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Technical Paper

Fatigue Behaviors of Aluminum 5754-O Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens

2008-04-14
2008-01-1139
Fatigue behaviors of aluminum 5754-O spot friction welds made by a concave tool in lap-shear specimens are investigated based on experimental observations and a fatigue life estimation model. Optical micrographs of the welds before and after failure under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are examined. The micrographs indicate that the failure modes of the 5754 spot friction welds under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are quite different. The dominant kinked fatigue cracks for the final failures of the welds under cyclic loading conditions are identified. Based on the experimental observations of the paths of the dominant kinked fatigue cracks, a fatigue life estimation model based on the stress intensity factor solutions for finite kinked cracks is adopted to estimate the fatigue lives of the welds.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Mid-Frequency Analysis of Vehicle Structures

2007-05-15
2007-01-2303
The hybrid Finite Element Analysis (hybrid FEA) has been developed for performing structure-borne computations in automotive vehicle structures [1, 2 and 3]. The hybrid FEA method combines conventional FEA with Energy FEA (EFEA). Conventional FEA models are employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in a system. Appropriate damping and spring or mass elements are introduced in the connections between stiff and flexible members in order to capture the presence of the flexible members during the analyses of the stiff ones. The component mode synthesis method is combined with analytical solutions for determining the driving point conductance at joints between stiff and flexible members and for defining the properties of the concentrated elements which represent the flexible members when analyzing the stiff components.
Technical Paper

Algorithmic Maintenance of a Diesel Engine Electronic Fuel Feed Controller by Criterion of the Content of Soot in Exhaust Gas

2007-04-16
2007-01-0973
The feature of offered algorithm is that it allows, without record and analysis of the display diagram, to estimate a running cycle of a diesel engine parameters which characterize ecological and economic performances. The mathematical model described in report allows to determine connection of coefficient of filling, pressure and temperature of air boost, factor of excess of air with effectiveness ratio of combustion and contents of soot in exhaust gas and to take into account this connection at a choice initial data for control fuel feed or for elaboration of diesel engine dynamic model. The algorithm incorporated, for example, in the microcontroller of an electronic fuel feed controller allows analyzing the sensors data and theoretically determine of smoke amount in the exhaust gases for chosen cycle of fuel feed. The restriction of smoke is possible by criterion dD/dGT, where D - contents of soot in exhaust gas and GT - fuel cycle submission under the program-adaptive schema.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Computing Structure-Borne Vibration in a Body-In-White

2006-04-03
2006-01-1224
A new development in the area of the hybrid Finite Element Analysis (hybrid FEA) is presented. The hybrid FEA method combines the conventional FEA method with energy FEA (EFEA) for analysis of systems that contain both flexible and stiff members, and is suitable for mid-frequency computations. A formulation for analyzing flexible plates spot-welded to stiff beams when the excitation is applied on the stiff members is developed. Conventional FEA models are employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in a system. Appropriate damping elements are introduced in the connections between stiff and flexible members in order to capture the presence of the flexible members during the analyses of the stiff ones.
Technical Paper

Application of a Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Analyzing the Structure-Borne Noise in a Body-In-White

2005-05-16
2005-01-2421
A hybrid finite element formulation for analyzing flexible plates connected to stiff frame was developed. The excitation was considered to be applied on the stiff members. Conventional FEA models were employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in a system. Appropriate damping elements were introduced in the connections between stiff and flexible members in order to capture the presence of the flexible members during the analyses of the stiff ones. Once the vibration of the stiff members and the amount of power dissipated at the damping elements was identified, an EFEA analysis was performed in order to determine the amount of vibrational energy in the flexible members. The hybrid FEA is applied to a Body-In-White (BIW). The results of the hybrid FEA are compared with results from very dense conventional finite element analyses.
Technical Paper

Using Vehicle Dynamics Simulation as a Teaching Tool in Automotive Engineering Courses

2005-04-11
2005-01-1795
Some of the best teaching methods are laboratory courses in which students experience application of the principles being presented. Preparing young engineering students for a career in the automotive industry challenges us to provide comparable opportunities to explore the dynamic performance of motor vehicles in a controlled environment. Today we are fortunate to have accurate and easy-to-use software programs making it practical for students to simulate the performance of motor vehicles on “virtual” proving grounds. At the University of Michigan the CarSim® vehicle dynamics simulation program has been introduced as such a tool to augment the learning experience. The software is used in the Automotive Engineering course to supplement homework exercises analyzing acceleration, braking, aerodynamics, and cornering performance. This paper provides an overview of the use of simulation in this setting.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Failure of Rollers in Crankshaft Fillet Rolling

