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Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of ABS and RSC Control Algorithms for a 6×4 Tractor and Trailer Models using SIL Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0135
A Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) simulation is presented here wherein control algorithms for the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) system were developed in Simulink. Vehicle dynamics models of a 6×4 cab-over tractor and two trailer combinations were developed in TruckSim and were used for control system design. Model validation was performed by doing various dynamic maneuvers like J-Turn, double lane change, decreasing radius curve, high dynamic steer input and constant radius test with increasing speed and comparing the vehicle responses obtained from TruckSim against field test data. A commercial ESC ECU contains two modules: Roll Stability Control (RSC) and Yaw Stability Control (YSC). In this research, only the RSC has been modeled. The ABS system was developed based on the results obtained from a HIL setup that was developed as a part of this research.
Journal Article

Design Challenges in the Development of a Large Vehicle Inertial Measurement System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0096
The (Vehicle Inertia Parameter Evaluation Rig) VIPER II is a full vehicle mass and inertia parameter measurement machine. The VIPER II expands upon the capabilities of its predecessor and is capable of measuring vehicles with a mass of up to 45,360 kg (100,000 lb), an increase in capacity of 18,100 kg (40,000 lb). The VIPER II also exceeds its predecessor in both the length and width of vehicles it can measure. The VIPER II's maximum vehicle width is 381 cm (150 in) an increase of 76 cm (30 in) and maximum distance from the vehicle CG to the outer most axle is 648 cm (255 in) an additional 152 cm (60 in) The VIPER II is capable of performing measurements including vehicle CG height, pitch, roll, and yaw moments of inertia and the roll/yaw cross product of inertia. While being able to measure both heavier and larger vehicles, the VIPER II is designed to maintain a maximum error of 3% for all inertia measurements and 1% for CG height.
Journal Article

The Design of a Suspension Parameter Identification Device and Evaluation Rig (SPIDER) for Military Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0696
This paper describes the mechanical design of a Suspension Parameter Identification Device and Evaluation Rig (SPIDER) for wheeled military vehicles. This is a facility used to measure quasi-static suspension and steering system properties as well as tire vertical static stiffness. The machine operates by holding the vehicle body nominally fixed while hydraulic cylinders move an “axle frame” in bounce or roll under each axle being tested. The axle frame holds wheel pads (representing the ground plane) for each wheel. Specific design considerations are presented on the wheel pads and the measurement system used to measure wheel center motion. The constraints on the axle frames are in the form of a simple mechanism that allows roll and bounce motion while constraining all other motions. An overview of the design is presented along with typical results.
Journal Article

Semitrailer Torsional Stiffness Data for Improved Modeling Fidelity

2011-09-13
2011-01-2163
Vehicle dynamics models employed in heavy truck simulation often treat the semitrailer as a torsionally rigid member, assuming zero deflection along its longitudinal axis as a moment is applied to its frame. Experimental testing, however, reveals that semitrailers do twist, sometimes enough to precipitate rollover when a rigid trailer may have remained upright. Improving the model by incorporating realistic trailer roll stiffness values can improve assessment of heavy truck dynamics, as well as an increased understanding of the effectiveness of stability control systems in limit handling maneuvers. Torsional stiffness measurements were conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for eight semitrailers of different types, including different length box vans, traditional and spread axle flat beds, and a tanker.
Journal Article

Vibration Analysis of Powertrain Mounting System with a Combination of Active and Passive Isolators with Spectrally-varying Properties

2009-05-19
2009-01-2034
Most of the prior work on active mounting systems has been conducted in the context of a single degree-of-freedom even though the vehicle powertrain is a six degree-of-freedom isolation system. We seek to overcome this deficiency by proposing a new six degree-of-freedom analytical model of the powertrain system with a combination of active and passive mounts. All stiffness and damping elements contain spectrally-varying properties and we examine powertrain motions when excited by an oscillating torque. Two methods are developed that describe the mount elements via a transfer function (in Laplace domain). New analytical formulations are verified by comparing the frequency responses with numerical results obtained by the direct inversion method (based on Voigt type mount model). Eigensolutions of a spectrally varying mounting system are also predicted by new models.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Validation of the 2003 Ford Expedition with ESC using CarSim

