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Technical Paper

Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Combustion Development in a High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0167
In this work we studied the effects of piston bowl design on combustion in a small-bore direct-injection diesel engine. Two bowl designs were compared: a conventional, omega-shaped bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Experiments were carried out in the Sandia single-cylinder optical engine facility, with a medium-load, mild-boosted operating condition featuring a pilot+main injection strategy. CFD simulations were carried out with the FRESCO platform featuring full-geometric body-fitted mesh modeling of the engine and were validated against measured in-cylinder performance as well as soot natural luminosity images. Differences in combustion development were studied using the simulation results, and sensitivities to in-cylinder flow field (swirl ratio) and injection rate parameters were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning Algorithm for the Prediction of Idle Combustion Uniformity

2019-06-05
2019-01-1551
Combustion stability is a key contributor to engine shake at idle speed and can impact the overall perception of vehicle quality. The sub-firing harmonics of the combustion torque are used as a metric to assess idle shake and are, typically, measured at different levels of engine break mean effective pressure (BMEP). Due to the nature of the combustion phenomena at idle, it is clear that predicting the cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder combustion pressure variations, required to assess the combustion uniformity, cannot be achieved with the state of the art simulation technology. Inspired by the advancement in the field of machine learning and artificial intelligence and by the availability of a large amount of measured combustion test data, this paper explores the performance of various machine learning algorithms in predicting the idle combustion uniformity.
Technical Paper

Target Development for Transmission and Electric Motor NVH

2019-06-05
2019-01-1554
It is a common practice to conduct NVH fingerprinting and benchmarking assessments at the powertrain level, to understand source level noise and vibration. To assess the NVH influence of engine, e-motor, and transmission, sub-system testing is often conducted in addition to full powertrain testing. These powertrain or sub-system investigations provide valuable information regarding the status of “source” level excitations relative to targets and / or competitive powertrains. In the case of transmissions and e-machines, it is particularly important to understand source level tonal content and how this will be perceived at the vehicle level. However, variation in component design results in differences in order content, which complicates the process of objectively comparing multiple products. Multiple methods are presented here for characterizing tonal content of transmission and e-machines, based on assessments conducted in a component hemi-anechoic dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor Casing Treatment for Improved BPF Noise Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-06-05
2019-01-1484
The conventional ported shroud recirculation casing treatment elevates narrowband noise at blade pass frequency. A new ported shroud recirculating casing treatment was implemented in Ford’s 3.5L turbo gas engine as Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) counter measure to reduce whoosh (broadband flow noise) noise without elevating narrowband noise at blade pass frequency. The new ported shroud design incorporates holes between the main and secondary recirculating passage and a slight cross-sectional area reduction just upstream of the impeller. These design features reduce whoosh noise without elevating the first order and the sixth order tonal noise at blade pass frequency. The new ported shroud design decreases narrowband tonal noise sound pressure level by 3-6 dB in the low to mid flow region compared to the baseline design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools were used to develop this casing treatment design.
Technical Paper

Integrated Multi-Physics Simulation for Full-Vehicle Low Frequency NVH Optimization in HEVs

2019-06-05
2019-01-1455
The recent automotive industry trend towards electrification has created new challenges for NVH engineers. These challenges stem from new powertrain architectures and their complex interactions, the governing control strategies which aim to optimize energy management, and new unmasked sources of excitation. Additionally, vehicle manufacturers are attempting to reduce hardware testing in order to rapidly satisfy increasing production demand and to minimize its costs. Hence, to meet the above-mentioned challenges up front in the development process of Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs) while balancing competing design objectives of drivability, durability and NVH, a simulation-led design and optimization is required. NVH problems are often the result of mechanisms that originate through complex interactions between different physical domains (flow, electromagnetic, structural/mechanical, control logic, etc.) and the assembly of individual components into a complete system.
Technical Paper