2004-03-08
2004-01-1498
In this paper, the fatigue failure of the primary roller used in a crankshaft fillet rolling process is investigated by a failure analysis and a two-dimensional finite element analysis. The fillet rolling process is first discussed to introduce the important parameters that influence the fatigue life of the primary roller. The cross sections of failed primary rollers are then examined by an optical microscope and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to understand the microscopic characteristics of the fatigue failure process. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis is employed to qualitatively investigate the influences of the contact geometry on the contact pressure distribution and the Mises stress distribution near the contact area. Fatigue parameters of the primary rollers are then estimated based on the Findley fatigue theory.
Technical Paper

First Order Analysis for Automotive Body Structure Design - Part 3: Crashworthiness Analysis Using Beam Elements

2004-03-08
2004-01-1660
We have proposed First Order Analysis (FOA) as a method, which the engineering designers themselves can use easily in an initial design stage. In this paper, we focus on the crashworthiness, and present the method to predict the collapse behavior of the frame member. This method is divided into two parts. Those are (1) collapse analysis under loading conditions of combined axial force and bending moment to the cantilever, and (2) collapse analysis of structural member considering the previously obtained moment - rotation angle relationship using the beam element. In comparison with the results according to the detailed Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model, effectiveness and validity of this method are presented.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Manual Handling Motions Via Motion Modification: Performance Evaluation of Motion Modification Algorithm

2003-06-17
2003-01-2227
Simulation of human motions in virtual environments is an essential component of human CAD (Computer-aided Design) systems. In our earlier SAE papers, we introduced a novel motion simulation approach termed Memory-based Motion Simulation (MBMS). MBMS utilizes existing motion databases and predicts novel motions by modifying existing ‘root’ motions through the use of the motion modification algorithm. MBMS overcomes some limitations of existing motion simulation models, as 1) it simulates different types of motions on a single, unified framework, 2) it simulates motions based on alternative movement techniques, and 3) like real humans, it can learn new movement skills continually over time. The current study evaluates the prediction accuracy of MBMS to prove its utility as a predictive tool for computer-aided ergonomics. A total of 627 whole-body one-handed load transfer motions predicted by the algorithm are compared with actual human motions obtained in a motion capture experiment.
Technical Paper

Redesigning Workstations Utilizing Motion Modification Algorithm

2003-06-17
2003-01-2195
Workstation design is one of the most essential components of proactive ergonomics, and digital human models have gained increasing popularity in the analysis and design of current and future workstations (Chaffin 2001). Using digital human technology, it is possible to simulate interactions between humans and current or planned workstations, and conduct quantitative ergonomic analyses based on realistic human postures and motions. Motion capture has served as the primary means by which to acquire and visualize human motions in a digital environment. However, motion capture only provides motions for a specific person performing specific tasks. Albeit useful, at best this allows for the analysis of current or mocked-up workstations only. The ability to subsequently modify these motions is required to efficiently evaluate alternative design possibilities and thus improve design layouts.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Analyzing Systems of Beams and Plates in the Mid-Frequency Range

2003-05-05
2003-01-1610
A hybrid Finite Element Analysis (hybrid FEA) formulation has been developed in the past for computing the mid-frequency vibration of systems that contain one type of energy. The hybrid FEA is based on characterizing as long members in a system all the members that contain a large number of wavelengths within their dimension. All the remaining members are considered as short. The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) is employed for modeling the behavior of the long members, while the conventional FEA method is utilized for modeling the short members. In this paper the hybrid FEA formulation is extended to plate structures that are spot-welded to a frame comprised by tubular members. The new formulation is validated by comparing the hybrid FEA solution to results produced by very dense conventional FEA models in the mid-frequency range.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Complex Eigensolutions for Brake Noise

2003-05-05
2003-01-1626
When structures may have dynamic instability complex eigenvalue analysis is a useful tool to predict it. Although the accurate prediction itself is significant, it is also crucial to obtain sensitivity of unstable eigensolutions in order to eliminate instability efficiently. Since the mathematical relationship between stiffness matrix and design variables may seldom be found in reality, finite difference method has been typically used to approximate the sensitivity. The novel way to accurately calculate the sensitivity is developed without implementing finite difference method. This paper shows the advantages of analytical sensitivity analysis compared to other methods for choosing the most important components' eigenvalues. It also provides necessary amount of frequency shift for each chosen components' eigenvalue to eliminate unstable eigenvalues.
Technical Paper

Modifying Motions for Avoiding Obstacles

2001-06-26
2001-01-2112
Interference between physical objects in the workspace and the moving human body may cause serious problems, including errors in manual operation, physical damage and trauma from the collision, and increased biomechanical stresses due to movement reorganization for avoiding the obstacles. Therefore, a computer algorithm to detect possible collisions and simulate human motions to avoid obstacles will be an important tool for computer-aided ergonomics and optimization of system design in the early stage of a design process. In the present study, we present a method of modifying motions for obstacle avoidance when the object intrudes near the center of the planned motion. We take the motion modification approach, as we believe that for a certain class of obstacle avoidance problems, a person would modify a pre-planned motion that would result in a collision to a new one that is collision-free, as opposed to organizing a totally unique motion pattern.
Technical Paper

