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Journal Article

Development of a Dynamic Driveline Model for a Parallel-Series PHEV

This paper describes the development and experimental validation of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) dynamic simulator that enables development, testing, and calibration of a traction control strategy. EcoCAR 2 is a three-year competition between fifteen North American universities, sponsored by the Department of Energy and General Motors that challenges students to redesign a Chevrolet Malibu to have increased fuel economy and decreased emissions while maintaining safety, performance, and consumer acceptability. The dynamic model is developed specifically for the Ohio State University EcoCAR 2 Team vehicle with a series-parallel PHEV architecture. This architecture features, in the front of the vehicle, an ICE separated from an automated manual transmission with a clutch as well as an electric machine coupled via a belt directly to the input of the transmission. The rear powertrain features another electric machine coupled to a fixed ratio gearbox connected to the wheels.
Journal Article

Assessment of the Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) in Analyzing Head Injuries in Pedestrian Crashes

Objectives. Examination of head injuries in the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) indicates that many pedestrian head injuries are induced by a combination of head translation and rotation. The Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) is a computer algorithm that calculates both translational and rotational motion parameters relatable head injury. The objective of this study is to examine how effectively HIC and three SIMon correlates predict the presence of either their associated head injury or any serious head injury in pedestrian collisions. Methods. Ten reconstructions of actual pedestrian crashes documented by the PCDS were conducted using a combination of MADYMO simulations and experimental headform impacts. Linear accelerations of the head corresponding to a nine-accelerometer array were calculated within the MADYMO model's head simulation.
Technical Paper

Pressure-Based Abdominal Injury Criteria Using Isolated Liver and Full-Body Post-Mortem Human Subject Impact Tests

Liver trauma research suggests that rapidly increasing internal pressure plays a role in liver injury. Previous work has shown a correlation between pressure and liver injury in pressurized ex vivo human livers when subjected to blunt impacts. The purpose of this study was to extend the investigation of this relationship between pressure and liver injury by testing full-body post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Pressure-related variables were compared with one another and also to previously proposed biomechanical predictors of abdominal injury. Ten PMHS were tested. The abdominal vessels were pressurized to physiological levels using saline, and a pneumatic ram impacted the right side of the specimen ribcage at a nominal velocity of 7.0 m/s. Specimens were subjected to either lateral (n = 5) or oblique (n = 5) impacts, and the impact-induced pressures were measured by transducers inserted into the hepatic veins and inferior vena cava.
Technical Paper

A Demographic Analysis and Reconstruction of Selected Cases from the Pedestrian Crash Data Study

This study involves two areas of research. The first is the finalization of the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) in order to provide detailed information regarding the vehicle/pedestrian accident environment and how it has changed from the interim PCDS information. The pedestrian kinematics, injury contact sources, and injuries were analyzed relative to vehicle geometry. The second area presented is full-scale attempts at reconstruction of two selected PCDS cases using the Polar II pedestrian dummy to determine if the pre-crash motion of the pedestrian and vehicle could somehow be linked to the injuries and vehicle damage documented in the case.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Thermal Effects on the Hybrid III Thorax Utilizing Finite Element Method

The advent of the Hybrid III crash test dummy marked the beginning of biofidelic anthropomorphic test devices. During the development of its critical components, notably the head, neck, knee, and thorax, biomechanical cadaver test results were incorporated into the design. The result was a dummy that represented the 50th percentile male during idealized impacts. In order to achieve a more biofidelic response from the components, many exotic materials and unique designs were utilized. The thorax, for instance, incorporates a spring steel rib design laminated with a viscoelastic polymeric composite material to damp the response. This combination results in the proper hysteretic losses necessary to model the human thorax under impact loading conditions. The disadvantage of this design is that the damping material properties are highly sensitive to temperature. A variation of more than 5 degrees Fahrenheit dramatically affects the response of the thorax.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Based Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Search

A computer simulation has been developed that models conventional, electric, and hybrid drivetrains. The vehicle's performance is predicted for a given driving cycle, such as the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). This computer simulation was used in a massive designspace exploration to simulate 1.8 million different vehicles, including conventional, electric, and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). This paper gives a description of the vehicle simulator as well as the results and implications of the large design-space exploration.
Technical Paper

Motorsports in the Engineering Curriculum at The Ohio State University

This paper describes the background and development of a program focused on motorsports engineering education currently in progress at the Ohio State University (OSU). An interdisciplinary curriculum, with the involvement of various engineering departments, is being proposed for development in an attempt to address some of the engineering education needs of the motorsports industry. The program described in this paper strives to provide engineering students with an interdisciplinary background race engineering, and also provides opportunities for motorsports oriented thesis projects. The paper briefly summarizes the key elements of the curriculum, and describes how the integration of course material from different disciplines with team work on student competition projects, possibly coupled with internships with racing teams, can provide an ideal setting for the education of a new generation of race engineers.
Technical Paper

Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Feedback Control During Cold-Start

Legislation pertaining to automobile emissions has caused an increased focus on the cold-start performance of internal combustion engines. Of particular concern is the period of time before all available sensors become active. Present engine control strategies must rely on methods other than feedback control while these sensors are not active. Without feedback control during this critical period, engine emissions performance is not optimized. These conditions cause difficulty in performing comprehensive cold-start experiments. For these reasons, we have developed several methods for feedback control during cold-start to aid in laboratory investigations of engine emissions phenomena.
Technical Paper

On-Line Estimation of Indicated Torque in IC Engines Using Nonlinear Observers

An approach to fault diagnosis for internal combustion engines is considered. It is based on the estimation of cylinder indicated torque by means of sliding mode observers. Instead of measuring indicated pressure in cylinders directly, crankshaft speed is measured as the input of observers, which estimate the indicated torque. Several engine models are considered with different levels of complexity. The indicated torque estimation using sliding mode observers is based on the equivalent control method. The estimation technique is validated experimently on a research engine.
Technical Paper

Developments in Vehicle Center of Gravity and Inertial Parameter Estimation and Measurement

For some vehicle dynamics applications, an estimate of a vehicle's center of gravity (cg) height and mass moments of inertia can suffice. For other applications, such as vehicle models and simulations used for vehicle development, these values should be as accurate as possible. This paper presents several topics related to inertial parameter estimation and measurement. The first is a simple but reliable method of estimating vehicle mass moment of inertia values from data such as the center of gravity height, roof height, track width, and other easily measurable values of any light road vehicle. The second is an error analysis showing the effect, during a simple static cg height test, of vehicle motion (relative to the support system) on the vehicle's calculated cg height. A method of accounting for this motion is presented. Similarly, the effects of vehicle motion are analyzed for subsequent mass moment of inertia tests.
Technical Paper

Process Simulation and Springback Control in Plane Strain Sheet Bending

Plane strain bending (e.g. bending about a straight line) is a major sheet forming operation and it is practiced as brake bending (air bending, U-die, V-die and wiping-die bending). Precise prediction of springback is the key to the design of the bending dies and to the control of the process and press brake to obtain close tolerances in bent parts. In this paper, reliable mathematical models for press brake bending are presented. These models can predict springback, bendability, strain and stress distributions, and the maximum loads on the punch and die. The elasto-plastic bending model incorporates the true (nonlinear) strain distribution across the sheet thickness, Swift's strain hardening law, Hill's 1979 nonquadratic yield criterion for normal anisotropic materials, and plane strain deformation mode.
Technical Paper

A Realistic Friction Test for Sheet Forming Operations

A new technique for measuring the friction coefficient between the punch and workpiece during sheet forming operations has been developed at the Ohio State University. Various materials, such as interstitial-free (IF) steel, high strength (HS) steel, an aluminum alloy (2008T4) and 70/30 brass, were tested under dry and oil lubrication conditions at different punch rates and process conditions. The results show that punch friction depends on the angle of wrap, which varies with punch stroke, and on the strain rate, which depends on punch velocity. The O.S.U. Friction Test is described and typical results are presented which verify the usefulness of the new procedure.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation and Evaluation of the Effect of Padding on the Thorax in the Lateral Impact

The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of padding on the human thorax. Different types of padding are used in the computer simulations. Lumped models are developed to perform the simulations. Through the responses of the simulations one can determine what kind of padding is desired. This paper provides the first phase of using a computer-aided tool. Though much attention has been paid to either the investigation of padding or human thorax modelling, how the physical properties of padding affect thoracic protection is not well known. The combination of padding and the thorax needs a lot of effort to unveil their relationship. This paper attempts to provide the guideline of what a good padding material should be. The determination of an optimal padding is one of the goals in this study. Hopefully, the results of this paper can make a contribution to the vehicle safety design, especially the car door.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the Evolution of Computer Assisted Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction

This paper presents an overview of the evolution of computer simulations in vehicle collision and occupant kinematic reconstructions. The basic principles behind these simulations, the origin of these programs and the evolution of these programs from a basic analytical mathematical model to a sophisticated computer program are discussed. In addition, a brief computer development history is discussed to demonstrate how the evolution of computer assisted vehicle accident reconstruction becomes feasible for a reconstructionist. Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed.