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Technical Paper

Algorithmic Maintenance of a Diesel Engine Electronic Fuel Feed Controller by Criterion of the Content of Soot in Exhaust Gas

2007-04-16
2007-01-0973
The feature of offered algorithm is that it allows, without record and analysis of the display diagram, to estimate a running cycle of a diesel engine parameters which characterize ecological and economic performances. The mathematical model described in report allows to determine connection of coefficient of filling, pressure and temperature of air boost, factor of excess of air with effectiveness ratio of combustion and contents of soot in exhaust gas and to take into account this connection at a choice initial data for control fuel feed or for elaboration of diesel engine dynamic model. The algorithm incorporated, for example, in the microcontroller of an electronic fuel feed controller allows analyzing the sensors data and theoretically determine of smoke amount in the exhaust gases for chosen cycle of fuel feed. The restriction of smoke is possible by criterion dD/dGT, where D - contents of soot in exhaust gas and GT - fuel cycle submission under the program-adaptive schema.
Technical Paper

Distance Cues and Fields of View in Rear Vision Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-0947
The effects of image size on perceived distance have been of concern for convex rearview mirrors as well as camera-based rear vision systems. We suggest that the importance of image size is limited to cases-such as current rearview mirrors-in which the field of view is small. With larger, richer fields of view it is likely that other distance cues will dominate image size, thereby substantially diminishing the concern that distortions of size will result in distortions of distance perception. We report results from an experiment performed in a driving simulator, with static simulated rearward images, in which subjects were asked to make judgments about the distance to a rearward vehicle. The images showed a field of view substantially wider than provided by any of the individual rearview mirrors in current systems. The field of view was 38 degrees wide and was presented on displays that were either 16.7 or 8.5 degrees wide, thus minifying images by factors of 0.44 or 0.22.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload for Rear-Vision Systems With Single Versus Multiple Display Locations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0445
Advances in camera and display technology have increased interest in using camera-based systems for all rear-vision functions. The flexibility of camera-based systems is unprecedented, and raises the possibility of providing drivers with fields of view that are very different from, and potentially much better than, those of conventional rearview mirrors. Current fields of view are based on a combination of driver needs and the practical constraints of mirror systems. In order to make the best use of the greater flexibility offered by cameras, a reassessment of drivers' needs for rear vision is needed. A full reassessment will require consideration of many factors. This paper offers a preliminary analysis of one of those factors: the visual workload involved in using rear-vision systems with single versus multiple displays.
Technical Paper

Using Vehicle Dynamics Simulation as a Teaching Tool in Automotive Engineering Courses

2005-04-11
2005-01-1795
Some of the best teaching methods are laboratory courses in which students experience application of the principles being presented. Preparing young engineering students for a career in the automotive industry challenges us to provide comparable opportunities to explore the dynamic performance of motor vehicles in a controlled environment. Today we are fortunate to have accurate and easy-to-use software programs making it practical for students to simulate the performance of motor vehicles on “virtual” proving grounds. At the University of Michigan the CarSim® vehicle dynamics simulation program has been introduced as such a tool to augment the learning experience. The software is used in the Automotive Engineering course to supplement homework exercises analyzing acceleration, braking, aerodynamics, and cornering performance. This paper provides an overview of the use of simulation in this setting.
Technical Paper

The Roles of Camera-Based Rear Vision Systems and Object-Detection Systems: Inferences from Crash Data

2004-03-08
2004-01-1758
Advances in electronic countermeasures for lane-change crashes, including both camera-based rear vision systems and object-detection systems, have provided more options for meeting driver needs than were previously available with rearview mirrors. To some extent, human factors principles can be used to determine what countermeasures would best meet driver needs. However, it is also important to examine sets of crash data as closely as possible for the information they may provide. We review previous analyses of crash data and attempt to reconcile the implications of these analyses with each other as well as with general human factors principles. We argue that the data seem to indicate that the contribution of blind zones to lane-change crashes is substantial.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Manual Handling Motions Via Motion Modification: Performance Evaluation of Motion Modification Algorithm

2003-06-17
2003-01-2227
Simulation of human motions in virtual environments is an essential component of human CAD (Computer-aided Design) systems. In our earlier SAE papers, we introduced a novel motion simulation approach termed Memory-based Motion Simulation (MBMS). MBMS utilizes existing motion databases and predicts novel motions by modifying existing ‘root’ motions through the use of the motion modification algorithm. MBMS overcomes some limitations of existing motion simulation models, as 1) it simulates different types of motions on a single, unified framework, 2) it simulates motions based on alternative movement techniques, and 3) like real humans, it can learn new movement skills continually over time. The current study evaluates the prediction accuracy of MBMS to prove its utility as a predictive tool for computer-aided ergonomics. A total of 627 whole-body one-handed load transfer motions predicted by the algorithm are compared with actual human motions obtained in a motion capture experiment.
Technical Paper