Accounting for Manufacturing Variability in Interior Noise Computations

2001-04-30
2001-01-1527
A formulation that accounts for manufacturing variability in the analysis of structural/acoustic systems is presented. The methodology incorporates the concept of fast probability integration with finite element (FEA) and boundary element analysis (BEA) for producing the probabilistic acoustic response of a structural/acoustic system. The advanced mean value method is used for integrating the system probability density function. FEA and BEA are combined for producing the acoustic response that constitutes the performance function. The probabilistic acoustic response is calculated in terms of a cumulative distribution function. The new methodology is used to illustrate the difference between the results from a probabilistic analysis that accounts for manufacturing uncertainty, and an equivalent deterministic simulation through applications. The probabilistic computations are validated by comparison to Monte Carlo simulations.
Technical Paper

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1334
A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control algorithms are assessed, a rule-based algorithm, which mainly explores engine efficiency in an intuitive manner, and a dynamic-programming optimization algorithm. Simulation results over the urban driving cycle demonstrate the potential of the selected hybrid system to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, the improvement being greater when the dynamic-programming power management algorithm is applied.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Catalytic Converter Performances during Cold Starts

1999-10-25
1999-01-3473
Automotive exhaust emission regulations are becoming progressively stricter due to increasing awareness of the hazardous effects of exhaust emissions. The main challenge to meet the regulations is to reduce the emissions during cold starts, because catalytic converters are ineffective until they reach a light-off temperature. It has been found that 50% to 80% of the regulated hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are emitted from the automotive tailpipe during the cold starts. Therefore, understanding the catalytic converter characteristics during the cold starts is important for the improvement of the cold start performances This paper describes a mathematical model that simulates transient performances of catalytic converters. The model considers the effect of heat transfer and catalyst chemical reactions as exhaust gases flow through the catalyst. The heat transfer model includes the heat loss by conduction and convection.
Technical Paper

Integration of Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods for Simulating the Noise Radiated From a Flexible Panel Subjected to Boundary Layer Excitation

1999-05-17
1999-01-1795
In this paper an algorithm is developed for combining finite element analysis and boundary element techniques in order to compute the noise radiated from a panel subjected to boundary layer loading. The excitation is presented in terms of the auto and cross power spectral densities of the fluctuating wall pressure. The structural finite element model for the panel is divided into a number of sub-panels. A uniform fluctuating pressure is applied as excitation on each sub-panel separately. The corresponding vibration is computed, and is utilized as excitation for an acoustic boundary element analysis. The acoustic response is computed at any data recovery point of interest. The relationships between the acoustic response and the pressure excitation applied at each particular sub-panel constitute a set of transfer functions.
Technical Paper

Variation in Autobody Adhesive Curing Process

1999-03-01
1999-01-0997
Adhesive joining is a common autobody subassembly technique especially for outer panels, where visible spot welding is objectionable. To accommodate mass production with the use of certain adhesives very high thermal gradient usually exists, which may result in panel dimensional distortion and variation. The temperature distribution over location and over time are monitored, and its impact to panel dimension is investigated. Experimental results on the effect of the distance between panel and induction coil on the panel temperature is obtained. The thermal induced shape distortion is simulated with a simplified FEA model. The approach to improvement of the induction curing process is discussed.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Predictions of Steady-State and Transient Stress Distributions in a Diesel Engine Cylinder Head

1999-03-01
1999-01-0973
A combined experimental and analytical approach was followed in this work to study stress distributions and causes of failure in diesel cylinder heads under steady-state and transient operation. Experimental studies were conducted first to measure temperatures, heat fluxes and stresses under a series of steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, by placing high temperature strain gages within the thermal penetration depth of the cylinder head, the effect of thermal shock loading under rapid transients was studied. A comparison of our steady-state and transient measurements suggests that the steady-state temperature gradients and the level of temperatures are the primary causes of thermal fatigue in cast-iron cylinder heads. Subsequently, a finite element analysis was conducted to predict the detailed steady-state temperature and stress distributions within the cylinder head. A comparison of the predicted steady-state temperatures and stresses compared well with our measurements.
Technical Paper

A Field Study of Distance Perception with Large-Radius Convex Rearview Mirrors

1998-02-23
980916
One of the primary reasons that FMVSS 111 currently requires flat rearview mirrors as original equipment on the driver's side of passenger cars is a concern that convex mirrors might reduce safety by causing drivers to overestimate the distances to following vehicles. Several previous studies of the effects of convex rearview mirrors have indicated that they do cause overestimations of distance, but of much lower magnitude than would be expected based on the mirrors' levels of image minification and the resulting visual angles experienced by drivers. Previous studies have investigated mirrors with radiuses of curvature up to 2000 mm. The present empirical study was designed to investigate the effects of mirrors with larger radiuses (up to 8900 mm). Such results are of interest because of the possible use of large radiuses in some aspheric mirror designs, and because of the information they provide about the basic mechanisms by which convex mirrors affect distance perception.
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