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Technical Paper

Effect of Computational Delay on the Performance of a Hybrid Adaptive Cruise Control System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0800
This paper investigates the effect of real-time control system computational delay on the performance of a hybrid adaptive cruise control (ACC) system during braking/coasting scenarios. A hierarchical hybrid ACC system with a finite state machine (FSM) at the high-rank and a nonlinear sliding mode controller (SMC) at the low-rank is designed based on a vehicle dynamics model with a brake-by-wire platform. From simulations, parametric studies are used to evaluate the effect of the bounded random computational delay on the system performance in terms of tracking errors and control effort. The effect of the computational delay location within the control system hierarchy is also evaluated. The system performance generally becomes worse as the upper boundary of the computational delay increases while the effect of the computational delay located at the high-rank controller is more pronounced.
Technical Paper

Performance of Anti-Lock Braking System Equipped Passenger Vehicles - Part I: Braking as a Function of Brake Pedal Application Force

2002-03-04
2002-01-0304
This paper presents the results of original research conducted to evaluate the braking characteristics of passenger vehicles equipped with anti-lock braking systems (ABS) as a function of brake-pedal application force. The conditions studied in this paper are for braking on a dry, level roadway without any steering input. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of brake-pedal application force on the braking systems of common vehicles currently in-use. Comparisons are made between ABS and locked-wheel braking for each vehicle. The subject of this paper is part of the general topic of passenger vehicle dynamics and stability. Knowledge of how a vehicle performs under a variety of braking conditions is important for a variety of applications such as 1) intelligent vehicle highway systems, 2) vehicle stability and control, 3) vehicle dynamics, and 4) accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Performance of anti-lock Braking System Equipped Passenger Vehicles - Part II: Braking as a Function of Initial Vehicle Speed in Braking Maneuver

2002-03-04
2002-01-0307
This paper presents the results of original research conducted to evaluate the braking characteristics of passenger vehicles equipped with anti-lock braking systems (ABS) as a function of vehicle speed at the beginning of a braking maneuver. The conditions studied in this paper are for braking on a dry, level roadway without any steering input. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of vehicle speed on the braking systems of common vehicles currently in-use. Comparisons are made between ABS and locked-wheel braking for each vehicle. The subject of this paper is part of the general topic of passenger vehicle dynamics and stability. Knowledge of how a vehicle performs under a variety of braking conditions is important for a variety of applications such as 1) intelligent vehicle highway systems, 2) vehicle stability and control, 3) vehicle dynamics, and 4) accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of an Optimized Emergency Lane-Change Trajectory

1998-02-23
980231
In this paper, functional analysis is employed to develop an ideal path of a vehicle undergoing a limit lane-change maneuver. Inputs to the problem are the lane width, tire-road coefficient of friction and either vehicle velocity or total longitudinal lane-change distance. Vehicle velocity is assumed to be constant. The problem is formulated using the calculus of variations. The solution technique relies on elliptic functions to achieve a closed-form solution. The synthesis of an ideal lane-change trajectory is treated as a minimal-energy-curve optimization problem with prescribed continuity and boundary conditions. The concept of critical speed is employed to limit the maximum curvature of any specified lane-change, thereby ensuring that the synthesized trajectory function describes a path that can be traversed under realistic road conditions. The analytical solution is confirmed by comparison to a numerical solution and a validated 8 degree-of-freedom vehicle model simulation.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Critical Speed Formula - Values for the Coefficient of Friction - A Review

1997-02-24
971148
This paper covers briefly the theory of tire-road friction, coefficient of friction measurement techniques, and the vagaries of tire-road friction as they relate to critical speed estimation. A literature review of tire-road friction studies was conducted to identify the primary factors effecting the tire-road coefficient of friction. Background information is presented covering general definitions and the connection between the basic critical speed formulas and the coefficient of friction. The primary components of tire-road friction, adhesion and hysteresis, are discussed along with minor effects such as tearing, wear, waves, and roll formation. Common coefficient of friction field measuring techniques are described, including the skid-to-stop test and drag sled. Influential factors such as tire characteristics, tire inflation pressure, road conditions, and dynamic factors are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Formulas for Estimating Vehicle Critical Speed From Yaw Marks - A Review

1997-02-24
971147
This paper provides an exposition of the basic and some refined inertial critical speed estimation formulas. A literature review of existing inertial formulas for estimating critical cornering speed were identified for the ultimate purpose of developing a useful, compact, and more accurate speed estimation formula. Background information is presented covering the general definitions and utility of critical speed formulas. First, as a point of reference, the basic critical speed formulas are derived. Included is a list of the key assumptions on which the basic formulas are based. It is shown that the basic formulas are founded on the fundamental principles of physics and engineering mechanics; namely, Newton's Second Law and centrifugal force.
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