Redesigning Workstations Utilizing Motion Modification Algorithm

2003-06-17
2003-01-2195
Workstation design is one of the most essential components of proactive ergonomics, and digital human models have gained increasing popularity in the analysis and design of current and future workstations (Chaffin 2001). Using digital human technology, it is possible to simulate interactions between humans and current or planned workstations, and conduct quantitative ergonomic analyses based on realistic human postures and motions. Motion capture has served as the primary means by which to acquire and visualize human motions in a digital environment. However, motion capture only provides motions for a specific person performing specific tasks. Albeit useful, at best this allows for the analysis of current or mocked-up workstations only. The ability to subsequently modify these motions is required to efficiently evaluate alternative design possibilities and thus improve design layouts.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Complex Eigensolutions for Brake Noise

2003-05-05
2003-01-1626
When structures may have dynamic instability complex eigenvalue analysis is a useful tool to predict it. Although the accurate prediction itself is significant, it is also crucial to obtain sensitivity of unstable eigensolutions in order to eliminate instability efficiently. Since the mathematical relationship between stiffness matrix and design variables may seldom be found in reality, finite difference method has been typically used to approximate the sensitivity. The novel way to accurately calculate the sensitivity is developed without implementing finite difference method. This paper shows the advantages of analytical sensitivity analysis compared to other methods for choosing the most important components' eigenvalues. It also provides necessary amount of frequency shift for each chosen components' eigenvalue to eliminate unstable eigenvalues.
Technical Paper

A Pilot Study of the Effects of Vertical Ride Motion on Reach Kinematics

2003-03-03
2003-01-0589
Vehicle motions can adversely affect the ability of a driver or occupant to quickly and accurately push control buttons located in many advanced vehicle control, navigation and communications systems. A pilot study was conducted using the U.S. Army Tank Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) Ride Motion Simulator (RMS) to assess the effects of vertical ride motion on the kinematics of reaching. The RMS was programmed to produce 0.5 g and 0.8 g peak-to-peak sinusoidal inputs at the seat-sitter interface over a range of frequencies. Two participants performed seated reaching tasks to locations typical of in-vehicle controls under static conditions and with single-frequency inputs between 0 and 10 Hz. The participants also held terminal reach postures during 0.5 to 32 Hz sine sweeps. Reach kinematics were recorded using a 10-camera VICON motion capture system. The effects of vertical ride motion on movement time, accuracy, and subjective responses were assessed.
Technical Paper

Infrared Night Vision Systems and Driver Needs

2003-03-03
2003-01-0293
Night vision enhancement systems (NVES), which use infrared (IR) cameras, are designed to supplement the visibility provided by standard headlamps. There are two main NVES systems: active, near infrared (NIR) systems, which require an IR source but give a complete picture of the scene in front of the driver, and passive, far infrared (FIR) systems, which do not need an IR source but only enhance relatively warm objects (such as people and animals). There are three main display alternatives: a head-up display (HUD) superimposed on the direct view of the road, a HUD just above the dashboard but separated from the direct view, and a conventional display somewhere in the dashboard. This paper analyzes what a NVES should do to improve night visibility based on night crash statistics, driver vision and visibility conditions in night driving, driver tasks and behavior, and the options offered by various technological approaches. Potential problems with using NVES are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Driving with HID Headlamps: A Review of Research Findings

2003-03-03
2003-01-0295
High-intensity discharge (HID) headlamps have several advantages over tungsten-halogen headlamps, including greater light efficiency (lumens per watt) and longer life. However, from the safety point of view, the primary attraction of HID headlamps is that, because they produce more total light, they have the potential to provide more useful illumination to the driver. At the same time, there are concerns with the effects of HID illumination on perception of the colors of important objects and glare to oncoming traffic. This paper reviews research evidence that we have accumulated over the past 14 years concerning the potential benefits and drawbacks associated with the use of HID headlighting. We conclude that the evidence strongly supports the use of well-designed HID headlamps.
Technical Paper

Framing Effects on Distance Perception in Rear-Vision Displays

2003-03-03
2003-01-0298
The increasing availability of camera-based displays for indirect vision in vehicles is providing new opportunities to supplement drivers' direct views of the roadway and surrounding traffic, and is also raising new issues about how drivers perceive the positions and movements of surrounding vehicles. We recently reported evidence that drivers' perception of the distance to rearward vehicles seen in camera-based displays is affected not only by the visual angles subtended by the images of those vehicles, but also by the sizes of those images relative to the sizes of the displays within which they are seen (an influence that we have referred to as a framing effect). There was also evidence for a similar, but weaker, effect with rearview mirrors.
Technical Paper

Distance Perception in Camera-Based Rear Vision Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0012
The importance of eye-to-display distance for distance perception in rear vision may depend on the type of display. At least in terms of its influence on the effective magnification of images, eye-to-display distance is almost irrelevant for flat rearview mirrors, but it is important for convex rearview mirrors and for other displays, such as video displays, that create images closer to the driver than the actual objects of interest. In the experiment we report here, we investigate the influence of eye-to-display distance on distance perception with both flat rearview mirrors and camera-based video displays. The results indicate that a simple model of distance perception based on the visual angles of images is not very successful. Visual angles may be important, but it appears that relationships between images of distant objects and the frames of the displays are also important. Further work is needed to fully understand how drivers might judge distance in camera-based displays.
Technical Paper

Modifying Motions for Avoiding Obstacles

2001-06-26
2001-01-2112
Interference between physical objects in the workspace and the moving human body may cause serious problems, including errors in manual operation, physical damage and trauma from the collision, and increased biomechanical stresses due to movement reorganization for avoiding the obstacles. Therefore, a computer algorithm to detect possible collisions and simulate human motions to avoid obstacles will be an important tool for computer-aided ergonomics and optimization of system design in the early stage of a design process. In the present study, we present a method of modifying motions for obstacle avoidance when the object intrudes near the center of the planned motion. We take the motion modification approach, as we believe that for a certain class of obstacle avoidance problems, a person would modify a pre-planned motion that would result in a collision to a new one that is collision-free, as opposed to organizing a totally unique motion pattern.
Technical Paper

Accounting for Manufacturing Variability in Interior Noise Computations

2001-04-30
2001-01-1527
A formulation that accounts for manufacturing variability in the analysis of structural/acoustic systems is presented. The methodology incorporates the concept of fast probability integration with finite element (FEA) and boundary element analysis (BEA) for producing the probabilistic acoustic response of a structural/acoustic system. The advanced mean value method is used for integrating the system probability density function. FEA and BEA are combined for producing the acoustic response that constitutes the performance function. The probabilistic acoustic response is calculated in terms of a cumulative distribution function. The new methodology is used to illustrate the difference between the results from a probabilistic analysis that accounts for manufacturing uncertainty, and an equivalent deterministic simulation through applications. The probabilistic computations are validated by comparison to Monte Carlo simulations.
Technical Paper

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1334
A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control algorithms are assessed, a rule-based algorithm, which mainly explores engine efficiency in an intuitive manner, and a dynamic-programming optimization algorithm. Simulation results over the urban driving cycle demonstrate the potential of the selected hybrid system to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, the improvement being greater when the dynamic-programming power management algorithm is applied.
Technical Paper

The Role of Binocular Information for Distance Perception in Rear-Vision Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0322
New developments in the use of two-dimensional displays to supplement driver vision have made it more important to understand the roles that various distance cues play in driver perception of distance in more conventional ways of viewing the road, including direct vision and viewing through rearview mirrors. The current study was designed to investigate the role of binocular distance cues for perception of distance in rearview mirrors. In a field experiment, we obtained data to estimate the importance of binocular cues for distance judgments under conditions representative of real-world traffic. The results indicate that, although binocular cues are potentially available to drivers, these cues probably play little or no role in distance judgments in rearview mirrors in normal driving situations.
Technical Paper

Current Status and Future Prospects for Nonplanar Rearview Mirrors

2000-03-06
2000-01-0324
The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards currently require driver-side rearview mirrors to be flat. For rearview mirrors of typical size, this requirement normally results in a blind zone on the driver side that is large enough to conceal an average size passenger car. In recent years a number of studies have suggested that nonplanar rearview mirrors may be an effective solution to this problem. This paper reviews the evidence on possible effectiveness of nonplanar mirrors, assesses the strength of that evidence, and makes tentative recommendations. The main conclusion is that the use of nonplanar mirrors would probably result in a net gain in safety, but that the effectiveness of the mirrors is likely to depend on details of how they are implemented. Issues that should be resolved by additional research (some of which is already underway) are: (1) How would U.S. drivers respond to a mixed fleet of vehicles, some of which had flat mirrors and some of which had nonplanar mirrors?
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Catalytic Converter Performances during Cold Starts

1999-10-25
1999-01-3473
Automotive exhaust emission regulations are becoming progressively stricter due to increasing awareness of the hazardous effects of exhaust emissions. The main challenge to meet the regulations is to reduce the emissions during cold starts, because catalytic converters are ineffective until they reach a light-off temperature. It has been found that 50% to 80% of the regulated hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are emitted from the automotive tailpipe during the cold starts. Therefore, understanding the catalytic converter characteristics during the cold starts is important for the improvement of the cold start performances This paper describes a mathematical model that simulates transient performances of catalytic converters. The model considers the effect of heat transfer and catalyst chemical reactions as exhaust gases flow through the catalyst. The heat transfer model includes the heat loss by conduction and convection.
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Direct Field of View when Using Driver-Side Rearview Mirrors

1999-03-01
1999-01-0656
In a static field study we tested drivers’ abilities to detect vehicles in the periphery of their direct fields of view while they gazed toward the driver-side exterior rearview mirror of a passenger car. The results indicate that both younger and older drivers can detect vehicles with reasonable efficiency even in far peripheral vision. However, the results also indicate that using peripheral vision entails a cost in terms of lengthened reaction time. Although that cost seems modest in comparison with the normal durations of glances to rearview mirrors and of direct looks to the rear, it is not clear from this study alone how the reaction time cost might influence the scanning strategies that drivers actually use in driving. The present study was oriented more to testing drivers’ basic visual capabilities than to outlining their overall strategies.
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