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Technical Paper

Effect of E-Modulus Variation on Springbackand a Practical Solution

Springback affects the dimensional accuracy and final shape of stamped parts. Accurate prediction of springback is necessary to design dies that produce the desired part geometry and tolerances. Springback occurs after stamping and ejection of the part because the state of the stresses and strains in the deformed material has changed. To accurately predict springback through finite element analysis, the material model should be well defined for accurate simulation and prediction of stresses and strains after unloading. Despite the development of several advanced material models that comprehensively describe the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior, permanent softening of the blank material, and unloading elastic modulus degradation, the prediction of springback is still not satisfactory for production parts. Dies are often recut several times, after the first tryouts, to compensate for springback and achieve the required part geometry.
Journal Article

Effect of Local Stiffness Coupling on the Modes of a Subframe-Bushing System

The elastomeric joints (bushings or mounts) in vehicle structural frames are usually described as uncoupled springs (only with diagonal terms) in large scale system models. The off-diagonal terms of an elastomeric joint have been previously ignored as they are often unknown since their properties cannot be measured in a uniaxial elastomer test system. This paper overcomes this deficiency via a scientific study of a laboratory frame that is designed to maintain a high fidelity with real-world vehicle body subframes in terms of natural modes under free boundaries. The steel beam construction of the laboratory frame, with four elastomeric mounts at the corners, permits the development of a highly accurate, yet simple, beam finite element model. This allows for a correlation study between the experiment and model that helps shed light upon the underlying physical phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Elevator Door Retention During Hallway Applied Lateral Loads

Most do not consider there to be a risk in pushing on, bumping into or falling against an elevator door from the hallway side. However, the lack of the elevator cars presence alone, and the potential for severe injury or even death make this seemingly mundane situation potentially critical. Standards exist relative to such situations, and past and current designs attempt to account for this possibility, still people get injured interacting with these doors every year. In order to evaluate a real-world elevator door system's ability to withstand the quasi-static and impactive loads that can be placed on it by the general public during its life, both intentionally and unintentionally, a predictive tool is needed. This work represents the combination of empirical laboratory testing and numerical modeling of a typical elevator door system exposed to quasi-static and dynamic loading.
Technical Paper

Correlation of a CAE Hood Deflection Prediction Method

As we continue to create ever-lighter road vehicles, the challenge of balancing weight reduction and structural performance also continues. One of the key parts this occurs on is the hood, where lighter materials (e.g. aluminum) have been used. However, the aerodynamic loads, such as hood lift, are essentially unchanged and are driven by the front fascia and front grille size and styling shape. This paper outlines a combination CFD/FEA prediction method for hood deflection performance at high speeds, by using the surface pressures as boundary conditions for a FEA linear static deflection analysis. Additionally, custom post-processing methods were developed to enhance flow analysis and understanding. This enabled the modification of existing test methods to further improve accuracy to real world conditions. The application of these analytical methods and their correlation with experimental results are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Errors Associated with Transfer Path Analysis when Rotations are not Measured

Previously we had found significant errors in the interfacial force results for a source-path-receiver system where only translational motions were measured. This paper examines the sources of those errors by using computational finite and boundary element models. The example case consists of a source structure (with few modes), a receiver (with many modes) and three steel rod paths. We first formulate indirect, yet exact, methods for estimating interfacial forces, by assuming that six-dimensional motions at any location are available though we focus on only the driving points. One- and three-dimensional sub-sets of the proposed formulation are compared with the six-dimensional theory in terms of interfacial force and partial sound pressure spectra.
Technical Paper

Simplified MADYMO Model of the IHRA Head-form Impactor

Interest in pedestrian head injury has prompted a need to measure the potential of head injury resulting from vehicular impacts. A variety of head impactors have been developed to fulfill this measurement need. A protocol has been developed by the International Harmonization Research Activity (IHRA) to use head impactor measurements to predict head injury. However, the effect of certain characteristics of the various head impactors on the measurement procedure is not well understood. This includes the location of the accelerometers within the head-form and testing the head-form under the variety of conditions necessary to establish its global performance. To address this problem, a simple model of the IHRA head-form has been developed. This model was created using MADYMO© and consists of a solid sphere with a second sphere representing the vinyl covering. Stiffness and damping characteristics of the vinyl covering were determined analytically from drop test data of an IHRA head-form.
Technical Paper

Sound Radiation from a Disk Brake Rotor Using a Semi-Analytical Method

Modal sound radiation of a brake rotor is expressed in terms of analytical solutions of a generic thick annular disk having similar geometric dimensions. Finite element method is used to determine structural modes and response. Vibro-acoustic responses such as surface velocities and radiated sound pressures due to a multi-modal excitation are calculated from synthesized structural modes and modal acoustic radiation of the rotor using the modal expansion technique. In addition, acoustic power and radiation efficiency spectra corresponding to a specific force excitation are obtained from the sound pressure data. Accuracy of the new semi-analytical method has been confirmed by purely numerical analyses based on finite element and boundary element models. Our method should lead to an improved understanding of the sound radiation from a brake rotor and strategies to minimize squeal noise radiation could be formulated.
Technical Paper