Surge Prediction in a Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) Compressor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-06-05
2019-01-1490
The Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) used in Ford’s 6.7L Scorpion Diesel is analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to draw conclusions about the compressor stability at low mass flows. The SST compressor concept consists of a double-sided wheel which flows in parallel fed by two separate inlets (front and rear), followed by a single vane-less diffuser, and a volute. CFD simulations for the full stage are performed at low mass flow rates Both, front and rear, sides have ported shroud casing-treatment (CT) in the inlet region. An objective of the analysis is to determine which side of the SST unit compressor (front or rear on the double-sided wheel) suffers flow break down first as the mass flow is reduced, and its impact on the overall stability of the SST compressor. Another objective is to better understand the interactions between the compressor inlet flow and the flow through the casing-treatment.
Technical Paper

Testing Methods and Signal Processing Strategies for Automatic Transmission Transient Multiplexed Pressure Data

2019-06-05
2019-01-1500
Transmissions have multiple transient events that occur from gear shifting to torque converter clutch application. These transients can be difficult to capture and observe. A six speed front wheeled drive transmission was instrumented with pressure transducers to measure clutches and the torque converter. Due to size restrictions internal to the torque converter the data had to be multiplexed across three different transmitters. A method to capture a transient event through the use of multiplexed data was developed to create a data set with the transient event occurring on each channel. Once testing is completed, the data has to be split into individual channels and synced with the operational data. The data then can be used in both time and frequency domain analysis. It is important to understand that the data is not continuous and must be taken into consideration when post processing it for further results.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Friction Modifiers and DI Package on Friction Reduction Potential of Next Generation Engine Oils: Part II Aged Oils

2019-04-02
2019-01-0303
Engine oil plays an important role in improving fuel economy of vehicles by reducing frictional losses in an engine. Our previous investigation explored the friction reduction potential of next generation engine oils by looking into the effects of friction modifiers and dispersant Inhibitor packages when engine oil was fresh. However, engine oil starts aging the moment engine start firing because of high temperature and interactions with combustion gases. Therefore, it is more relevant to investigate friction characteristics of aged oils. In this investigation, oils were aged for 5000 miles in taxi cab application.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Fuel Droplet Impact on Heated Surfaces Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0291
The impact of fuel droplets on heated surfaces is of great importance in internal combustion engines. In engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, the drop-wall interaction is usually considered by using models derived from experimental data and correlations rather than direct simulations. This paper presented a numerical method based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which can directly simulate the impact process of fuel droplets impinging on solid surfaces. The SPH method is a Lagrangian meshfree particle method. It discretizes fluid into a number of SPH particles and governing equations of fluid into a set of particle equations. By solving the particle equations, the movement of particles can be obtained, which represents the fluid flows. The SPH method is able to simulate the large deformation and breakup of liquid drops without using additional interface tracking techniques.
Technical Paper

A Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Method for Fast Parametrization of Transmission Plant Models

2019-04-02
2019-01-0344
Transmission system models require a high level of fidelity and details in order to capture the transient behaviors in drivability and fuel economy simulations. Due to model fidelity, manufacturing tolerances, frictional losses and other noise sources, parametrization and tuning of a large number of parameters in the plant model is very challenging and time consuming. In this paper, we used particle swarm optimization as the key algorithm to fast correlate the open-loop performance of an automatic transmission system plant model to vehicle launch and coast down test data using vehicle control inputs. During normal operations, the model correlated well with test data. For error states, due to the lack of model fidelity, the model cannot reproduce the same error state quantitatively, but provided a valuable methodology for qualitatively identifying error states at the early stages.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Impact of Exhaust Turbine Redesign, for Narrow VGT Operating Range, on the Performance of Diesel Engines with Assisted Turbocharger