2009-04-20
2009-01-0452
The paper discusses the development of a vehicle dynamics model and model validation of the 2003 Ford Expedition in CarSim. The accuracy of results obtained from simulations depends on the realism of the model which in turn depends on the measured data used to define the model parameters. The paper describes the tests used to measure the vehicle data and also gives a detailed account of the methodology used to determine parameters for the CarSim Ford Expedition model. The vehicle model was validated by comparing simulation results with experimental testing. Bounce and Roll tests in CarSim were used to validate the suspension and steering kinematics and compliances. Field test data of the Sine with Dwell maneuver was used for the vehicle model validation. The paper also discusses the development of a functional electronic stability control system and its effect on vehicle handling response in the Sine with Dwell maneuver.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Validation for the 2003 Ford Expedition with ESC using ADAMS View

2009-04-20
2009-01-0453
The paper discusses the development of a model of the 2003 Ford Expedition using ADAMS View and its validation with experimental data. The front and rear suspensions are independent double A-arm type suspensions modeled using rigid links and ideal joints. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as force elements. The plots comparing the experimental tests and the simulation results are shown in this paper. Quasi-static roll and bounce tests are used to validate the suspension characteristics of the model while the Sine with Dwell and Slowly Increasing Steer maneuvers are used to validate the vehicle handling and tire-road interaction characteristics of the model. This paper also details the incorporation of an ESC model, originally developed by Kinjawadekar et al. [2] for CarSim, with the ADAMS model. The ESC is modeled in Simulink and co-simulated with the ADAMS vehicle model. Plots validating the ESC model with experimental data are also included.
Technical Paper

Repeatability and Bias Study on the Vehicle Inertia Measurement Facility (VIMF)

2009-04-20
2009-01-0447
Representative vehicle inertial characteristics are important parameters for the development of motor vehicles and the proper operation of on-board systems. The Vehicle Inertia Measurement Facility (VIMF) measures vehicle center of gravity location, principal moments of inertia, and the roll/yaw product of inertia. It is important to understand the VIMF’s accuracy and repeatability, as well as the underlying methodology and assumptions, when performing tests or using the results of the test. This study reports on a repeatability analysis performed at the lower and upper limits of the VIMF. Each test performed is a complete drive-on/drive-off test. The test sequence involves the repeatability evaluation of several different machine configurations. Ten complete tests are performed for each vehicle. To better address the possibility of measurement bias, the design and verification of a calibration fixture for inertial characteristics is presented.
Journal Article

Development of a Roll Stability Control Model for a Tractor Trailer Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0451
Heavy trucks are involved in many accidents every year and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is viewed as a means to help mitigate this problem. ESC systems are designed to reduce the incidence of single vehicle loss of control, which might lead to rollover or jackknife. As the working details and control strategies of commercially available ESC systems are proprietary, a generic model of an ESC system that mimics the basic logical functionality of commercial systems was developed. This paper deals with the study of the working of a commercial ESC system equipped on an actual tractor trailer vehicle. The particular ESC system found on the test vehicle contained both roll stability control (RSC) and yaw stability control (YSC) features. This work focused on the development of a reliable RSC software model, and the integration of it into a full vehicle simulation (TruckSim) of a heavy truck.
Technical Paper

Refinements of a Heavy Truck ABS Model

2007-04-16
2007-01-0839
In 2004, a model of a 6s6m ABS controller was developed in order to support NHTSA's efforts in the study of heavy truck braking performance. This model was developed using Simulink and interfaced with TruckSim, a vehicle dynamics software package, in order to create an accurate braking simulation of a 6×4 Peterbilt straight truck. For this study, the vehicle model braking dynamics were improved and the ABS controller model was refined. Also, the controller was made adaptable to ABS configurations other than 6s6m, such as 4s4m and 4s3m. Controller models were finally validated to experimental data from the Peterbilt truck, gathered at NHTSA's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC).
Technical Paper

