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Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Sprays on In-Cylinder Flow Length Scales in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0618
The interaction of fuel sprays and in-cylinder flow in direct-injection engines is expected to alter kinetic energy and integral length scales at least during some portions of the engine cycle. High-speed particle image velocimetry was implemented in an optical four-valve, pent-roof spark-ignition direct-injection single-cylinder engine to quantify this effect. Non-firing motored engine tests were performed at 1300 RPM with and without fuel injection. Two fuel injection timings were investigated: injection in early intake stroke represents quasi-homogenous engine condition; and injection in mid compression stroke mimics the stratified combustion strategy. Two-dimensional crank angle resolved velocity fields were measured to examine the kinetic energy and integral length scale through critical portions of the engine cycle. Reynolds decomposition was applied on the obtained engine flow fields to extract the fluctuations as an indicator for the turbulent flow.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Performance on an Engine and a Gas Flow Reactor

2007-04-16
2007-01-0231
This paper analyzes and compares reactor and engine behavior of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) in the presence of conventional diesel exhaust and low temperature premixed compression ignition (PCI) diesel exhaust. Surrogate exhaust mixtures of n-undecane (C11H24), ethene (C2H4), CO, O2, H2O, NO and N2 are defined for conventional and PCI combustion and used in the gas flow reactor tests. Both engine and reactor tests use a DOC containing platinum, palladium and a hydrocarbon storage component (zeolite). On both the engine and reactor, the composition of PCI exhaust increases light-off temperature relative to conventional combustion. However, while nominal conditions are similar, the catalyst behaves differently on the two experimental setups. The engine DOC shows higher initial apparent HC conversion efficiencies because the engine exhaust contains a higher fraction of trappable (i.e., high boiling point) HC.
Technical Paper

Algorithmic Maintenance of a Diesel Engine Electronic Fuel Feed Controller by Criterion of the Content of Soot in Exhaust Gas

2007-04-16
2007-01-0973
The feature of offered algorithm is that it allows, without record and analysis of the display diagram, to estimate a running cycle of a diesel engine parameters which characterize ecological and economic performances. The mathematical model described in report allows to determine connection of coefficient of filling, pressure and temperature of air boost, factor of excess of air with effectiveness ratio of combustion and contents of soot in exhaust gas and to take into account this connection at a choice initial data for control fuel feed or for elaboration of diesel engine dynamic model. The algorithm incorporated, for example, in the microcontroller of an electronic fuel feed controller allows analyzing the sensors data and theoretically determine of smoke amount in the exhaust gases for chosen cycle of fuel feed. The restriction of smoke is possible by criterion dD/dGT, where D - contents of soot in exhaust gas and GT - fuel cycle submission under the program-adaptive schema.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Spark Behavior in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3376
The spark process has previously been shown to heavily influence ignition stability, particularly in direct-injected gasoline engines. Despite this influence, few studies have addressed spark behavior in direct-injected engines. This study examines the role of environmental factors on the behavior of the spark. Through measurement of the spark duration, by way of the ignition current trace, several observations are made on the influence of external factors on the behavior of the spark. Changing the level of nitrogen in the cylinder (to simulate EGR), the level of wetting and velocity imparted by the spray, the ignition dwell time and the orientation of the ground strap, observations are made as to which conditions are likely to produce unfavorable (shorter) spark durations. Through collection of a statistically significant number of sample spark lengths under each condition, histograms have been assembled and compared under each case.
Technical Paper

Strength and Balance Guided Posture Selection during a Battery Maintenance Task

2006-04-03
2006-01-0698
Posture selection during standing exertions is a complex process involving tradeoffs between muscle strength and balance. Bodyweight utilization reduces the amount of upper-body strength required to perform a high force push/pull exertion but shifts the center-of-gravity towards the limits of the functional stability region. Thus balance constraints limit the extent to which bodyweight can be used to generate push/pull forces. This paper examines a two-handed sagittal plane pulling exertion performed during a battery maintenance task on a member of the family of medium-sized tactical vehicles (FMTV). Percent capable strength predictions and functional balance capabilities were determined for various two-handed pulling postures using the University of Michigan's 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP). Through this simulation study, preferred postures that minimize joint torques while maintaining balance were identified.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1512
Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Technical Paper

Absorption and Fluorescence Data of Acetone, 3-Pentanone, Biacetyl, and Toluene at Engine-Specific Combinations of Temperature and Pressure

