star rating for rear seat occupants is independent of the present ratings for the driver and front adult passenger in NCAP.
Technical Paper

New Method of Vehicle Inspection for Incompatible Crashes

2007-04-16
2007-01-1184
This paper creates a worksheet to thoroughly document vehicle damage during an incompatible vehicle-to-vehicle frontal crash. This data form serves as a supplement to the current and already established NASS inspection forms. It will assist biomechanics research by determining the extent by which incompatibility caused or changed occupants' injuries through structural analysis of the vehicles. This study identifies deficiencies in the current NASS inspection system for compatibility, and develops new measurable parameters to document the crash and associate injury to it.
Technical Paper

Study of Potential Mechanisms of Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta Using InSitu Experiments

2006-11-06
2006-22-0011
Traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA) is an important transportation-related injury. This study investigated TRA mechanisms using in situ human cadaver experiments. Four quasi-static tests and one dynamic test were performed. The quasi-static experiments were conducted by perturbing the mediastinal structures of the cadavers. The mechanisms investigated included anterior, superior, and lateral displacement of the heart and aortic arch. The resulting injuries ranged from partial tears to complete transections. All injuries occurred within the peri-isthmic region. Intimal tears were associated with the primary injuries. The average failure load and stretch were 148 N and 30 percent for the quasi-static tests. This study illustrates that TRA can result from appropriate application of nominal levels of longitudinal load and tension. The results demonstrate that intraluminal pressure and whole-body acceleration are not required for TRA to occur.
Technical Paper

Effect of Occupant Position and Air Bag Inflation Parameters on Driver Injury Measures

1998-02-23
980637
This paper investigates the effects of driver airbag inflation characteristics, airbag relative position, airbag to dummy relative velocity, and steering column characteristics using a finite element model of a vehicle, air bag, and Hybrid III 50% male dummy. Simulation is conducted in a static test environment using a validated finite element model. Several static simulation tests are performed where the air bag module's position is mounted in a rigid steering wheel and the vertical and horizontal distances are varied relative to the dummy. Three vertical alignments are used: one position corresponds to the head centered on module, another position corresponds to the neck centered on module, and the third position centers the chest on the module. Horizontal alignments vary from 0 mm to 50 mm to 100 mm. All of these tests are simulated using a typical pre-1998 type inflation curve (mass flow rate of gas entering the bag).
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