The Balance Between Durability, Reliability, and Affordability in Structural Composites Manufacturing: Preliminary Results

Fiber reinforced structural composites will play a key role in the development of the next generation of transportation vehicles (passenger cars, vans, light trucks and heavy trucks) due to their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio compared to metals. An integrated assessment of the durability, reliability, and affordability of these materials is critical to facilitate the inclusion of these materials into new designs. The result of this assessment should provide information to find the balance between the three performance measures. This paper describes a method to develop this assessment in the fabrication of sheet molding compound (SMC) parts, and discusses the concept of Preform Insert Assembly (PIA) for improved affordability in the manufacturing of composite parts.
Technical Paper

FEA Simulation and Experimental Validation of Catalytic Converter Structural Integrity

Non-linear FEA models are applied to three different catalytic converters, with the objective of predicting structural parameters such as shell deformation, push-out force, and mounting-system contact pressure under various conditions. The FEA modeling technique uses a novel constitutive model of the intumescent mat material typically found in ceramic-monolith converter designs. The mat constitutive model accounts for reversible and irreversible thermal expansion, allowing for the prediction of the one-way converter deflection observed in hot durability tests. In addition to this mat material model, the FEA methodology accounts for elastic and plastic shell deformation, contact between materials, and a three-dimensional temperature field in the shell and mat. For each of three designs, predictions are presented for converter canning, heat-up, and cool-down (i.e., post-heating) conditions.
Technical Paper

Springback Analysis with a Modified Hardening Model

Previously-reported draw-bend tests showed large discrepancies in springback angles from those predicted by two-dimensional finite element modeling (FEM). In some cases, the predicted angle was several times the measured angle. With more careful 3-D simulation taking into account anticlastic curvature, a significant discrepancy persisted. In order to evaluate the role of the Bauschinger Effect in springback, a transient hardening model was constructed based on novel tension-compression tests for for three sheet materials: drawing-quality steel (baseline material), high-strength low-alloy steel, and 6022-T4 aluminum alloy. This model reproduces the main features of hardening following a strain reversal: low yield stress, rapid strain hardening, and, optionally, permanent softening or hardening relative to the monotonic hardening law. The hardening law was implemented and 3-D FEM was carried out for comparison with the draw-bend springback results.
Technical Paper

Consumer Braking Performance Information Initiative

A test procedure that rates brake performance must control variability so that measured differences between vehicles are real. Tests were conducted using standard brake test procedures with three drivers in three cars on wet and dry asphalt with the ABS working and disabled. The differences between vehicles were greater than differences due to ABS condition, surface condition, and drivers. The procedure measured differences between all the vehicles with statistical certainty but used many replications and drivers. If only large differences in performance need to be distinguished, fewer replications and drivers will be needed.
Technical Paper

Implementing Computer Simulation into the Concept to Product Process

Process simulation for product and process design is currently being practiced in industry. However, a number of input variables have a significant effect on the accuracy and reliability of computer predictions. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of finite element method (FEM) simulations for predicting part characteristics and process conditions in forming complex-shaped, industrial parts. In industrial applications, there are two objectives for conducting FEM simulations of the stamping process: (1) to optimize the product design by analyzing formability at the product design stage and (2) to reduce the tryout time and cost in process design by predicting the deformation process in advance during the die design stage. For each of these objectives, two kinds of FEM simulations are applied.
Technical Paper

Applications of Computer Simulations for Part and Process Design for Automotive Stampings

Recent studies in sheet metal forming, conducted at universities world wide, emphasize the development of computer aided techniques for process simulation. To be practical and acceptable in a production environment, these codes must be easy to use and allow relatively quick solutions. Often, it is not necessary to make exact predictions but rather to establish the influence of process variables upon part quality, tool stresses, material flow, and material thickness variation. In cooperation with its industrial partners, the ERC for Net Shape Manufacturing of the Ohio State University has applied a number of computer codes for analysis and design of sheet metal forming operations. This paper gives a few selected examples taken from automotive applications and illustrates practical uses of computer simulations to improve productivity and reduce tool development and manufacturing costs.
Technical Paper

Corner Design in Deep Drawn Rectangular Parts

The influence of die corner geometry on the attainable draw depth of rectangular parts was investigated using 3-D FEM and optimum rectangular blanks. Axisymmetric cup analysis was not adequate because a corner assist effect promotes corner draw. Guidelines for selecting corner radius were developed and the sensitivities of the maximum part depth to other process variables, such as drawbead restraint force; die clearance gap; friction coefficient; strain rate sensitivity; material anisotropy; and strain hardening exponent, were simulated. The results are much more conservative than handbook rules, which to not to take into account the details of blank size, drawbead restraint, die geometry, material properties, and friction.