Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Turbocharged E85 Engine for Formula SAE Racing

2008-06-23
2008-01-1774
A summary of the design and development process for a Formula SAE engine is described. The focus is on three fundamental elements on which the entire engine package is based. The first is engine layout and displacement, second is the fuel type, and third is the air induction method. These decisions lead to a design around a 4-cylinder 600cc motorcycle engine, utilizing a turbocharger and ethanol E-85 fuel. Concerns and constraints involved with vehicle integration are also highlighted. The final design was then tested on an engine dynamometer, and finally in the 2007 M-Racing FSAE racecar.
Journal Article

Cycle-Resolved NO Measurements in a Spray-Guided SIDI Engine using Fast Exhaust Measurements and High-Speed OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

2008-04-14
2008-01-1072
A potential correlation between OH* chemiluminescence and exhaust NO concentration is investigated to pursue a simple diagnostic technique for measurements of NO cycle-to-cycle fluctuations. Previous investigations of NO formation in a direct-injection gasoline engine have indicated that there may be a correlation between the concentration of NO and OH* chemiluminescence. Shortcomings of this work, namely phase-locked measurements, were overcome in the present study by using highspeed imaging capability to obtain chemiluminescence within the entire engine cycle and from entire engine cylinder volume. Cycle-resolved NO exhaust gas detection were performed synchronously with the chemiluminescence measurements on an optical spark-ignited engine with spray-guided direct-injection. A quartz cylinder liner, head and piston windows provide optical access for a highspeed CMOS camera and image intensifier to capture OH* images.
Technical Paper

The Prospects of Using Alcohol-Based Fuels in Stratified-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4034
Near-term energy policy for ground transportation is likely to have a strong focus on both gains in efficiency as well as the use of alternate fuels; as both can reduce crude oil dependence and carbon loading on the environment. Stratified-charge spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines are capable of achieving significant gains in efficiency. In addition, these engines are likely to be run on alternative fuels. Specifically, lower alcohols such as ethanol and iso-butanol, which can be produced from renewable sources. SIDI engines, particularly the spray-guided variant, tend to be very sensitive to mixture preparation since fuel injection and ignition occur within a short time of each other. This close spacing is necessary to form a flammable mixture near the spark plug while maintaining an overall lean state in the combustion chamber. As a result, the physical properties of the fuel have a large effect on this process.
Technical Paper

Component Mode Synthesis for Substructures with Non-Matching Interfaces

2007-05-15
2007-01-2333
When performing vibration analysis of complex vehicle structures, it is often important to be able to evaluate the effects of design changes in one or more substructures (e.g., for design optimization). It may also be convenient to allow different components to be modeled independently by different groups or organizations. For both cases, it is inevitable that some substructures will have non-matching finite element meshes at the interface where they are physically connected. Thus, a key challenge is to be able to handle the dynamic assembly of components with non-matching meshes and the subsequent global vibration analysis in a systematic and efficient manner. To tackle this problem, the enhancement of component mode synthesis methods for handling finite element models partitioned into non-matching substructures is considered in this paper. Some existing methods are reviewed, and new methods are developed.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Spark Behavior in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3376
The spark process has previously been shown to heavily influence ignition stability, particularly in direct-injected gasoline engines. Despite this influence, few studies have addressed spark behavior in direct-injected engines. This study examines the role of environmental factors on the behavior of the spark. Through measurement of the spark duration, by way of the ignition current trace, several observations are made on the influence of external factors on the behavior of the spark. Changing the level of nitrogen in the cylinder (to simulate EGR), the level of wetting and velocity imparted by the spray, the ignition dwell time and the orientation of the ground strap, observations are made as to which conditions are likely to produce unfavorable (shorter) spark durations. Through collection of a statistically significant number of sample spark lengths under each condition, histograms have been assembled and compared under each case.
Technical Paper

Strength and Balance Guided Posture Selection during a Battery Maintenance Task

2006-04-03
2006-01-0698
Posture selection during standing exertions is a complex process involving tradeoffs between muscle strength and balance. Bodyweight utilization reduces the amount of upper-body strength required to perform a high force push/pull exertion but shifts the center-of-gravity towards the limits of the functional stability region. Thus balance constraints limit the extent to which bodyweight can be used to generate push/pull forces. This paper examines a two-handed sagittal plane pulling exertion performed during a battery maintenance task on a member of the family of medium-sized tactical vehicles (FMTV). Percent capable strength predictions and functional balance capabilities were determined for various two-handed pulling postures using the University of Michigan's 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP). Through this simulation study, preferred postures that minimize joint torques while maintaining balance were identified.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Cross Flow Compact Heat Exchanger with Louvered Fins using Thermal Resistance Concept