2005-05-11
2005-01-2090
Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel/air mixing in engines are usually based on the use of fluorescence tracers. The strength of the signals often depends on temperature, pressure and mixture composition. This complicates a quantitative analysis. The use of a small-bore optical engine for fundamental studies of absorption and fluorescence properties of fluorescence tracers is described. The temperature, pressure and composition dependence of the spectra of toluene, acetone, 3-pentanone, and biacetyl are examined under motored conditions to extend the experimental data base for the development of comprehensive models that predict the strength of fluorescence signals for a given condition.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Cone Angles in Pressure-Swirl Injector Sprays

2004-10-25
2004-01-2939
The transient cone angle of pressure swirl sprays from injectors intended for use in gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. A variety of injectors with varying nominal cone angle and flow rate were investigated. The general cone angle behavior was found to correlate well qualitatively with the measured fuel line pressure and was affected by the different injector specifications. Experimentally measured modulations in cone angle and injection pressure were forced on a comprehensive spray simulation to understand the sensitivity of pulsating injector boundary conditions on general spray structure. Ignoring the nozzle fluctuations led to a computed spray shape that inadequately replicated the experimental images; hence, demonstrating the importance of quantifying the injector boundary conditions when characterizing a spray using high-fidelity simulation tools.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fluorescence Tracers on Combustion Performance in Optical Engine Experiments

2004-10-25
2004-01-2975
For applications of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure the fuel or equivalence ratio distributions in internal combustion (IC) engines it is typically assumed that the addition of a fluorescence tracer to a base fuel does not alter the combustion performance. We have investigated the impact on combustion performance through the addition of various amounts of 3-pentanone or toluene to iso-octane fuel. Correlations between equivalence ratio for a range of fuel/tracer mixtures and engine parameters, like peak pressure, location of peak pressure, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), and peak burn rate are discussed for data obtained in a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine operated with near homogeneous charge. For typical tracer concentrations the impact on combustion performance is mostly negligible.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Spray Cone Angle and Fuel Line Pressure in a Pressure-Swirl Injector Spray

2004-06-08
2004-01-1923
The transient cone angle of a pressure swirl spray from an injector for gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. Iso-octane was used as the fluid that was delivered at room temperature for two different static pressures, 5MPa and 8.5MPa. The iso-octane was injected into a chamber at room temperature and ambient pressure. After a rapid initial increase, the cone angle oscillates before stabilizing to a steady-state value very close to the nominal cone angle. The period of the oscillation was found to correlate well with oscillations measured in the fuel line pressure.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Combustion and NO Emissions Based on a Modified Eddy Dissipation Concept

2004-03-08
2004-01-0107
This paper reports the development of a model of diesel combustion and NO emissions, based on a modified eddy dissipation concept (EDC), and its implementation into the KIVA-3V multidimensional simulation. The EDC model allows for more realistic representation of the thin sub-grid scale reaction zone as well as the small-scale molecular mixing processes. Realistic chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-heptane combustion and NOx formation processes are fully incorporated. A model based on the normalized fuel mass fraction is implemented to transition between ignition and combustion. The modeling approach has been validated by comparison with experimental data for a range of operating conditions. Predicted cylinder pressure and heat release rates agree well with measurements. The predictions for NO concentration show a consistent trend with experiments. Overall, the results demonstrate the improved capability of the model for predictions of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Effects of Impact Velocity on Crush Behavior of Honeycomb Specimens

2004-03-08
2004-01-0245
Effects of impact velocity on the crush behavior of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens are investigated by experiments. An impact test machine using pressurized nitrogen was designed to perform dynamic crush tests. A test fixture was designed such that inclined loads can be applied to honeycomb specimens in dynamic crush tests. The results of dynamic crush tests indicate that the effects of impact velocity on the normal and inclined crush strengths are significant. The trends of the inclined crush strengths for specimens with different in-plane orientation angles as functions of impact velocity are very similar to that of the normal crush strength. Experimental results show similar progressive folding mechanisms for honeycomb specimens under pure compressive and inclined loads. Under inclined loads, the inclined stacking patterns were observed. The inclined stacking patterns are due to the asymmetric locations of the horizontal plastic hinge lines.
Technical Paper

Failure Mechanisms of Sandwich Specimens With Epoxy Foam Cores Under Bending Conditions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0327
Sandwich specimens with DP590 steel face sheets and structural epoxy foam cores are investigated under three-point bending conditions. Experimental results indicate that the maximum loads correspond to extensive cracking in the foam cores. Finite element simulations of the bending tests are also performed to understand the failure mechanisms of the epoxy foams. In these simulations, the plastic behavior of the steel face sheets is modeled by the Mises yield criterion with consideration of plastic strain hardening. A pressure sensitive yield criterion is used to model the plastic behavior of the epoxy foam cores. The epoxy foams are idealized to follow an elastic perfectly plastic behavior. The simulation results indicate that the load-displacement responses of some sandwich specimens agree with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

