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Technical Paper

Effect of E-Modulus Variation on Springbackand a Practical Solution

2018-04-03
2018-01-0630
Springback affects the dimensional accuracy and final shape of stamped parts. Accurate prediction of springback is necessary to design dies that produce the desired part geometry and tolerances. Springback occurs after stamping and ejection of the part because the state of the stresses and strains in the deformed material has changed. To accurately predict springback through finite element analysis, the material model should be well defined for accurate simulation and prediction of stresses and strains after unloading. Despite the development of several advanced material models that comprehensively describe the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior, permanent softening of the blank material, and unloading elastic modulus degradation, the prediction of springback is still not satisfactory for production parts. Dies are often recut several times, after the first tryouts, to compensate for springback and achieve the required part geometry.
Technical Paper

Testing and Validation of a Belted Alternator System for a Post-Transmission Parallel PHEV for the EcoCAR 3 Competition

2017-03-28
2017-01-1263
The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team is building a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of improving fuel economy and reducing tail pipe emissions, the Ohio State Camaro has been fitted with a 32 kW alternator-starter belt coupled to a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85). The belted alternator starter (BAS) which aids engine start-stop operation, series mode and torque assist, is powered by an 18.9 kWh Lithium Iron Phosphate energy storage system, and controlled by a DC-AC inverter/controller. This report details the modeling, calibration, testing and validation work done by the Ohio State team to fast track development of the BAS system in Year 2 of the competition.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a Parallel-Series PHEV for Year 3 of the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2014-10-13
2014-01-2908
The EcoCAR 2 team at the Ohio State University has designed an extended-range electric vehicle capable of 44 miles all-electric range, which features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and a 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report documents the team's refinement work on the vehicle during Year 3 of the competition, including vehicle improvements, control strategy calibration and dynamic vehicle testing, culminating in a 99% buy off vehicle that meets the goals set forth by the team. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S. Department of Energy, General Motors, The Ohio State University, and numerous competition and local sponsors.
Technical Paper

Fabrication of a Parallel-Series PHEV for the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2013-10-14
2013-01-2491
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 51 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the fabrication and control implementation process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 2 of the competition. The fabrication process includes finalizing designs based on identified requirements, building and assembling components, and performing extensive validation testing on the mechanical, electrical and control systems.
Journal Article

Effect of Local Stiffness Coupling on the Modes of a Subframe-Bushing System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1904
The elastomeric joints (bushings or mounts) in vehicle structural frames are usually described as uncoupled springs (only with diagonal terms) in large scale system models. The off-diagonal terms of an elastomeric joint have been previously ignored as they are often unknown since their properties cannot be measured in a uniaxial elastomer test system. This paper overcomes this deficiency via a scientific study of a laboratory frame that is designed to maintain a high fidelity with real-world vehicle body subframes in terms of natural modes under free boundaries. The steel beam construction of the laboratory frame, with four elastomeric mounts at the corners, permits the development of a highly accurate, yet simple, beam finite element model. This allows for a correlation study between the experiment and model that helps shed light upon the underlying physical phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Comparative study of different control strategies for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2009-09-13
2009-24-0071
Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) represent the middle point between Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), thus combining benefits of the two architectures. PHEVs can achieve very high fuel economy while preserving full functionality of hybrids - long driving range, easy refueling, lower emissions etc. These advantages come at an expense of added complexity in terms of available fuel. The PHEV battery is recharged both though regenerative braking and directly by the grid thus adding extra dimension to the control problem. Along with the minimization of the fuel consumption, the amount of electricity taken from the power grid should be also considered, therefore the electricity generation mix and price become additional parameters that should be included in the cost function.
Technical Paper

Welding Characteristics in Deformation Resistance Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-1137
Deformation Resistance Welding (DRW) is a process that employs resistance heating to raise the temperature of the materials being welded to the appropriate forging range, followed by shear deformation which increases the contacting surface area of the materials being welded. Because DRW is a new process, it became desirable to establish variable selection strategies which can be integrated into a production procedure. A factorial design of experiment was used to examine the influence of force, number of pulses, and weld cycles (heating/cooling time ratio) on the DRW process. Welded samples were tensile tested to determine their strength. Once tensile testing was complete, the resulting strengths were observed and compared to corresponding percent heat and percent reduction in thickness. Tensile strengths ranged from 107 kN to 22.2 kN. A relationship between the maximum current and the weld variables was established.
Technical Paper