2019-04-02
2019-01-0326
Electrically assisted turbochargers are a promising technology for improving boost response of turbocharged engines. These systems include a turbocharger shaft mounted electric motor/generator. In the assist mode, electrical energy is applied to the turbocharger shaft via the motor function, while in the regenerative mode energy can be extracted from the shaft via the generator function, hence these systems are also referred to as regenerative electrically assisted turbochargers (REAT). REAT allows simultaneous improvement of boost response and fuel economy of boosted engines. This is achieved by optimally scheduling the electrical assist and regeneration actions. REAT also allows the exhaust turbine to operate within a narrow range of optimal vane positions relative to the unassisted variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The ability to operate within a narrow range of VGT vane positions allows an opportunity for a more optimal turbine design for a REAT system.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of a Transmission E-Pump for Application in Hybrid Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0349
The Electric Pump (E-Pump) is a critical component in the hybrid transmission system. The E-Pump provides flow to maintain a stable line pressure when the engine is in an off state. The main applications of the E-Pump are Park Pawl engagement and disengagement, engine start-stop operation and shadow shifting. A Systems Engineering Approach was followed to develop a medium fidelity plant model for the E-Pump. The developed model was initially tested and validated in the Model in-the loop (MIL) environment. After initial validation, the model was integrated into the overall vehicle model which was then tested on the Software in-the loop (SIL) and Hardware in-the loop (HIL) environments. The model was validated across different platforms and several operating conditions. The basic applications of the E-Pump such as park pawl actuation, engine starting and shadow shifting were validated.
Technical Paper

Regeneration Strategies for Gasoline Particulate Filters

2019-04-02
2019-01-0969
Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are extremely effective at reducing tailpipe emissions of particulate mass and particulate number. Especially in the European and Chinese markets, where a particulate number standard is legislated, we see gasoline particulate filters being deployed in production on gasoline direct injected engines. Due to the high temperature in gasoline exhaust, most applications are expected to be passively regenerating without the help of an active regeneration strategy. However, for the few cases where a customer drive cycle has consistently low speed over a long time frame, an active regeneration strategy may be required. This involves increasing the exhaust temperature at the GPF up to around 600 degC so that soot can be combusted. We compare two different ways of achieving these temperatures, namely spark retard and air fuel ratio modulation. The former generates heat in the engine, the latter generates heat in one or more catalysts in the exhaust system.
Technical Paper

CVT Ratio Scheduling Optimization with Consideration of Engine and Transmission Efficiency

2019-04-02
2019-01-0773
This paper proposes a transmission ratio scheduling and control methodology for a vehicle with a Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) and a downsized gasoline engine. The methodology is designed to deliver the optimal vehicle fuel economy within drivability and performance constraints. Traditionally, the Optimum Operating Line (OOL) generated from an engine brake specific fuel consumption map is considered to be the best option for ratio scheduling, as it defines the points at which engine efficiency is maximized. But the OOL does not consider transmission efficiency, which may be a source of significant losses. To develop a CVT ratio schedule that offers the best fuel economy for the complete powertrain, an empirical approach was used to minimize fuel consumption by considering engine efficiency, CVT efficiency, and requested vehicle power. A backward-looking model was used to simulate a standard driving cycle (FTP-75) and develop a new powertrain-optimal operating line (P-OOL).
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Ash to Improve GPF Performance at Zero Mileage

2019-04-02
2019-01-0974
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) with high filtration efficiency (>80%) at zero mileage are in growing demand to meet increasingly tight vehicle emission standards for particulate matter being implemented in US, EU, China and elsewhere. Current efforts to achieve high filter performance mainly focus on fine-tuning the filter structure, such as the pore size distribution and porosity of the bare substrate, or the washcoat loading and location of catalyzed substrates. However, high filtration efficiency may have a cost in high backpressure that negatively affects engine power. On the other hand, it has been recognized in a few reports that very low amounts of ash deposits (from non-combustible residue in the exhaust) can significantly increase filtration efficiency with only a mild backpressure increase.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Acoustic Surface Power on a Cooling Fan Using the Mesh Morpher Optimizer

