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Technical Paper

Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Durability – A Study of LSPI in Fresh and Aged Engine Oils

2018-04-03
2018-01-0934
Downsized gasoline engines, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) and turbocharging, have provided an effective means to meet both emissions standards and customers’ drivability expectations. As a result, these engines have become more and more common in the passenger vehicle marketplace over the past 10 years. To maximize fuel economy, these engines are commonly calibrated to operate at low speeds and high engine loads – well into the traditional ‘knock-limited’ region. Advanced engine controls and GDI have effectively suppressed knock and allowed the engines to operate in this high efficiency region more often than was historically possible. Unfortunately, many of these downsized, boosted engines have experienced a different type of uncontrolled combustion. This combustion occurs when the engine is operating under high load and low speed conditions and has been named Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). LSPI has shown to be very damaging to engine hardware.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Heavy Loads on Light Duty Vehicle Axle Operating Temperature

2005-10-24
2005-01-3893
With the continued growth of the sport utility vehicle (SUV) market in North America in recent years more emphasis has been placed on fluid performance in these vehicles. In addition to fuel economy the key performance area sought by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in general has been temperature reduction in the axle. This is being driven by warranty claims that show that one of the causes of axle failure in these type vehicles is related to overheating. The overheating is, in turn, caused by high load situations, e.g., pulling a large trailer at or near the maximum rated load limit for the vehicle, especially when the vehicle or its main subcomponents are relatively new. The excessive temperature generally leads to premature failure of seals, bearings and gears. The choice of lubricant can have a significant effect on the peak and stabilized operating temperature under these extreme conditions.
Technical Paper

Field Experience with Selected Lubricants for Commercial Vehicle Manual Transmissions

2005-05-11
2005-01-2176
Laboratory testing is an essential part of product development. However, it usually only reflects a small portion of the experience that a lubricant may see in actual service conditions. Many laboratory tests are designed to only address one or two facets of what is deemed to be critical performance areas. Since it is difficult to cover all of the critical performance conditions problems sometimes arise in service that were not anticipated by the laboratory test. Or, conversely, some above average performance evolves during service that was not observed in a specific laboratory test. This paper highlights the overall performance of four manual transmission fluids approved or accepted by the manufacturer for this application. The evaluations were conducted in a city bus fleet with the test buses assigned to the same route for approximately 300,000 km over 30 months.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of the Sequence IIIG by the Study of Oil Consumption

2004-06-08
2004-01-1893
The Sequence IIIG is a newly developed 100 hour test used to evaluate the performance of crankcase engine oils in the areas of high temperature viscosity increase, wear, deposits, pumpability, and ring sticking for the North American GF-4 standard. Data from the ASTM Precision Matrix, completed in the spring of 2003, along with early reference data from the Lubricant Test Monitoring System (LTMS) showed unexpected test results for selected oils and indicated that percent viscosity increase and pumpability were highly correlated with oil consumption. This correlation led to an intensive study of the factors that influence oil consumption and an attempt to compensate for non-oil related oil consumption through a model based adjustment of the results. The study and scrutiny of the IIIG data has led to more uniform oil consumption in the test and improved test precision, and has eliminated the need for a correction equation based on non-oil related oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Over a Decade of LTMS

2004-06-08
2004-01-1891
The Lubricant Test Monitoring System (LTMS) is the calibration system methodology and protocol for North American engine oil and gear oil tests. This system, administered by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Test Monitoring Center (TMC) since 1992, has grown in scope from five gasoline engine tests to over two dozen gasoline, heavy duty diesel and gear oil tests ranging from several thousand dollars per test to almost one-hundred thousand dollars per test. LTMS utilizes Shewhart and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control charts of reference oil data to assist in the decision making process on the calibration status of test stands and test laboratories. Equipment calibration is the backbone step necessary in the unbiased evaluation of candidate oils for oil quality specifications.
Technical Paper

The Single Technology Matrix Process For Base Oil Interchange

2002-10-21
2002-01-2676
The Engine Oil Industry Base Oil Interchange (BOI) and Viscosity Grade Read Across (VGRA) guidelines developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) provide a means to significantly reduce the time to market for current technology engine oils. This process has several advantages including the public display of data and a consensus evaluation of the submitted data. The process also has several limitations including timeliness of the consensus process, and the applicability and flexibility of an all-encompassing, industry-wide guideline. An enhancement to the all-encompassing, industry-wide consensus process is the Single Technology Matrix (STM). The idea behind this approach is to use sufficient data from a single technology to develop and use BOI for that specific technology. The advantages of the STM include improved technical merit, timeliness and flexibility in establishing BOI.
Technical Paper