Errors Associated with Transfer Path Analysis when Rotations are not Measured

2007-05-15
2007-01-2179
Previously we had found significant errors in the interfacial force results for a source-path-receiver system where only translational motions were measured. This paper examines the sources of those errors by using computational finite and boundary element models. The example case consists of a source structure (with few modes), a receiver (with many modes) and three steel rod paths. We first formulate indirect, yet exact, methods for estimating interfacial forces, by assuming that six-dimensional motions at any location are available though we focus on only the driving points. One- and three-dimensional sub-sets of the proposed formulation are compared with the six-dimensional theory in terms of interfacial force and partial sound pressure spectra.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of Suspension Parameters for The Ohio State Buckeye Bullet 2 Land Speed Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-0814
The Buckeye Bullet set domestic as well as international speed records for electric vehicles in 2004. The next generation of land speed vehicle from Ohio State called the Buckeye Bullet 2 (henceforth the BB2) will again challenge and hopefully achieve several new speed records. The Buckeye Bullet suspension worked relatively well but was found to not be quite optimal for the vehicle. The purpose of the work outlined here was to develop a new front and rear suspension for the BB2 that would be an improvement over the suspension of the original Bullet. Previous to the start of this work part of the suspension had already been designed in the form of an upright/control arm setup. This paper works on taking the suspension to completion from this point of design. Work done includes developing the final design, determining suspension parameters, building an ADAMS model, and testing the ADAMS model.
Technical Paper

Simplified MADYMO Model of the IHRA Head-form Impactor

2006-07-04
2006-01-2349
Interest in pedestrian head injury has prompted a need to measure the potential of head injury resulting from vehicular impacts. A variety of head impactors have been developed to fulfill this measurement need. A protocol has been developed by the International Harmonization Research Activity (IHRA) to use head impactor measurements to predict head injury. However, the effect of certain characteristics of the various head impactors on the measurement procedure is not well understood. This includes the location of the accelerometers within the head-form and testing the head-form under the variety of conditions necessary to establish its global performance. To address this problem, a simple model of the IHRA head-form has been developed. This model was created using MADYMO© and consists of a solid sphere with a second sphere representing the vinyl covering. Stiffness and damping characteristics of the vinyl covering were determined analytically from drop test data of an IHRA head-form.
Technical Paper

The Balance Between Durability, Reliability, and Affordability in Structural Composites Manufacturing: Preliminary Results

2003-03-03
2003-01-0459
Fiber reinforced structural composites will play a key role in the development of the next generation of transportation vehicles (passenger cars, vans, light trucks and heavy trucks) due to their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio compared to metals. An integrated assessment of the durability, reliability, and affordability of these materials is critical to facilitate the inclusion of these materials into new designs. The result of this assessment should provide information to find the balance between the three performance measures. This paper describes a method to develop this assessment in the fabrication of sheet molding compound (SMC) parts, and discusses the concept of Preform Insert Assembly (PIA) for improved affordability in the manufacturing of composite parts.
Technical Paper

Springback Analysis with a Modified Hardening Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0768
Previously-reported draw-bend tests showed large discrepancies in springback angles from those predicted by two-dimensional finite element modeling (FEM). In some cases, the predicted angle was several times the measured angle. With more careful 3-D simulation taking into account anticlastic curvature, a significant discrepancy persisted. In order to evaluate the role of the Bauschinger Effect in springback, a transient hardening model was constructed based on novel tension-compression tests for for three sheet materials: drawing-quality steel (baseline material), high-strength low-alloy steel, and 6022-T4 aluminum alloy. This model reproduces the main features of hardening following a strain reversal: low yield stress, rapid strain hardening, and, optionally, permanent softening or hardening relative to the monotonic hardening law. The hardening law was implemented and 3-D FEM was carried out for comparison with the draw-bend springback results.
Technical Paper