2006-04-03
2006-01-0726
Compact heat exchangers have been widely used in various applications in thermal fluid systems including automotive thermal management systems. Radiators for engine cooling systems, evaporators and condensers for HVAC systems, oil coolers, and intercoolers are typical examples of the compact heat exchangers that can be found in ground vehicles. Among the different types of heat exchangers for engine cooling applications, cross flow compact heat exchangers with louvered fins are of special interest because of their higher heat rejection capability with the lower flow resistance. In this study, a predictive numerical model for the cross flow type heat exchanger with louvered fins has been developed based on the thermal resistance concept and the finite difference method in order to provide a design and development tool for the heat exchanger. The model was validated with the experimental data from an engine cooling radiator.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Variable High-Speed Imaging Study of Ignition Instabilities in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Spark-Ignition Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-1264
Ignition stability was studied in an optical spray guided spark ignition direct injection engine. The impact of intake air dilution with nitrogen, spark plug orientation, ignition system dwell time, and fuel injector targeting was addressed. Crank angle resolved fuel distributions were measured with a high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence technique for hundreds of consecutive cycles. IMEP, COV of IMEP, burn rates and spark energy delivered to the gas were examined and used in conjunction with the imaging data to identify potential reasons for misfires.
Technical Paper

Cam-Phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Maximizing Torque Output

2005-10-24
2005-01-3757
Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology provides high potential in achieving high performance, low fuel consumption and pollutant reduction. However, more degrees of freedom impose a big challenge for engine characterization and calibration. In this study, a simulation based approach and optimization framework is proposed to optimize the setpoints of multiple independent control variables. Since solving an optimization problem typically requires hundreds of function evaluations, a direct use of the high-fidelity simulation tool leads to the unbearably long computational time. Hence, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are trained with high-fidelity simulation results and used as surrogate models, representing engine's response to different control variable combinations with greatly reduced computational time. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the cam-phasing strategy at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) is optimized for a dual-independent Variable Valve Timing (VVT) engine.
Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0066
An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
Technical Paper

Is Toluene a Suitable LIF Tracer for Fuel Film Measurements?

2004-03-08
2004-01-1355
Quantitative LIF measurements of liquid fuel films on the piston of direct-injected gasoline engines are difficult to achieve because generally these films are thin and the signal strength is low. Additionally, interference from scattered laser light or background signal can be substantial. The selection of a suitable fluorescence tracer and excitation wavelength plays an important role in the success of such measurements. We have investigated the possibility of using toluene as a tracer for fuel film measurements and compare it to the use of 3-pentanone. The fuel film dynamics in a motored engine at different engine speeds, temperatures and in-cylinder swirl levels is characterized and discussed.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Combustion and NO Emissions Based on a Modified Eddy Dissipation Concept

2004-03-08
2004-01-0107
This paper reports the development of a model of diesel combustion and NO emissions, based on a modified eddy dissipation concept (EDC), and its implementation into the KIVA-3V multidimensional simulation. The EDC model allows for more realistic representation of the thin sub-grid scale reaction zone as well as the small-scale molecular mixing processes. Realistic chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-heptane combustion and NOx formation processes are fully incorporated. A model based on the normalized fuel mass fraction is implemented to transition between ignition and combustion. The modeling approach has been validated by comparison with experimental data for a range of operating conditions. Predicted cylinder pressure and heat release rates agree well with measurements. The predictions for NO concentration show a consistent trend with experiments. Overall, the results demonstrate the improved capability of the model for predictions of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Frequency Drops in Resonant Bending Fatigue Tests of Notched Crankshaft Sections

2004-03-08
2004-01-1501
Resonant frequencies of a resonant bending system with notched crankshaft sections are obtained experimentally and numerically in order to investigate the effect of notch depth on the drop of the resonant frequency of the system. Notches with the depths ranging from 1 to 5 mm, machined by an EDM (Electrical-Discharging Machining) system, were introduced in crankshaft sections at the fillet between the main crank pin and crank cheek. The resonant frequencies of the resonant bending system with the crankshaft sections with various notch depths were first obtained from the experiments. Three-dimensional finite element models of the resonant bending system with the crankshafts sections with various notch depths are then generated. The resonant frequencies based on the finite element computations are in good agreement with those based on the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Model Based Analysis of Performance-Cost Tradeoffs for Engine Manifold Surface Finishing

2004-03-08
2004-01-1561
The link between manufacturing process and product performance is studied in order to construct analytical, quantifiable criteria for the introduction of new engine technologies and processes. Cost associated with a new process must be balanced against increases in engine performance and thus demand for the particular vehicle. In this work, the effect of the Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) technique on surface roughness is characterized through measurements of specimens, and a predictive engine simulation is used to quantify performance gains due to the new surface finish. Subsequently, economic cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate manufacturing decisions based on their impact on firm's profitability. A demonstration study examines the use of AFM for finishing the inner surfaces of intake manifolds for two engines, one installed in a compact car and the other in an SUV.
Technical Paper