Jet Fuel Thermal Stability - Lab Testing for JP8+100

2002-05-06
2002-01-1651
The continued development of more powerful aviation turbine engines has demanded greater thermal stability of the fuel as a high temperature heat sink. This in turn requires better definition of the thermal stability of jet fuels. Thermal stability refers to the deposit-forming tendency of the fuel. It is generally accepted that dissolved oxygen initiates the deposition process in freshly refined fuels. While there are many tests that are designed to measure or assess thermal stability, many of these either do not display sufficient differentiation between fuels of average stability (JP-8) and intermediate stability (JP-8+100, JP-TS), or require large test equipment, large volumes of fuels and/or are costly. This paper will discuss the use of three laboratory tests as “concept thermal stability prediction” tools with aviation fuels, including Jet A-1 or JP-8, under JP8+100 test conditions.
Technical Paper

How Polymer Architecture Affects Permanent Viscosity Loss of Multigrade Lubricants

1998-10-19
982638
Multigrade automotive lubricants contain polymeric viscosity modifiers which enable the oil to provide adequate hydrodynamic lubrication at high temperatures and good starting/pumping performance at low temperatures. Under operating conditions in engines, transmissions and gear boxes, polymeric additives undergo both temporary and permanent viscosity loss. The former is caused by flow orientation and the latter by molecular chain scission. Whatever the mechanism, original equipment manufacturers are interested in maintaining a minimum level of hydrodynamic viscosity from oil change to oil change. This is often expressed as a “stay-in-grade” requirement. Commercial viscosity modifiers (VM) span a wide range of chemistries and molecular architectures.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Review of Available Data Correlating the BMW and Ford Intake Valve Deposit Tests

1998-05-04
981365
A 100-hour engine dynamometer test for intake valve deposits (IVD) which uses a Ford 2.3L engine was developed by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC). Recently, this test has been approved by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as Test Method D 6201-97. Since this test offers improvements in test variability, duration, and cost, it is expected to replace ASTM D 5500-94, a 16,000-km vehicle test run using a BMW 318i, as the key performance test for the Certification of Gasoline Deposit Control Additives by the EPA Final Rule. As a step in the replacement process, a correlation between valve deposit levels for the CRC 2.3L Ford IVD test and ASTM D 5500 BMW IVD test must be determined. This paper provides a statistical review of available data in an attempt to provide such a correlation.
Technical Paper

Balancing Extended Oil Drain With Extended Equipment Life

1996-05-01
961110
All automotive gear oils must satisfy a series of standard industry or Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) tests. These usually include bench, axle dynamometer, and field tests. However, product development testing must extend beyond satisfying standard test protocols. This is especially true as increased emphasis is placed on extending oil drain intervals and increasing equipment life in the face of greater performance demands through new heavy-duty vehicle designs. End-users ultimately benefit from extended oil drain intervals and increased equipment life. However, the effort to achieve both initiatives will prove successful only through careful development and selection of the proper performance additives and base fluids. Also, a broad focus must be maintained to satisfy all lubricant requirements. These requirements build on a solid base of standard features and include new features that stretch the current envelope of gear oil performance.
Technical Paper

Test Techniques for the Evaluation of Lubricant Effects on Axle Break-in Temperature - Investigation with an Integrally Built Rear Axle of a European Sedan

1976-02-01
760327
It has been recognized for many years that multipurpose axle lubricants give rise to much higher axle break-in temperatures than lead-soap, active-sulfur or sulfur-chlorine-lead lubricants. Evaluation of differences in axle lubricant break-in temperature between the various multipurpose gear lubricants has been complicated by lack of repeatability and reproducibility. The work described in this paper shows that one of the most important variables affecting axle break-in temperature, under the conditions of the test technique used, was torsional axle preload and that control of dimensional preload in itself is not sufficient to ensure good test repeatability. The test technique described here has been used to evaluate the axle lubricant break-in temperature properties of several sulfur-phosphorus multipurpose gear lubricants.
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