Tube Hydroforming - State-of-the-Art and Future Trends

1999-03-01
1999-01-0675
With the availability of advanced machine designs and controls, tube hydroforming has become an economic alternative to various stamping processes. The technology is relatively new so that there is no large “knowledge base” to assist the product and process designers. This paper reviews the fundamentals of tube hydroforming technology and discusses how various parameters, such as tube material properties, pre-form geometry, lubrication and process control affect product design and quality. In addition, relations between process variables and achievable part geometry are discussed. Finally, using examples, the status of the current technology and critical issues for future development are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Implementing Computer Simulation into the Concept to Product Process

1999-03-01
1999-01-1003
Process simulation for product and process design is currently being practiced in industry. However, a number of input variables have a significant effect on the accuracy and reliability of computer predictions. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of finite element method (FEM) simulations for predicting part characteristics and process conditions in forming complex-shaped, industrial parts. In industrial applications, there are two objectives for conducting FEM simulations of the stamping process: (1) to optimize the product design by analyzing formability at the product design stage and (2) to reduce the tryout time and cost in process design by predicting the deformation process in advance during the die design stage. For each of these objectives, two kinds of FEM simulations are applied.
Technical Paper

Study of the Flow Field Development During the Intake Stroke in an IC Engine Using 2–D PIV and 3–D PTV

1999-03-01
1999-01-0957
The evolution of the flow field inside an IC engine during the intake stroke was studied using 2 different experimental techniques, namely the 2–D Particle Image Velocimetry (2–D PIV) and 3–D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3–D PTV) techniques. Both studies were conducted using a water analog engine simulation rig. The head tested was a typical pent–roof head geometry with two intake valves and one exhaust valve, and the simulated engine operating point corresponded to an idle condition. For both the 2–D PIV and 3–D PTV experiments, high–speed CCD cameras were used to record the motion of the flow tracer particles. The camera frame rate was adjusted to correspond to 1/4° of crank angle (CA), hence ensuring excellent temporal resolution for velocity calculations. For the 2–D PIV experiment, the flow field was illuminated by an Argon–ion laser with laser–sheet forming optics and this laser sheet was introduced through a transparent piston crown to illuminate the center tumble plane.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Decision-Making System for Automotive Application

1998-02-23
980519
Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.
Technical Paper

Applications of Computer Simulations for Part and Process Design for Automotive Stampings

1997-02-24
970985
Recent studies in sheet metal forming, conducted at universities world wide, emphasize the development of computer aided techniques for process simulation. To be practical and acceptable in a production environment, these codes must be easy to use and allow relatively quick solutions. Often, it is not necessary to make exact predictions but rather to establish the influence of process variables upon part quality, tool stresses, material flow, and material thickness variation. In cooperation with its industrial partners, the ERC for Net Shape Manufacturing of the Ohio State University has applied a number of computer codes for analysis and design of sheet metal forming operations. This paper gives a few selected examples taken from automotive applications and illustrates practical uses of computer simulations to improve productivity and reduce tool development and manufacturing costs.
Technical Paper

Process Simulation to Improve Quality and Increase Productivity in Rolling, Ring Rolling and Forging

1991-02-01
910142
The practical and proven use of computers in forming technology include: CAD/CAM for die making; transfer of geometric data from the customer's CAD/CAM system to that of the supplier and vice versa; application of artificial intelligence and expert systems for part and process design; simulation of metal flow to eliminate forging defects; prediction and optimization of process variables; and analysis of stresses in dies as well as prevention of premature die failure. Intelligent use of this information can lead to significant gains in product quality and productivity. This paper presents three examples of application of process simulation to forming : rolling, ring rolling and forging.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Development of A Real-Time Control Methodology in Resistance Spot Welding

1991-02-01
910191
The single-parameter, in-process monitor and automatic control systems for the resistance spot welding process have been studied by many investigators. Some of these have already been commercialized and used by sheet metal fabricators. These control systems operate primarily on one of the three process parameters: maximum voltage or voltage drop, dynamic resistance, or thermal expansion between electrodes during nugget formation. Control systems based on voltage or dynamic resistance have been successfully implemented for industrial applications. A great amount of experience on these two control methods has been accumulated through trial-and-error approaches. The expansion-based control system is not commonly utilized due to lack of experience and understanding of the process. Since the expansion displacement between electrodes during welding responds directly to the weld nugget formation, this control parameter provides a better means to produce more precise spot welds.
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