Modifying Motions for Avoiding Obstacles

2001-06-26
2001-01-2112
Interference between physical objects in the workspace and the moving human body may cause serious problems, including errors in manual operation, physical damage and trauma from the collision, and increased biomechanical stresses due to movement reorganization for avoiding the obstacles. Therefore, a computer algorithm to detect possible collisions and simulate human motions to avoid obstacles will be an important tool for computer-aided ergonomics and optimization of system design in the early stage of a design process. In the present study, we present a method of modifying motions for obstacle avoidance when the object intrudes near the center of the planned motion. We take the motion modification approach, as we believe that for a certain class of obstacle avoidance problems, a person would modify a pre-planned motion that would result in a collision to a new one that is collision-free, as opposed to organizing a totally unique motion pattern.
Technical Paper

Efficient Engine Models Using Recursive Formulation of Multibody Dynamics

2001-04-30
2001-01-1594
Engine models with fully coupled dynamic effects of the engine components can be constructed through the use of commercial multibody dynamics codes, such as ADAMS and DADS. These commercial codes provide a modeling platform for very general mechanical systems and the time and effort required to learn how to use them may preclude their use for some engine designers. In this paper, we review an alternative and specialized modeling platform that functions as a template for engine design. Relative to commercial codes, this engine design template employs a recursive formulation of multibody dynamics, and thus it leads directly to the minimum number of equations of motion describing the dynamic response of the engine by a priori satisfaction of kinematic constraints. This is achieved by employing relative coordinates in lieu of the absolute coordinates adopted in commercial multibody dynamics codes. This engine modeling tool requires only minimal information for the input data.
Technical Paper

First Order Analysis - New CAE Tools for Automotive Body Designers

2001-03-05
2001-01-0768
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has been successfully utilized in automotive industries. CAE numerically estimates the performance of automobiles and proposes alternative ideas that lead to the higher performance without building prototypes. Most automotive designers, however, cannot directly use CAE due to the sophisticated operations. In this paper, we propose a new breed of CAE, First Order Analysis (FOA), for automotive body designers. The basic ideas include (1) graphic interfaces using Microsoft/Excel to achieve a product oriented analysis (2) use of mechanics of materials to provide the useful information for designs, (3) the topology optimization method using function oriented elements. Further, some prototypes of software are presented to confirm the method for FOA presented here.
Technical Paper

A Generic Methodology for Chamber Flame Geometry Modeling

2000-10-16
2000-01-2797
Combustion flame geometry calculation is a critical task in the design and analysis of combustion engine chamber. Combustion flame directly influences the fuel economy, engine performance and efficiency. Currently, many of the flame geometry calculation methods assume certain specific chamber and piston top shapes and make some approximations to them. Even further, most methods can not handle multiple spark plug set-ups. Consequently, most of the current flame geometry calculation methods do not give accurate results and have some built-in limitations. They are particularly poor for adapting to any kind of new chamber geometry and spark plug set-up design. This report presents a novel methodology which allows the accurate calculation of flame geometry regardless of the chamber geometry and the number of spark plugs. In this methodology, solid models are used to represent the components within the chamber and unique attributes (colors) are attached respectively to these components.
Technical Paper

Servo Guns for Resistance Spot Welding

2000-03-06
2000-01-1289
Resistance spot welding (RWS) guns driven by servomotors instead of pneumatic cylinders are called servo guns. They bring many new features to RWS process. In this study, the influences of servo guns on RSW process are systematically investigated based on comparative experiments. In addition, the costs of servo guns are also analyzed. The long-term applications of servo guns will be cost effective due to their technical features and savings on pneumatic systems although the acquisition cost of servo guns is high. Therefore, servo gun is an excellent alternative RSW machine for sheet metal assembly.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Predictions of Steady-State and Transient Stress Distributions in a Diesel Engine Cylinder Head

1999-03-01
1999-01-0973
A combined experimental and analytical approach was followed in this work to study stress distributions and causes of failure in diesel cylinder heads under steady-state and transient operation. Experimental studies were conducted first to measure temperatures, heat fluxes and stresses under a series of steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, by placing high temperature strain gages within the thermal penetration depth of the cylinder head, the effect of thermal shock loading under rapid transients was studied. A comparison of our steady-state and transient measurements suggests that the steady-state temperature gradients and the level of temperatures are the primary causes of thermal fatigue in cast-iron cylinder heads. Subsequently, a finite element analysis was conducted to predict the detailed steady-state temperature and stress distributions within the cylinder head. A comparison of the predicted steady-state temperatures and stresses compared well with our measurements.
X