Parameter Determination and Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for The National Advanced Driving Simulator of the 2006 BMW 330i

2007-04-16
2007-01-0818
The paper discusses the development of a model for the 2006 BMW 330i for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation, NADSdyna. The front and rear suspensions are independent strut and link type suspensions modeled using recursive rigid-body dynamics formulations. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as force elements. The paper includes parameters for front and rear semi-empirical tire models used with NADSdyna. Longitudinal and lateral tire force plots are also included. The NADSdyna model provides state-of-the-art high-fidelity handling dynamics for real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The realism of a particular model depends heavily on how the parameters are obtained from the actual physical system. Complex models do not guarantee high fidelity if the parameters used were not properly measured. Methodologies for determining the parameters are detailed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Effects of ABS Controller Parameters on Heavy Truck Model Braking Performance

2006-10-31
2006-01-3482
This paper covers research conducted at the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) examining the performance of semitrailer anti-lock braking systems (ABS). For this study, a vehicle dynamics model was constructed for the combination of a 4×2 tractor and a 48-foot trailer, using TruckSim. ABS models for the tractor and trailer, as well as brake dynamics and surface friction models, were created in Simulink so that the effect of varying ABS controller parameters and configurations on semitrailer braking performance could be studied under extreme braking maneuvers. The longitudinal and lateral performances of this tractor-trailer model were examined for a variety of different trailer ABS controller models, including the 2s1m, 4s2m, and 4s4m configurations. Also, alternative controllers of the same configuration were studied by varying the parameters of the 2s1m controller.
Technical Paper

MADYMO Modeling of the IHRA Head-form Impactor

2005-06-14
2005-01-2740
The International Harmonization Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Working Group (IHRA PSWG) has proposed design requirements for two head-forms for vehicle hood (bonnet) impact testing. This paper discusses the development of MADYMO models representing the IHRA adult and child head-forms, validation of the models against laboratory drop tests, and assessment of the effect of IHRA geometric and mass constraints on the model response by conducting a parameter sensitivity analysis. The models consist of a multibody rigid sphere covered with a finite element modeled vinyl skin. The most important part in developing the MADYMO head-form models was to experimentally determine the material properties of the energy-absorbing portion of the head-form (vinyl skin) and incorporate these properties into MADYMO using a suitable material model. Three material models (linear isotropic, viscoelastic, hyperelastic) were examined.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Fishhook Maneuver Performance of a Kinetic Suspension System

2005-04-11
2005-01-0392
Kinetic Pty Ltd and Tenneco Automotive have developed a passive suspension system called a Kinetic system. The motivation for the design of the system is discussed, and the function of the system is explained. The system improves handling, stability, and ride by passively decoupling roll stiffness from articulation stiffness and roll damping from bounce damping. Improved stability is evaluated by conducting NHTSA's Roll Rate Feedback Fishhook tests on a small SUV equipped with the Kinetic system. Results of the testing are presented, and benefits to rollover are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Heavy Truck ABS Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0413
This paper discusses the improvement of a heavy truck anti-lock brake system (ABS) model currently used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in conjunction with multibody vehicle dynamics software. Accurate modeling of this complex system is paramount in predicting real-world dynamics, and significant improvements in model accuracy are now possible due to recent access to ABS system data during on-track experimental testing. This paper focuses on improving an existing ABS model to accurately simulate braking under limit braking maneuvers on high and low-coefficient surfaces. To accomplish this, an ABS controller model with slip ratio and wheel acceleration thresholds was developed to handle these scenarios. The model was verified through testing of a Class VIII 6×4 straight truck. The Simulink brake system and ABS model both run simultaneously with TruckSim, with the initialization and results being acquired through Matlab.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Steering System Model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

