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Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
Technical Paper

Model Based Analysis of Performance-Cost Tradeoffs for Engine Manifold Surface Finishing

The link between manufacturing process and product performance is studied in order to construct analytical, quantifiable criteria for the introduction of new engine technologies and processes. Cost associated with a new process must be balanced against increases in engine performance and thus demand for the particular vehicle. In this work, the effect of the Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) technique on surface roughness is characterized through measurements of specimens, and a predictive engine simulation is used to quantify performance gains due to the new surface finish. Subsequently, economic cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate manufacturing decisions based on their impact on firm's profitability. A demonstration study examines the use of AFM for finishing the inner surfaces of intake manifolds for two engines, one installed in a compact car and the other in an SUV.
Technical Paper

First and Second Law Analyses of a Naturally-Aspirated, Miller Cycle, SI Engine with Late Intake Valve Closure

A naturally-aspirated, Miller cycle, Spark-Ignition (SI) engine that controls output with variable intake valve closure is compared to a conventionally-throttled engine using computer simulation. Based on First and Second Law analyses, the two load control strategies are compared in detail through one thermodynamic cycle at light load conditions and over a wide range of loads at 2000 rpm. The Miller Cycle engine can use late intake valve closure (LIVC) to control indicated output down to 35% of the maximum, but requires supplemental throttling at lighter loads. The First Law analysis shows that the Miller cycle increases indicated thermal efficiency at light loads by as much as 6.3%, primarily due to reductions in pumping and compression work while heat transfer losses are comparable.