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Technical Paper

Effect of E-Modulus Variation on Springbackand a Practical Solution

2018-04-03
2018-01-0630
Springback affects the dimensional accuracy and final shape of stamped parts. Accurate prediction of springback is necessary to design dies that produce the desired part geometry and tolerances. Springback occurs after stamping and ejection of the part because the state of the stresses and strains in the deformed material has changed. To accurately predict springback through finite element analysis, the material model should be well defined for accurate simulation and prediction of stresses and strains after unloading. Despite the development of several advanced material models that comprehensively describe the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior, permanent softening of the blank material, and unloading elastic modulus degradation, the prediction of springback is still not satisfactory for production parts. Dies are often recut several times, after the first tryouts, to compensate for springback and achieve the required part geometry.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Elevator Door Retention During Hallway Applied Lateral Loads

2009-06-09
2009-01-2273
Most do not consider there to be a risk in pushing on, bumping into or falling against an elevator door from the hallway side. However, the lack of the elevator cars presence alone, and the potential for severe injury or even death make this seemingly mundane situation potentially critical. Standards exist relative to such situations, and past and current designs attempt to account for this possibility, still people get injured interacting with these doors every year. In order to evaluate a real-world elevator door system's ability to withstand the quasi-static and impactive loads that can be placed on it by the general public during its life, both intentionally and unintentionally, a predictive tool is needed. This work represents the combination of empirical laboratory testing and numerical modeling of a typical elevator door system exposed to quasi-static and dynamic loading.
Technical Paper

Correlation of a CAE Hood Deflection Prediction Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0098
As we continue to create ever-lighter road vehicles, the challenge of balancing weight reduction and structural performance also continues. One of the key parts this occurs on is the hood, where lighter materials (e.g. aluminum) have been used. However, the aerodynamic loads, such as hood lift, are essentially unchanged and are driven by the front fascia and front grille size and styling shape. This paper outlines a combination CFD/FEA prediction method for hood deflection performance at high speeds, by using the surface pressures as boundary conditions for a FEA linear static deflection analysis. Additionally, custom post-processing methods were developed to enhance flow analysis and understanding. This enabled the modification of existing test methods to further improve accuracy to real world conditions. The application of these analytical methods and their correlation with experimental results are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Sound Radiation from a Disk Brake Rotor Using a Semi-Analytical Method

2003-05-05
2003-01-1620
Modal sound radiation of a brake rotor is expressed in terms of analytical solutions of a generic thick annular disk having similar geometric dimensions. Finite element method is used to determine structural modes and response. Vibro-acoustic responses such as surface velocities and radiated sound pressures due to a multi-modal excitation are calculated from synthesized structural modes and modal acoustic radiation of the rotor using the modal expansion technique. In addition, acoustic power and radiation efficiency spectra corresponding to a specific force excitation are obtained from the sound pressure data. Accuracy of the new semi-analytical method has been confirmed by purely numerical analyses based on finite element and boundary element models. Our method should lead to an improved understanding of the sound radiation from a brake rotor and strategies to minimize squeal noise radiation could be formulated.
Technical Paper

Vibration Characteristics of Cardboard Inserts in Shells

2003-05-05
2003-01-1489
A study has been conducted to determine the noise and vibration effect of inserting a cardboard liner into a thin, circular cross-sectioned, cylindrical shell. The relevance of such a study is to improve the understanding of the effects when a cardboard liner is used in a propeller shaft for noise and vibration control purposes. It is found from the study that the liner adds significant modal stiffness, while an increase in modal mass is also observed for a particular shell type of mode. Further, the study has shown that the additional modal damping provided by the liner is not appropriately modeled by Coulomb friction damping, a damping model often intuitively associated with cardboard materials. Rather, the damping is best modeled as proportional viscous damping.
Technical Paper

FEA Simulation and Experimental Validation of Catalytic Converter Structural Integrity

2000-03-06
2000-01-0219
Non-linear FEA models are applied to three different catalytic converters, with the objective of predicting structural parameters such as shell deformation, push-out force, and mounting-system contact pressure under various conditions. The FEA modeling technique uses a novel constitutive model of the intumescent mat material typically found in ceramic-monolith converter designs. The mat constitutive model accounts for reversible and irreversible thermal expansion, allowing for the prediction of the one-way converter deflection observed in hot durability tests. In addition to this mat material model, the FEA methodology accounts for elastic and plastic shell deformation, contact between materials, and a three-dimensional temperature field in the shell and mat. For each of three designs, predictions are presented for converter canning, heat-up, and cool-down (i.e., post-heating) conditions.
Technical Paper