A General Failure Criterion for Spot Welds with Consideration of Plastic Anisotropy and Separation Speed

2003-03-03
2003-01-0611
A general failure criterion for spot welds is proposed with consideration of the plastic anisotropy and the separation speed for crash applications. A lower bound limit load analysis is conducted to account for the failure loads of spot welds under combinations of three forces and three moments. Based on the limit load solution and the experimental results, an engineering failure criterion is proposed with correction factors determined by different spot weld tests. The engineering failure criterion can be used to characterize the failure loads of spot welds with consideration of the effects of the plastic anisotropy, separation speed, sheet thickness, nugget radius and combinations of loads. Spot weld failure loads under uniaxial and biaxial opening loads and those under combined shear and twisting loads from experiments are shown to be characterized well by the engineering failure criterion.
Technical Paper

An Effective Fatigue Driving Stress for Failure Prediction of Spot Welds Under Cyclic Combined Loading Conditions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0696
An effective fatigue driving stress is proposed to predict the failure of spot welds under cyclic combined loading conditions. The effective fatigue driving stress is obtained based on the Mises yield criterion in terms of the resultant forces and moments in a plastic collapse analysis of spot welds under complex combined loading conditions as discussed in Lin et al. [1]. The effective fatigue driving stress can be used to correlate the fatigue data of spot welds with consideration of the effects of the sheet thickness, nugget diameter and loading conditions. Experimental results for coach-peel and lap-shear specimens under cyclic loading conditions are used to evaluate the applicability of the effective fatigue driving stress. The experimental results for spot welds in both coach-peel and lap-shear specimens are correlated very well based on the effective fatigue driving stress.
Technical Paper

Crush Strength of Aluminum 5052-H38 Honeycomb Materials under Combined Compressive and Shear Loads

2003-03-03
2003-01-0331
The crush strength of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb materials under combined compressive and shear loads are investigated here. The experimental results indicate that both the peak and crush strengths under combined compressive and shear loads are lower than those under pure compressive loads. A yield function is suggested for honeycomb materials under the combined loads based on a phenomenological plasticity theory. The microscopic crush mechanism under the combined loads is also investigated. A microscopic crush model based on the experimental observations is developed. The crush model includes the assumptions of the asymmetric location of horizontal plastic hinge line and the ruptures of aluminum cell walls so that the kinematic requirement can be satisfied. In the calculation of the crush strength, two correction factors due to non-associated plastic flow and different rupture modes are considered.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Fuel Economy Potential of Light-Duty Vehicles

2001-08-20
2001-01-2482
This paper assesses the potential for car and light truck fuel economy improvements by 2010-15. We examine a range of refinements to body systems and powertrain, reflecting current best practice as well as emerging technologies such as advanced engine and transmission, lightweight materials, integrated starter-generators, and hybrid drive. Engine options are restricted to those already known to meet upcoming California emissions standards. Our approach is to apply a state-of-art vehicle system simulation model to assess vehicle fuel economy gains and performance levels. We select a set of baseline vehicles representing five major classes - Small and Standard Cars, Pickup Trucks, SUVs and Minivans - and analyze design changes likely to be commercially viable within the coming decade. Results vary by vehicle type.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-1246
A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Plasticized Polyvinylchloride using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Technique

2000-03-06
2000-01-0610
Characterization of materials used in the automotive industry is often done via component testing. A strict regimen of tests is conducted on a component to determine material parameters for numerical simulations of more complicated loading conditions. Separation of material constants and geometrically- or experimentallyinduced effects is difficult with this method of characterization. Well-controlled experiments that determine the material response in basic deformations allow material properties to be determined. In this paper low strain rate and high strain rate experimental responses of dummy skin material (i.e. plasticized polyvinyl chloride) are presented. Details of the experimental procedures used to acquire the data are also included. In addition, a rate-dependent constitutive model for the plasticized material is developed, and its simulated results are compared with low strain rate results.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Catalytic Converter Performances during Cold Starts

1999-10-25
1999-01-3473
Automotive exhaust emission regulations are becoming progressively stricter due to increasing awareness of the hazardous effects of exhaust emissions. The main challenge to meet the regulations is to reduce the emissions during cold starts, because catalytic converters are ineffective until they reach a light-off temperature. It has been found that 50% to 80% of the regulated hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are emitted from the automotive tailpipe during the cold starts. Therefore, understanding the catalytic converter characteristics during the cold starts is important for the improvement of the cold start performances This paper describes a mathematical model that simulates transient performances of catalytic converters. The model considers the effect of heat transfer and catalyst chemical reactions as exhaust gases flow through the catalyst. The heat transfer model includes the heat loss by conduction and convection.
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