2019-04-02
2019-01-0833
A cooling fan is an essential device of the engine cooling system which is used to remove the heat generated inside the engine from the system. An essential element for successful fan designs is to evaluate the pressure over the fan blade since it can generate annoying noices, which have a negative impact on the fan’s performance and on the environment. Reducing the acoustic surface power will assist in building improved designs that comply with standards and regulations in achieving a more quiet environment. The usage of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), with support of mesh morphing, can provide simulation study for optimizing the shape of a fan blade to reduce the aeroacoustic effects. The investigation process will assist in examining and analyzing the acoustic performance of the prototype, impact of different parameters, and make a solid judgement about the model performance for improvement and optimization.
Technical Paper

Vane Pump Whining Noise Reduction by Vane Spacing Optimization

2019-04-02
2019-01-0841
A traditional vane type oil pump used inside the engines and the transmissions has equal angles or spacing between the vanes. The equal spacing intensifies pressure fluctuations generated within the pump leading to narrowband pressure spikes at the pump main order and its harmonics. Unequal spacing, however, can relax the severity of the spikes by breaking down the narrowband peaks and distributing them over a larger frequency range. Optimization of the angles within the pump design constraint can maximize the benefit of unequal spacing in reducing the pressure pulsations for a lower risk of engine or transmission whine. The scope of this paper is around the optimization process for vane spacing and different objective functions which can be used to obtain optimized solutions. The simulation results for optimized spacing based on two different objective functions for 7, 8 and 9 vanes are presented. The design constraints for the optimization are discussed as well.
Technical Paper

Design of a SiC Based Variable Voltage Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0605
Variable Voltage Converter (VVC) is adopted in Power-Split structure of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to optimize the Electric-Drive (e-Drive) system performance. With the wider availability of Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductor for automotive applications, there are new opportunities to further optimize and improve performance of VVC, e.g. lower power loss, smaller size, and lighter weight, comparing to use traditional Silicon (Si) IGBT and diode. In this paper, a SiC based VVC is designed, prototyped, and evaluated. In order to maximize the benefits of SiC power devices in VVC application, each key component is carefully designed and selected, including SiC power module, power capacitor, and power inductor. The characterization and evaluation results demonstrate the benefits of advanced SiC devices in VVC design optimization, and such benefits quantified in this paper.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Evaluation of Lower Viscosity ATF in a Planetary Automatic Transmission for Improved Fuel Economy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1296
With continued industry focus on reducing parasitic transmission and driveline losses, detailed studies are required to quantify potential enablers to improve vehicle fuel economy. Investigations were undertaken to understand the influence of lower viscosity Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF) on transmission efficiency as compared with conventional fluids. The objectives of this study were to quantify the losses of lower viscosity ATF as compared with conventional ATF, and to understand the influence of ATF properties including viscosities, base oil types, and additive packages on fuel efficiency. The transmission efficiency investigations were conducted on a test bench following a vehicle-based break-in of the transmission using a prescribed drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer. At low temperature, the lower viscosity ATF showed a clear advantage over the conventional ATF in both spin loss and loaded efficiency evaluations.
Technical Paper

Application of Empirical Asperity Contact Model to High Fidelity Wet Clutch System Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-1301
Wet clutches are complex hydrodynamic devices used in both conventional and electrified drivetrain systems. They couple or de-couple powertrain components for applications such as automatic shifting, engine disconnect and torque vectoring. Clutch engagement behaviors vary greatly, depending on design parameters and operating conditions. Because of their direct impact on vehicle drivability and fuel economy, a predictive CAE model is desired for enabling analytical design verification processes. During engagement, a wet clutch transmits torque through viscous shear and asperity contact. A conventional Coulomb’s model, which is routinely utilized in shift simulations, is inadequate to capture non-linear hydrodynamic effects for higher fidelity analysis. Extensive research has been conducted over the years to derive hydrodynamic torque transfer models based on 1D squeeze film or 3D CFD. They are typically coupled with an elastic asperity contact model for mechanical torque transfer.
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