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Journal Article

Assessment of the Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) in Analyzing Head Injuries in Pedestrian Crashes

Objectives. Examination of head injuries in the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) indicates that many pedestrian head injuries are induced by a combination of head translation and rotation. The Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) is a computer algorithm that calculates both translational and rotational motion parameters relatable head injury. The objective of this study is to examine how effectively HIC and three SIMon correlates predict the presence of either their associated head injury or any serious head injury in pedestrian collisions. Methods. Ten reconstructions of actual pedestrian crashes documented by the PCDS were conducted using a combination of MADYMO simulations and experimental headform impacts. Linear accelerations of the head corresponding to a nine-accelerometer array were calculated within the MADYMO model's head simulation.
Technical Paper

Pressure-Based Abdominal Injury Criteria Using Isolated Liver and Full-Body Post-Mortem Human Subject Impact Tests

Liver trauma research suggests that rapidly increasing internal pressure plays a role in liver injury. Previous work has shown a correlation between pressure and liver injury in pressurized ex vivo human livers when subjected to blunt impacts. The purpose of this study was to extend the investigation of this relationship between pressure and liver injury by testing full-body post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Pressure-related variables were compared with one another and also to previously proposed biomechanical predictors of abdominal injury. Ten PMHS were tested. The abdominal vessels were pressurized to physiological levels using saline, and a pneumatic ram impacted the right side of the specimen ribcage at a nominal velocity of 7.0 m/s. Specimens were subjected to either lateral (n = 5) or oblique (n = 5) impacts, and the impact-induced pressures were measured by transducers inserted into the hepatic veins and inferior vena cava.
Technical Paper

A Demographic Analysis and Reconstruction of Selected Cases from the Pedestrian Crash Data Study

This study involves two areas of research. The first is the finalization of the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) in order to provide detailed information regarding the vehicle/pedestrian accident environment and how it has changed from the interim PCDS information. The pedestrian kinematics, injury contact sources, and injuries were analyzed relative to vehicle geometry. The second area presented is full-scale attempts at reconstruction of two selected PCDS cases using the Polar II pedestrian dummy to determine if the pre-crash motion of the pedestrian and vehicle could somehow be linked to the injuries and vehicle damage documented in the case.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Thermal Effects on the Hybrid III Thorax Utilizing Finite Element Method

The advent of the Hybrid III crash test dummy marked the beginning of biofidelic anthropomorphic test devices. During the development of its critical components, notably the head, neck, knee, and thorax, biomechanical cadaver test results were incorporated into the design. The result was a dummy that represented the 50th percentile male during idealized impacts. In order to achieve a more biofidelic response from the components, many exotic materials and unique designs were utilized. The thorax, for instance, incorporates a spring steel rib design laminated with a viscoelastic polymeric composite material to damp the response. This combination results in the proper hysteretic losses necessary to model the human thorax under impact loading conditions. The disadvantage of this design is that the damping material properties are highly sensitive to temperature. A variation of more than 5 degrees Fahrenheit dramatically affects the response of the thorax.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation and Evaluation of the Effect of Padding on the Thorax in the Lateral Impact

The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of padding on the human thorax. Different types of padding are used in the computer simulations. Lumped models are developed to perform the simulations. Through the responses of the simulations one can determine what kind of padding is desired. This paper provides the first phase of using a computer-aided tool. Though much attention has been paid to either the investigation of padding or human thorax modelling, how the physical properties of padding affect thoracic protection is not well known. The combination of padding and the thorax needs a lot of effort to unveil their relationship. This paper attempts to provide the guideline of what a good padding material should be. The determination of an optimal padding is one of the goals in this study. Hopefully, the results of this paper can make a contribution to the vehicle safety design, especially the car door.