Springback Analysis with a Modified Hardening Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0768
Previously-reported draw-bend tests showed large discrepancies in springback angles from those predicted by two-dimensional finite element modeling (FEM). In some cases, the predicted angle was several times the measured angle. With more careful 3-D simulation taking into account anticlastic curvature, a significant discrepancy persisted. In order to evaluate the role of the Bauschinger Effect in springback, a transient hardening model was constructed based on novel tension-compression tests for for three sheet materials: drawing-quality steel (baseline material), high-strength low-alloy steel, and 6022-T4 aluminum alloy. This model reproduces the main features of hardening following a strain reversal: low yield stress, rapid strain hardening, and, optionally, permanent softening or hardening relative to the monotonic hardening law. The hardening law was implemented and 3-D FEM was carried out for comparison with the draw-bend springback results.
Technical Paper

Implementing Computer Simulation into the Concept to Product Process

1999-03-01
1999-01-1003
Process simulation for product and process design is currently being practiced in industry. However, a number of input variables have a significant effect on the accuracy and reliability of computer predictions. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of finite element method (FEM) simulations for predicting part characteristics and process conditions in forming complex-shaped, industrial parts. In industrial applications, there are two objectives for conducting FEM simulations of the stamping process: (1) to optimize the product design by analyzing formability at the product design stage and (2) to reduce the tryout time and cost in process design by predicting the deformation process in advance during the die design stage. For each of these objectives, two kinds of FEM simulations are applied.
Technical Paper

Consumer Braking Performance Information Initiative

1999-03-01
1999-01-1291
A test procedure that rates brake performance must control variability so that measured differences between vehicles are real. Tests were conducted using standard brake test procedures with three drivers in three cars on wet and dry asphalt with the ABS working and disabled. The differences between vehicles were greater than differences due to ABS condition, surface condition, and drivers. The procedure measured differences between all the vehicles with statistical certainty but used many replications and drivers. If only large differences in performance need to be distinguished, fewer replications and drivers will be needed.
Technical Paper

Corner Design in Deep Drawn Rectangular Parts

1997-02-24
970437
The influence of die corner geometry on the attainable draw depth of rectangular parts was investigated using 3-D FEM and optimum rectangular blanks. Axisymmetric cup analysis was not adequate because a corner assist effect promotes corner draw. Guidelines for selecting corner radius were developed and the sensitivities of the maximum part depth to other process variables, such as drawbead restraint force; die clearance gap; friction coefficient; strain rate sensitivity; material anisotropy; and strain hardening exponent, were simulated. The results are much more conservative than handbook rules, which to not to take into account the details of blank size, drawbead restraint, die geometry, material properties, and friction.
Technical Paper

Predicting Aircraft Performance Degradation Due to Ice Accretion

1983-02-01
830742
An analytical method to predict the performance degradation of aircraft with ice accretion is presented. Early research on airfoil icing and the effects of ice on aircraft are reviewed. Data on the performance degradation of airfoils due to ice are presented as they apply to the aircraft performance analysis. A computer code has been written and results are discussed.
Technical Paper

Drag Evaluation of the Bellanca Skyrocket II

1977-02-01
770472
The Bellanca Skyrocket II, possessor of five world speed records, is a single engine aircraft with high performance that has been attributed to a laminar flow airfoil and an all composite structure. Utilization of composite materials in the Skyrocket II is unique since this selection was made to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft. Flight tests are in progress to measure the overall aircraft drag and the wing section drag for comparison with the predicted performance of the Skyrocket. Initial results show the zero lift drag is indeed low, with CDO = 0.016.
Technical Paper

IN-FLIGHT MEASUREMENTS OF THE GA(W)-2 AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS

1977-02-01
770461
Flight tests of a new 13% General Aviation Airfoil - the GA(W)-2 - gloved full span onto the existing wing of a Beech Sundowner have generated chordwise pressure distributions and wake surveys. Section lift, drag and moment coefficients derived from these measurements verify wind tunnel data and theory predicting the performance of this airfoil. The effect of steps, rivets and surface coatings upon the drag of the GA(W)-2 was also evaluated.
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