2004-03-08
2004-01-1072
This paper presents the details of the model for the physical steering system used on the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The system is basically a hardware-in-the-loop (steering feedback motor and controls) steering system coupled with the core vehicle dynamics of the simulator. The system's torque control uses cascaded position and velocity feedback and is controlled to provide steering feedback with variable stiffness and dynamic properties. The reference model, which calculates the desired value of the torque, is made of power steering torque, damping function torque, torque from tires, locking limit torque, and driver input torque. The model also provides a unique steering dead-band function that is important for on-center feel. A Simulink model of the hardware/software is presented and analysis of the simulator steering system is provided.
Technical Paper

Derivation and Validation of New Analytical Planar Models for Simulating Multi-Axle Articulated Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1784
This paper discusses the derivation and validation of planar models of articulated vehicles that were developed to analyze jackknife stability on low-μ surfaces. The equations of motion are rigorously derived using Lagrange's method, then linearized for use in state-space models. The models are verified using TruckSim™, a popular nonlinear solid body vehicle dynamics modeling package. The TruckSim™ models were previously verified using extensive on-vehicle experimental data [1, 2]. A three-axle articulated model is expanded to contain five axles to avoid lumping the parameters for the drive and semitrailer tandems. Compromises inherent in using the linearized models are discussed and evaluated. Finally, a nonlinear tire cornering force model is coupled with the 5-axle model, and its ability to simulate a jackknife event is demonstrated. The model is shown to be valid over a wide range of inputs, up to and including loss of control, on low-and-medium-μ surfaces.
Technical Paper

Application of the Extended Kalman Filter to a Planar Vehicle Model to Predict the Onset of Jackknife Instability

2004-03-08
2004-01-1785
The widely used Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to a planar model of an articulated vehicle to predict jackknifing events. The states of hitch angle and hitch angle rate are estimated using a vehicle model and the available or “measured” states of lateral acceleration and yaw rate from the prime mover. Tuning, performance, and compromises for the EKF in this application are discussed. This application of the EKF is effective in predicting the onset of instability for an articulated vehicle under low-μ and low-load conditions. These conditions have been shown to be most likely to render heavy articulated vehicles vulnerable to jackknife instability. Options for model refinements are also presented.
Technical Paper

In-Depth Analysis of the Influence of High Torque Brakes on the Jackknife Stability of Heavy Trucks

2003-11-10
2003-01-3398
Published NHTSA rulemaking plans propose significant reduction in the maximum stopping distance for loaded Class-VIII commercial vehicles. To attain that goal, higher torque brakes, such as air disc brakes, will appear on prime movers long before the trailer market sees significant penetration. Electronic control of the brakes on prime movers should also be expected due to their ability to significantly shorten stopping distances. The influence upon jackknife stability of having higher performance brakes on the prime mover, while keeping traditional pneumatically controlled s-cam drum brakes on the trailer, is discussed in this paper. A hybrid vehicle dynamics model was applied to investigate the jackknife stability of tractor-semitrailer rigs under several combinations of load, speed, surface coefficient, and ABS functionality.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Vehicle Dynamics Model Using Genetic Algorithm and Estimation Theory

2003-03-03
2003-01-1281
A determination of the vehicle states and tire forces is critical to the stability of vehicle dynamic behavior and to designing automotive control systems. Researchers have studied estimation methods for the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. However, the accuracy of the estimation methods is closely related to the employed model. In this paper, tire lag dynamics is introduced in the model. Also application of estimation methods in order to improve the model accuracy is presented. The model is developed by using the global searching algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, so that the model can be used in the nonlinear range. The extended Kalman filter and sliding mode observer theory are applied to estimate the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. The obtained results are compared with measurements and the outputs from the ADAMS full vehicle model. [15]
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